14/09/2016 World News Today


14/09/2016

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This is BBC World News Today with me Kasia Madera.

:00:07.:00:09.

The Headlines: A damning verdict on the intervention in Libya.

:00:10.:00:13.

Huge instability and the rise of so-called Islamic State

:00:14.:00:15.

in North Africa are blamed on the British and

:00:16.:00:18.

French joint military intervention in the country.

:00:19.:00:21.

No fighting in Syria, but still no aid being delivered.

:00:22.:00:24.

We report from the besieged city of Aleppo.

:00:25.:00:34.

Half the pre-war population of Syria is either refugees outside the

:00:35.:00:37.

country or displaced within it. Also

:00:38.:00:41.

coming up: Relief supplies reach five Russian scientists surrounded

:00:42.:00:43.

by polar bears for nearly two weeks at a remote weather

:00:44.:00:45.

station in the Arctic. And one billion stars are mapped

:00:46.:00:48.

in a galactic mission to draw space, giving a huge boost to our knowledge

:00:49.:00:51.

of what the Milky Way looks like. As reports go, it

:00:52.:01:10.

couldn't be more damning. It says the British and French joint

:01:11.:01:13.

military intervention in Libya five It became an 'opportunist policy

:01:14.:01:17.

of regime change' - and it led to the rise of so-called

:01:18.:01:22.

Islamic State in North Africa. A committee of British MP's savaged

:01:23.:01:26.

Former Prime Minister David Cameron over the joint UK-French mission,

:01:27.:01:28.

which toppled Colonel Libya quickly descended into chaos

:01:29.:01:30.

and is now a haven for people Today, the country is a chaotic

:01:31.:01:45.

haven for people traffickers and militants.

:01:46.:01:46.

A place where militias compete for power.

:01:47.:01:51.

Where the Islamic State group has a foothold.

:01:52.:01:54.

Where migrants pour across unprotected borders en route

:01:55.:01:56.

It is a chaotic picture which, British MPs say, is the result of

:01:57.:02:10.

David Cameron's decision five years ago to send in warplanes to

:02:11.:02:13.

support rebels fighting against Colonel Gaddafi.

:02:14.:02:14.

We were not prepared for the consequences of a

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And all the analysis being done here was based

:02:17.:02:21.

on a frankly limited understanding of what the situation in Libya was.

:02:22.:02:30.

The aim of the intervention in March 2011 was to

:02:31.:02:32.

protect people living here in

:02:33.:02:35.

Benghazi, who were threatened by Gaddafi's forces.

:02:36.:02:42.

The Foreign Affairs Committee says the case was overstated

:02:43.:02:44.

As fighting continued over the summer,

:02:45.:02:47.

the aim of the operation changed from protecting civilians to

:02:48.:02:49.

The committee said this was an opportunist

:02:50.:02:52.

That was not under-pinned by a strategy to support

:02:53.:03:04.

In particular, MPs say more should have

:03:05.:03:07.

been done to use Tony Blair's contacts to see if a political deal

:03:08.:03:10.

was possible which could have left Gaddafi in power.

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Is it better to allow a dictator who may be

:03:13.:03:15.

appropriate to the country and to the times in which we are living to

:03:16.:03:18.

remain in power to ensure stability rather than risk the chaos of an

:03:19.:03:21.

In September 2011, after the Gaddafi regime

:03:22.:03:24.

the then-French president visited Libya and told the people they had

:03:25.:03:31.

Your friends in Britain and in France

:03:32.:03:35.

will stand with you as you build your democracy and build your

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And yet the Foreign Affairs Committee says that

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this did not happen and David Cameron was ultimately responsible

:03:45.:03:47.

for the failure to develop a coherent Libya strategy.

:03:48.:03:51.

Diplomats and ministers involved in the

:03:52.:03:54.

decision to intervene said it was backed by MPs and the United

:03:55.:04:02.

Nations and was responding to a real threat.

:04:03.:04:04.

It wasn't clear that leaving Gaddafi in place would have

:04:05.:04:07.

In Iraq we went in with major forces, it did

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In Syria we chose not to get involved, that was also

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In Libya, we went in in a targeted way in support.

