14/09/2016 World News Today


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This is BBC World News Today with me Kasia Madera.


The Headlines: A damning verdict on the intervention in Libya.


Huge instability and the rise of so-called Islamic State


in North Africa are blamed on the British and


French joint military intervention in the country.


No fighting in Syria, but still no aid being delivered.


We report from the besieged city of Aleppo.


Half the pre-war population of Syria is either refugees outside the


country or displaced within it. Also


coming up: Relief supplies reach five Russian scientists surrounded


by polar bears for nearly two weeks at a remote weather


station in the Arctic. And one billion stars are mapped


in a galactic mission to draw space, giving a huge boost to our knowledge


of what the Milky Way looks like. As reports go, it


couldn't be more damning. It says the British and French joint


military intervention in Libya five It became an 'opportunist policy


of regime change' - and it led to the rise of so-called


Islamic State in North Africa. A committee of British MP's savaged


Former Prime Minister David Cameron over the joint UK-French mission,


which toppled Colonel Libya quickly descended into chaos


and is now a haven for people Today, the country is a chaotic


haven for people traffickers and militants.


A place where militias compete for power.


Where the Islamic State group has a foothold.


Where migrants pour across unprotected borders en route


It is a chaotic picture which, British MPs say, is the result of


David Cameron's decision five years ago to send in warplanes to


support rebels fighting against Colonel Gaddafi.


We were not prepared for the consequences of a


And all the analysis being done here was based


on a frankly limited understanding of what the situation in Libya was.


The aim of the intervention in March 2011 was to


protect people living here in


Benghazi, who were threatened by Gaddafi's forces.


The Foreign Affairs Committee says the case was overstated


As fighting continued over the summer,


the aim of the operation changed from protecting civilians to


The committee said this was an opportunist


That was not under-pinned by a strategy to support


In particular, MPs say more should have


been done to use Tony Blair's contacts to see if a political deal


was possible which could have left Gaddafi in power.


Is it better to allow a dictator who may be


appropriate to the country and to the times in which we are living to


remain in power to ensure stability rather than risk the chaos of an


In September 2011, after the Gaddafi regime


the then-French president visited Libya and told the people they had


Your friends in Britain and in France


will stand with you as you build your democracy and build your


And yet the Foreign Affairs Committee says that


this did not happen and David Cameron was ultimately responsible


for the failure to develop a coherent Libya strategy.


Diplomats and ministers involved in the


decision to intervene said it was backed by MPs and the United


Nations and was responding to a real threat.


It wasn't clear that leaving Gaddafi in place would have


In Iraq we went in with major forces, it did


In Syria we chose not to get involved, that was also


In Libya, we went in in a targeted way in support.


The situation is bad but I wouldn't rule


out that in five years the various parties


will have got together and


The situation on the ground makes such


In Libya, politics still comes second to violence.


Juma El-Gamaty is a member of the Libyan Political Dialogue,


a group that oversaw the UN-backed peace deal which was signed


He previously worked as the official coordinator between the UK


Government and the Libyan National Transitional Council in 2011.


He joins me from our studio in Northampton.


Thank you very much. And absolutely scathing report. Do you agree with


that? I think I agree with one aspect of its, but I disagree with


others. Can I start by saying that as a Libyan I take offence to what


one of your guests said which was maybe it would be better to keep a


dictator for the sake of stability. I think Libyans and Alterman beings


are entitled to dignity, freedom, and the prospect of building a


democratic system where they can enjoy prosperity and development. To


say that dictatorship is better for some people just so that we have


stability for other countries I think is very, very insulting. Are


you saying that Colonel Gaddafi had to go, regardless of whether there


was a post, and exit plan, a pose development plan, Colonel Gaddafi


had to go? I think it is intrinsic and inherent in all human nature


that we will oppose tyranny, we oppose oppression, we will pose


dictatorship, we love freedom and equality and human rights. And


Colonel Gaddafi was against all of these human values which many


countries including Britain enjoy or have enjoyed for hundreds of years


and I think Libyans and other nations in the middle East are


entitled to enjoy these values as well. But going back to the report,


I totally disagree with the assumption that diplomacy with


Colonel Gaddafi would have saved human lives and saved civilians.


Colonel Gaddafi never recognised any form of diplomacy except the


diplomacy of violence and the gun. From the first moment when civilians


started demonstrating peacefully on the streets of Benghazi and Tripoli,


he ordered his security forces to shoot at them at head and chest


level and kill as many as possible. If the international community did


not intervene to protect civilians, we could have had tens and thousands


of people killed. We did have had another massacre are just like what


happened in Bosnia and what happened in Rwanda and then the rest of the


world would have had to live with that for many decades or probably


centuries afterwards. So think it was worth taking the risk to allow


diplomacy with Colonel Gaddafi. This man never understood dormancy. We


all know what happened with the Lockerbie and so many other crimes,


let alone the crimes he committed against his own people in Libya. And


now we have a situation of lawlessness, a chaotic situation. We


have people traffickers and militants. If the situation better?


No, it isn't better. But after any major revelation, which is like an


earthquake, there will always be a transitional period of chaos and


instability and vacuum and this is what I agree with one aspect of the


report and that is the international committee did not have a plan for


the day after and I think they should have stayed with the Libyan


people and engaged with them and helped them to fill the vacuum


straightaway and rebuild the country quickly, especially rebuild the


institutions and especially the institutions to do with security.


Libya under Colonel Gaddafi was totally wiped out of any form of


institutional nation building and that is why we need a lot of help.


Unfortunately, the international community after the revolution just


walked away and left us to our own devices. This is why we are


struggling, but Libya is not a given case. Who can say that in a few


years we will not have stability, peace, and we will start on the road


of nation-building, in Station building and also a democratic


system where we can enjoy high levels of prosperity and


development, just like the decent rest of the world is enjoying at the


moment. We are out of time, but thank you very much for sharing your


thoughts from the Libyan political dialogue with. Thank you.


The United Nations has still not been able to deliver much-needed


humanitarian aid to besieged areas of Syria, in particular


rebel-held eastern Aleppo, despite the continuing truce.


The lull in fighting has revealed the extent of damage


in previously rebel-held areas, such as the Bani Zayid


Our Middle East Editor Jeremy Bowen has just been there.


Now this place is called Bedi Zaid, to the west of Aleppo.


And it has been absolutely pulverised.


I suspect a lot of this must have been


Now rebels, the Army is telling me, held this place until July of this


And then, in what was a huge display of firepower, they were


From the government's point of view, this was an important moment,


because from this area, rebels were able to fire down into


You can only guess what happened to people


who originally lived in these houses.


The remains of the school over there.


I suppose they've swelled the numbers who have lost their


Half the pre-war population of Syria is either refugees


outside the country, or displaced within it.


Now the Middle East is in the process of


It is the result of a century of misrule, disastrous foreign


interventions, stagnation and repression, and this war is part of


all of that. No wonder it is so hard to stop.


The EU is in crisis, but not at risk, as a result of Brexit,


according to the President of the European Commission.


In his State of the Union speech, Jean Claude Juncker,


warned of the dangers of what he called "galloping


populism" in Europe, and condemned attacks


on migrants in the UK, in the wake of the vote


Here's our Europe Editor, Katya Adler.


His annual State of the Union speech is designed to be visionary, full of


But this year the main EU aim is survival.


TRANSLATION: All too often we see splits and


disagreement instead of European union,


leaving the door open for


Mr Juncker said the EU was, to a degree, in a stench of


Think migration, Eurozone wobbles and cross-border terror.


The UK's vote to leave is probably the


But Brexit was given little mention today by Mr


His intended message, we'll be fine without you.


The European Parliament's Brexit negotiator put


Stop the politics of division and choose this opportunity not


to kill Europe as some of you want, but to


When the EU and UK do thrash out their new


relationship, Mr Juncker insisted European principles were not up for


The UK would not get good access to the European single


market, he said, if it imposed entry limits on EU workers.


The two men are famous here for their testy relationship.


If you stick to the dogma of saying that


for tariff-free access, reciprocal tariff-free access


to the single market, we must retain the free


movement of people, then you will inevitably


Jean-Claude Juncker's state of the union speech today


was supposed to mark new, invigorated EU beginnings


Instead it highlighted the EU's biggest headaches.