:04:15.:04:18.

The situation is bad but I wouldn't rule

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out that in five years the various parties

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will have got together and

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The situation on the ground makes such

:04:24.:04:27.

In Libya, politics still comes second to violence.

:04:28.:04:35.

Juma El-Gamaty is a member of the Libyan Political Dialogue,

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a group that oversaw the UN-backed peace deal which was signed

:04:38.:04:40.

He previously worked as the official coordinator between the UK

:04:41.:04:43.

Government and the Libyan National Transitional Council in 2011.

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He joins me from our studio in Northampton.

:04:46.:04:52.

Thank you very much. And absolutely scathing report. Do you agree with

:04:53.:05:00.

that? I think I agree with one aspect of its, but I disagree with

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others. Can I start by saying that as a Libyan I take offence to what

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one of your guests said which was maybe it would be better to keep a

:05:12.:05:14.

dictator for the sake of stability. I think Libyans and Alterman beings

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are entitled to dignity, freedom, and the prospect of building a

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democratic system where they can enjoy prosperity and development. To

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say that dictatorship is better for some people just so that we have

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stability for other countries I think is very, very insulting. Are

:05:29.:05:34.

you saying that Colonel Gaddafi had to go, regardless of whether there

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was a post, and exit plan, a pose development plan, Colonel Gaddafi

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had to go? I think it is intrinsic and inherent in all human nature

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that we will oppose tyranny, we oppose oppression, we will pose

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dictatorship, we love freedom and equality and human rights. And

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Colonel Gaddafi was against all of these human values which many

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countries including Britain enjoy or have enjoyed for hundreds of years

:06:00.:06:02.

and I think Libyans and other nations in the middle East are

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entitled to enjoy these values as well. But going back to the report,

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I totally disagree with the assumption that diplomacy with

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Colonel Gaddafi would have saved human lives and saved civilians.

:06:17.:06:20.

Colonel Gaddafi never recognised any form of diplomacy except the

:06:21.:06:25.

diplomacy of violence and the gun. From the first moment when civilians

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started demonstrating peacefully on the streets of Benghazi and Tripoli,

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he ordered his security forces to shoot at them at head and chest

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level and kill as many as possible. If the international community did

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not intervene to protect civilians, we could have had tens and thousands

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of people killed. We did have had another massacre are just like what

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happened in Bosnia and what happened in Rwanda and then the rest of the

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world would have had to live with that for many decades or probably

:06:54.:06:59.

centuries afterwards. So think it was worth taking the risk to allow

:07:00.:07:02.

diplomacy with Colonel Gaddafi. This man never understood dormancy. We

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all know what happened with the Lockerbie and so many other crimes,

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let alone the crimes he committed against his own people in Libya. And

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now we have a situation of lawlessness, a chaotic situation. We

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have people traffickers and militants. If the situation better?

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No, it isn't better. But after any major revelation, which is like an

:07:24.:07:27.

earthquake, there will always be a transitional period of chaos and

:07:28.:07:31.

instability and vacuum and this is what I agree with one aspect of the

:07:32.:07:36.

report and that is the international committee did not have a plan for

:07:37.:07:40.

the day after and I think they should have stayed with the Libyan

:07:41.:07:43.

people and engaged with them and helped them to fill the vacuum

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straightaway and rebuild the country quickly, especially rebuild the

:07:48.:07:50.

institutions and especially the institutions to do with security.

:07:51.:07:54.

Libya under Colonel Gaddafi was totally wiped out of any form of

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institutional nation building and that is why we need a lot of help.

:07:59.:08:02.

Unfortunately, the international community after the revolution just

:08:03.:08:05.

walked away and left us to our own devices. This is why we are

:08:06.:08:09.

struggling, but Libya is not a given case. Who can say that in a few

:08:10.:08:15.

years we will not have stability, peace, and we will start on the road

:08:16.:08:20.

of nation-building, in Station building and also a democratic

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system where we can enjoy high levels of prosperity and

:08:25.:08:27.

development, just like the decent rest of the world is enjoying at the

:08:28.:08:32.

moment. We are out of time, but thank you very much for sharing your

:08:33.:08:36.

thoughts from the Libyan political dialogue with. Thank you.

:08:37.:08:38.

The United Nations has still not been able to deliver much-needed

:08:39.:08:41.

humanitarian aid to besieged areas of Syria, in particular

:08:42.:08:43.

rebel-held eastern Aleppo, despite the continuing truce.

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The lull in fighting has revealed the extent of damage

:08:47.:08:55.

in previously rebel-held areas, such as the Bani Zayid

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Our Middle East Editor Jeremy Bowen has just been there.

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Now this place is called Bedi Zaid, to the west of Aleppo.

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And it has been absolutely pulverised.

:09:06.:09:07.

I suspect a lot of this must have been

:09:08.:09:09.

Now rebels, the Army is telling me, held this place until July of this

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And then, in what was a huge display of firepower, they were

:09:19.:09:22.

From the government's point of view, this was an important moment,

:09:23.:09:28.

because from this area, rebels were able to fire down into

:09:29.:09:31.

You can only guess what happened to people

:09:32.:09:41.

who originally lived in these houses.

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The remains of the school over there.

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I suppose they've swelled the numbers who have lost their

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Half the pre-war population of Syria is either refugees

:09:56.:10:00.

outside the country, or displaced within it.

:10:01.:10:07.

Now the Middle East is in the process of

:10:08.:10:09.

It is the result of a century of misrule, disastrous foreign

:10:10.:10:19.

interventions, stagnation and repression, and this war is part of

:10:20.:10:23.

all of that. No wonder it is so hard to stop.

:10:24.:10:27.

The EU is in crisis, but not at risk, as a result of Brexit,

:10:28.:10:37.

according to the President of the European Commission.

:10:38.:10:42.

In his State of the Union speech, Jean Claude Juncker,

:10:43.:10:46.

warned of the dangers of what he called "galloping

:10:47.:10:48.

populism" in Europe, and condemned attacks

:10:49.:10:50.

on migrants in the UK, in the wake of the vote

:10:51.:10:52.

Here's our Europe Editor, Katya Adler.

:10:53.:10:56.

His annual State of the Union speech is designed to be visionary, full of

:10:57.:11:03.

But this year the main EU aim is survival.

:11:04.:11:10.

TRANSLATION: All too often we see splits and

:11:11.:11:15.

disagreement instead of European union,

:11:16.:11:16.

leaving the door open for

:11:17.:11:18.

Mr Juncker said the EU was, to a degree, in a stench of

:11:19.:11:28.

Think migration, Eurozone wobbles and cross-border terror.

:11:29.:11:35.

The UK's vote to leave is probably the

:11:36.:11:37.

But Brexit was given little mention today by Mr

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His intended message, we'll be fine without you.

:11:44.:11:48.

The European Parliament's Brexit negotiator put

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Stop the politics of division and choose this opportunity not

:11:51.:11:57.

to kill Europe as some of you want, but to

:11:58.:12:00.

When the EU and UK do thrash out their new

:12:01.:12:07.

relationship, Mr Juncker insisted European principles were not up for

:12:08.:12:10.

The UK would not get good access to the European single

:12:11.:12:20.

market, he said, if it imposed entry limits on EU workers.

:12:21.:12:22.

The two men are famous here for their testy relationship.

:12:23.:12:31.

If you stick to the dogma of saying that

:12:32.:12:35.

for tariff-free access, reciprocal tariff-free access

:12:36.:12:38.

to the single market, we must retain the free

:12:39.:12:41.

movement of people, then you will inevitably

:12:42.:12:43.

Jean-Claude Juncker's state of the union speech today

:12:44.:12:50.

was supposed to mark new, invigorated EU beginnings

:12:51.:12:52.

Instead it highlighted the EU's biggest headaches.

:12:53.:12:58.

No start date and a lack of clarity surrounding Brexit

:12:59.:13:02.

on the one hand, and on the other a real fear inside the EU Parliament

:13:03.:13:07.

that voters out there across Europe no longer

:13:08.:13:09.

But perhaps that's also part of a bigger process.

:13:10.:13:21.

The problem is the loss of trust of ordinary citizens.