No start date and a lack of clarity surrounding Brexit


on the one hand, and on the other a real fear inside the EU Parliament


that voters out there across Europe no longer


But perhaps that's also part of a bigger process.


The problem is the loss of trust of ordinary citizens.


Ordinary citizens working hard and playing by the


Look to the election campaign in the United


Brussels bureaucrats, bankers, politicians from


traditional parties, growing numbers distrust what they see as a


EU needs reform to appear more relevant, but there is


little agreement in these corridors as to how.


After last June's vote here in the UK to leave the EU a lot


of attention has been focused on the people that have


migrated to Britain for other parts of Europe.


Poles In The UK is the first book to document the various ways


in which Polish people, and those with Polish heritage,


have contributed to the UK over the last 1,000 years.


The co-author Brin Best joins us now from our studio in Leeds.


Thank you very much for joining us. We've seen how the Polish community


has rallied together, following the death recently. It was an organised


vigil for the death of this man. Of course, your book, you started your


book a long time before this spate of attacks on the Polish community.


What was your thinking about writing about Polish people in the UK? Well,


it is lovely to be with you this evening. Thank you so much ground


fighting me on the programme. It is incredibly devastating, really, and


heartbreaking for so many Polish friends who have witnessed what's


been happening in this country over the last few weeks and months, and


particularly for myself, who really my own friendships and partnerships


with Polish people, they date way back to childhood, when in fact my


first ice cream man in Manchester, when I was eight, was a wonderful,


kind man who actually was a soldier but I did not realise at the time


but he had actually fought alongside people like my grandpa in the Second


World War in order to help as all enjoy the freedoms that we have


today. This is just one of the many reasons why myself and I co-authored


Maria decided to actually try to tell this untold story of the


thousand years of friendship and cooperation in terms of what Polish


people have done for the UK in all sorts of ways. And as a community,


they very much rallied together. Now, we have two Polish police


officers who are helping British police officers within the


community, a community that has been greatly affected. In terms of the


book, of course, this is something that you reflect on, the strength of


the Polish community in this country. Very much so. The book,


which is available at all good book shops, is very much a celebration of


what Polish people have done and are continuing to do in the UK, but also


it is about partnerships. It is about the way in which Polish people


work alongside British people to improve the economy, to promote


different aspects of culture, to share experiences and to share and


celebrate the shared history between the two nations and through the


book, we have a whole range of chapters that deal with different


aspects of this. We talk about the NHS and about teachers. We actually


interview over 50 people who are making all sorts of contributions,


and this idea of a strong Polish community working alongside British


people to create a difference in order to move things forward and


create partnerships, and achieved success in all sorts of areas is


absolutely a key theme in the book. Just expend to us, what is the aim


with this book? I know you hope that a copy will reach every school in


the United Kingdom. Absolutely. We have just launched the book and we


have had an enormous amount of interest all around the world. Our


primary goal is to tell a story that has not really been ever told


before. No one has ever actually written a book about this 4000


period of Polish contributors to the UK, and we'll be working through our


charity, the British colonial foundation, which has published the


book alongside Maria and also Anna Collins, a very important person in


the project, and we are moving forward in order to promote among


schools in this area. -- the British Polonial foundation. And also the


Polish Saturday schools, in order to promote education in this area and


also help children to be their links, perhaps children who have


more tenuous links to Poland, even though they may be


second-generation, and also to inform children of the importance of


the shared history. Sorry to cut you off, that we wish you the best of


luck. We are out of time, but good luck. The book is out now. Thank you


very much for joining us. Now a look at some of


the day's other news. Three of the world's leading human


rights organisations are calling on President Obama to pardon


the American whistle-blower, A former US intelligence analyst,


Mr Snowden lives in exile in Moscow and is wanted in America for leaking


vast amounts of classified President Obama looks set to lift


all economic sanctions with Myanmar following the transfer of power


to a civilian government. The announcement came


as Aung San Suu Kyi - whose party took power


in Myanmar earlier this year - met the president at the White


House. How would you feel if you were stuck


in a remote, frozen Russian weather station, and unable to leave,


because you were surrounded by That's what five Russian


scientists have had to deal with for more than two weeks