:13:22.:13:24.

Ordinary citizens working hard and playing by the

:13:25.:13:27.

Look to the election campaign in the United

:13:28.:13:33.

Brussels bureaucrats, bankers, politicians from

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traditional parties, growing numbers distrust what they see as a

:13:39.:13:41.

EU needs reform to appear more relevant, but there is

:13:42.:13:52.

little agreement in these corridors as to how.

:13:53.:13:57.

After last June's vote here in the UK to leave the EU a lot

:13:58.:14:00.

of attention has been focused on the people that have

:14:01.:14:03.

migrated to Britain for other parts of Europe.

:14:04.:14:11.

Poles In The UK is the first book to document the various ways

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in which Polish people, and those with Polish heritage,

:14:15.:14:16.

have contributed to the UK over the last 1,000 years.

:14:17.:14:19.

The co-author Brin Best joins us now from our studio in Leeds.

:14:20.:14:30.

Thank you very much for joining us. We've seen how the Polish community

:14:31.:14:38.

has rallied together, following the death recently. It was an organised

:14:39.:14:47.

vigil for the death of this man. Of course, your book, you started your

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book a long time before this spate of attacks on the Polish community.

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What was your thinking about writing about Polish people in the UK? Well,

:14:57.:15:01.

it is lovely to be with you this evening. Thank you so much ground

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fighting me on the programme. It is incredibly devastating, really, and

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heartbreaking for so many Polish friends who have witnessed what's

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been happening in this country over the last few weeks and months, and

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particularly for myself, who really my own friendships and partnerships

:15:17.:15:20.

with Polish people, they date way back to childhood, when in fact my

:15:21.:15:23.

first ice cream man in Manchester, when I was eight, was a wonderful,

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kind man who actually was a soldier but I did not realise at the time

:15:30.:15:33.

but he had actually fought alongside people like my grandpa in the Second

:15:34.:15:38.

World War in order to help as all enjoy the freedoms that we have

:15:39.:15:41.

today. This is just one of the many reasons why myself and I co-authored

:15:42.:15:46.

Maria decided to actually try to tell this untold story of the

:15:47.:15:52.

thousand years of friendship and cooperation in terms of what Polish

:15:53.:15:56.

people have done for the UK in all sorts of ways. And as a community,

:15:57.:16:01.

they very much rallied together. Now, we have two Polish police

:16:02.:16:04.

officers who are helping British police officers within the

:16:05.:16:10.

community, a community that has been greatly affected. In terms of the

:16:11.:16:15.

book, of course, this is something that you reflect on, the strength of

:16:16.:16:18.

the Polish community in this country. Very much so. The book,

:16:19.:16:24.

which is available at all good book shops, is very much a celebration of

:16:25.:16:27.

what Polish people have done and are continuing to do in the UK, but also

:16:28.:16:31.

it is about partnerships. It is about the way in which Polish people

:16:32.:16:34.

work alongside British people to improve the economy, to promote

:16:35.:16:40.

different aspects of culture, to share experiences and to share and

:16:41.:16:44.

celebrate the shared history between the two nations and through the

:16:45.:16:47.

book, we have a whole range of chapters that deal with different

:16:48.:16:51.

aspects of this. We talk about the NHS and about teachers. We actually

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interview over 50 people who are making all sorts of contributions,

:16:56.:16:59.

and this idea of a strong Polish community working alongside British

:17:00.:17:03.

people to create a difference in order to move things forward and

:17:04.:17:08.

create partnerships, and achieved success in all sorts of areas is

:17:09.:17:13.

absolutely a key theme in the book. Just expend to us, what is the aim

:17:14.:17:17.

with this book? I know you hope that a copy will reach every school in

:17:18.:17:21.

the United Kingdom. Absolutely. We have just launched the book and we

:17:22.:17:24.

have had an enormous amount of interest all around the world. Our

:17:25.:17:30.

primary goal is to tell a story that has not really been ever told

:17:31.:17:34.

before. No one has ever actually written a book about this 4000

:17:35.:17:39.

period of Polish contributors to the UK, and we'll be working through our

:17:40.:17:43.

charity, the British colonial foundation, which has published the

:17:44.:17:47.

book alongside Maria and also Anna Collins, a very important person in

:17:48.:17:53.

the project, and we are moving forward in order to promote among

:17:54.:17:58.

schools in this area. -- the British Polonial foundation. And also the

:17:59.:18:02.

Polish Saturday schools, in order to promote education in this area and

:18:03.:18:06.

also help children to be their links, perhaps children who have

:18:07.:18:09.

more tenuous links to Poland, even though they may be

:18:10.:18:12.

second-generation, and also to inform children of the importance of

:18:13.:18:17.

the shared history. Sorry to cut you off, that we wish you the best of

:18:18.:18:21.

luck. We are out of time, but good luck. The book is out now. Thank you

:18:22.:18:25.

very much for joining us. Now a look at some of

:18:26.:18:28.

the day's other news. Three of the world's leading human

:18:29.:18:30.

rights organisations are calling on President Obama to pardon

:18:31.:18:33.

the American whistle-blower, A former US intelligence analyst,

:18:34.:18:35.

Mr Snowden lives in exile in Moscow and is wanted in America for leaking

:18:36.:18:40.

vast amounts of classified President Obama looks set to lift

:18:41.:18:42.

all economic sanctions with Myanmar following the transfer of power

:18:43.:18:49.

to a civilian government. The announcement came

:18:50.:18:51.

as Aung San Suu Kyi - whose party took power

:18:52.:18:54.

in Myanmar earlier this year - met the president at the White

:18:55.:18:58.

House. How would you feel if you were stuck

:18:59.:19:02.

in a remote, frozen Russian weather station, and unable to leave,

:19:03.:19:06.

because you were surrounded by That's what five Russian

:19:07.:19:08.

scientists have had to deal with for more than two weeks

:19:09.:19:15.

in the Russian Arctic. The scientists are all reported

:19:16.:19:18.

to be well, and have just received relief supplies,

:19:19.:19:21.

including flares to Well, a BBC team filming

:19:22.:19:22.

a wildlife documentary called experience in Svalbard in Norway -

:19:23.:19:31.

here's what happened to them: A bear breaking in is worse

:19:32.:19:41.

than teenagers at a house party. The difference between a polar bear

:19:42.:19:54.

and a house party is Polar bears being described as

:19:55.:19:57.

teenagers in that clip. Well, in that clip was producer

:19:58.:20:09.

Sophie Lansfear and she joins Sophie, that wasn't the first time

:20:10.:20:12.

you saw that particular bear - The first time, I was on a night

:20:13.:20:27.

watch and I thought I'd let the cameraman get some sleep, so I was

:20:28.:20:31.

staying up all night, looking out for bears because this pair had been

:20:32.:20:35.

hanging around the cabin. You would think, being the world's largest

:20:36.:20:39.

carnivore that you would spot it. And constantly looking out the

:20:40.:20:43.

window all the time and the reindeer started running and I was looking

:20:44.:20:47.

around and then suddenly all of a sudden when I was off guard I looked

:20:48.:20:51.

up to the window and there was this big white face and the polar bear

:20:52.:20:55.

was looking at me through the window. That must have been

:20:56.:21:00.

absolutely extraordinary. We know that they are dangerous. They have

:21:01.:21:06.

killed before. What is your advice to those Russian scientists? What do

:21:07.:21:10.

you do when they come towards you after your supplies? I would say

:21:11.:21:17.

that every bear is very different. They all have different

:21:18.:21:20.

personalities. First of all, got to watch without bear and work out what

:21:21.:21:24.

their behaviour is because a lot of bears are scared and then the ones

:21:25.:21:28.

that aren't, usually aren't for a reason and so to work out why that

:21:29.:21:32.

is, are the injured, are the hungry, what sort of state the Bury Saint.

:21:33.:21:37.