in the Russian Arctic. The scientists are all reported


to be well, and have just received relief supplies,


including flares to Well, a BBC team filming


a wildlife documentary called experience in Svalbard in Norway -


here's what happened to them: A bear breaking in is worse


than teenagers at a house party. The difference between a polar bear


and a house party is Polar bears being described as


teenagers in that clip. Well, in that clip was producer


Sophie Lansfear and she joins Sophie, that wasn't the first time


you saw that particular bear - The first time, I was on a night


watch and I thought I'd let the cameraman get some sleep, so I was


staying up all night, looking out for bears because this pair had been


hanging around the cabin. You would think, being the world's largest


carnivore that you would spot it. And constantly looking out the


window all the time and the reindeer started running and I was looking


around and then suddenly all of a sudden when I was off guard I looked


up to the window and there was this big white face and the polar bear


was looking at me through the window. That must have been


absolutely extraordinary. We know that they are dangerous. They have


killed before. What is your advice to those Russian scientists? What do


you do when they come towards you after your supplies? I would say


that every bear is very different. They all have different


personalities. First of all, got to watch without bear and work out what


their behaviour is because a lot of bears are scared and then the ones


that aren't, usually aren't for a reason and so to work out why that


is, are the injured, are the hungry, what sort of state the Bury Saint.


If it is very thin, then it is a lot more dangerous than desperate and


that is when you tend to get attacked. So if they were happy


bears and well fed then I would say that maybe it was not too much of a


risk to them, but it is not a position I would like to be in with


that many bears surrounding me. Indeed. In terms of these attacks,


are they on the increase? Is there a reason behind that? I think it's


hard to say that they are on the increase, but what is inevitable is


that we are seeing year-on-year a trend of decreasing sea ice which


means they are losing their habitat, so where the Bears would prefer to


be out hunting seals all year round, they now can't, so more hours


stranded on the shore. And that brings them into the communities


that are on short and in direct conflict with them. So I think with


climate change and with the loss of sea ice, it is going to be a problem


in the future. Well, Sophie, thank you very much for sharing your


experiences. She was part of the team filming the hunt. Thank you


very much. Now, it will be one of the most


extraordinary maps ever made. The most accurate guide of the night


sky, charting the whereabouts and brightness of more


than a billion stars in our galaxy. It's being compiled


by the European Space Agency, as our Science Correspondent


Pallab Ghosh explains. Our galaxy, the Milky Way. If you


were flying through it in a spacecraft, this is what you would


actually see. This is a 3-D map of stars created from real data just


released by the European Space Agency. This is the first step


towards a complete revolution in our knowledge of the structure, the


origin, the abolition and what the universe is made of. I am in the


library of the Royal astronomical Society and it is full of books


about where the stars and the galaxy are. Yet, new results from the diet


space telescope will mean that many of them will have to be rewritten.


The me show you why. This is our world, the earth. It is one of eight


planets that make up the solar system. With our star, the sun, at


its centre. But the sun is just one of billions of stars in our galaxy,


called the Milky Way, which looks like this and astronomers think that


we are here on one of the spiral arms. But all of this is based on


guesswork. The observation of just a few hundred stars. Over the past two


years, Diana has been scanning the skies and mapped the position of


more than a billion stars. So very soon, we will have more accurate


pictures of what the Milky Way is really like and where we are. This


may well be completely different to what astronomers currently think.


The telescope has collected so much data that the European Space Agency


has invited schools all across the world to help them. By sifting


through the information and letting them know if they discover anything


interesting. Looks like we have done it. They have discovered a star that


has exploded at the end of its life. We discovered a supernova, using the


data we have been looking at from stars and what we got was a


supernova and what we got was a cloud. You will discover a supernova


everyday. Yes, that is true. It is given because you do not see those


kind of things every day and it feels really proud to say that I


discovered a supernova at the age of 14. Astronomers also hope to


discover completely new objects in our galaxy that are currently book


beyond our imagination. There has been a damning verdict on


the intervention in Libya, huge instability and the rise of the


so-called Islamic State are blamed on the British and French joint


military intervention in the country. We have lots more on our


website so you can get in touch on social media, but that is all.


Hello. Another really warm, really am again


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