If it is very thin, then it is a lot more dangerous than desperate and

:21:38.:21:39.

that is when you tend to get attacked. So if they were happy

:21:40.:21:43.

bears and well fed then I would say that maybe it was not too much of a

:21:44.:21:47.

risk to them, but it is not a position I would like to be in with

:21:48.:21:50.

that many bears surrounding me. Indeed. In terms of these attacks,

:21:51.:21:56.

are they on the increase? Is there a reason behind that? I think it's

:21:57.:22:04.

hard to say that they are on the increase, but what is inevitable is

:22:05.:22:07.

that we are seeing year-on-year a trend of decreasing sea ice which

:22:08.:22:12.

means they are losing their habitat, so where the Bears would prefer to

:22:13.:22:16.

be out hunting seals all year round, they now can't, so more hours

:22:17.:22:19.

stranded on the shore. And that brings them into the communities

:22:20.:22:23.

that are on short and in direct conflict with them. So I think with

:22:24.:22:29.

climate change and with the loss of sea ice, it is going to be a problem

:22:30.:22:33.

in the future. Well, Sophie, thank you very much for sharing your

:22:34.:22:38.

experiences. She was part of the team filming the hunt. Thank you

:22:39.:22:40.

very much. Now, it will be one of the most

:22:41.:22:42.

extraordinary maps ever made. The most accurate guide of the night

:22:43.:22:45.

sky, charting the whereabouts and brightness of more

:22:46.:22:47.

than a billion stars in our galaxy. It's being compiled

:22:48.:22:50.

by the European Space Agency, as our Science Correspondent

:22:51.:22:52.

Pallab Ghosh explains. Our galaxy, the Milky Way. If you

:22:53.:23:10.

were flying through it in a spacecraft, this is what you would

:23:11.:23:14.

actually see. This is a 3-D map of stars created from real data just

:23:15.:23:19.

released by the European Space Agency. This is the first step

:23:20.:23:21.

towards a complete revolution in our knowledge of the structure, the

:23:22.:23:27.

origin, the abolition and what the universe is made of. I am in the

:23:28.:23:31.

library of the Royal astronomical Society and it is full of books

:23:32.:23:34.

about where the stars and the galaxy are. Yet, new results from the diet

:23:35.:23:39.

space telescope will mean that many of them will have to be rewritten.

:23:40.:23:47.

The me show you why. This is our world, the earth. It is one of eight

:23:48.:23:50.

planets that make up the solar system. With our star, the sun, at

:23:51.:23:55.

its centre. But the sun is just one of billions of stars in our galaxy,

:23:56.:24:01.

called the Milky Way, which looks like this and astronomers think that

:24:02.:24:06.

we are here on one of the spiral arms. But all of this is based on

:24:07.:24:11.

guesswork. The observation of just a few hundred stars. Over the past two

:24:12.:24:16.

years, Diana has been scanning the skies and mapped the position of

:24:17.:24:20.

more than a billion stars. So very soon, we will have more accurate

:24:21.:24:24.

pictures of what the Milky Way is really like and where we are. This

:24:25.:24:29.

may well be completely different to what astronomers currently think.

:24:30.:24:35.

The telescope has collected so much data that the European Space Agency

:24:36.:24:40.

has invited schools all across the world to help them. By sifting

:24:41.:24:44.

through the information and letting them know if they discover anything

:24:45.:24:49.

interesting. Looks like we have done it. They have discovered a star that

:24:50.:24:57.

has exploded at the end of its life. We discovered a supernova, using the

:24:58.:25:04.

data we have been looking at from stars and what we got was a

:25:05.:25:07.

supernova and what we got was a cloud. You will discover a supernova

:25:08.:25:15.

everyday. Yes, that is true. It is given because you do not see those

:25:16.:25:18.

kind of things every day and it feels really proud to say that I

:25:19.:25:22.

discovered a supernova at the age of 14. Astronomers also hope to

:25:23.:25:26.

discover completely new objects in our galaxy that are currently book

:25:27.:25:28.

beyond our imagination. There has been a damning verdict on

:25:29.:25:45.

the intervention in Libya, huge instability and the rise of the

:25:46.:25:47.

so-called Islamic State are blamed on the British and French joint

:25:48.:25:51.

military intervention in the country. We have lots more on our

:25:52.:25:56.

website so you can get in touch on social media, but that is all.

:25:57.:26:08.

Hello. Another really warm, really am again

:26:09.:26:09.

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