Pioneers and Firsts Flog It: Trade Secrets


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Pioneers and Firsts

Antiques series. The team look at the work of pioneering designers and craftsmen, and Paul Martin unravels the story of the co-operative movement's early days.


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For over a decade now,

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you've been bringing the Flog It! team your unwanted antiques and collectables,

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and we've helped you sell around £1 million worth to date.

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-1,275.

-I don't believe it!

-I'm going to sell.

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Yes! I like that sound, that is the "sold" sound.

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Don't you just love auctions?

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During that time we've all learnt a great deal about the items that

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have passed through our hands.

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In this series I want to share some of that knowledge with you,

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so stand by to hear our experts' Trade Secrets.

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The world of antiques is full of wonderful

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and valuable objects of all kinds.

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But the most interesting pieces are generally those

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produced by mavericks and pioneers,

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people who dared to do things differently.

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So in today's show we are celebrating the men and women

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whose innovation and genius have left a lasting legacy.

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We get a glimpse of the true brilliance

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of Flog It's favourite maverick.

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It's probably one of the best pieces of Moorcroft I've seen on Flog It!

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At £1,500...

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-Sold!

-Not bad, eh?

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One of haute couture's trendsetters

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proves to be a surprise hit at auction.

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I was flabbergasted. I think I said it three times.

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3,4...

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I am flabbergasted!

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And I trace the history of a truly ground-breaking enterprise.

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It's said they hopped and skipped down Toad Lane just after midnight

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thrilled to bits that they opened their honest, Co-operative shop.

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There are some names we quite often hear on the show

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and instantly you think of William Moorcroft, George Jones,

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Geoffrey Baxter of Whitefriars Glass fame.

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You've probably got a few yourself.

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The list is a long one.

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But there's something all these people have in common

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with each other - they are all pioneers of their field.

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But what makes them worthy of the collectors' interest?

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Pioneers are probably one of the most important types of people

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because they bring about the changes

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that we need to develop as a society.

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My definition of "pioneer" is someone that goes somewhere

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that nobody has been before.

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It might be discovering a continent,

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but perhaps it's working in a new material.

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Somebody like Charles Horner, who worked out of Halifax

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and was fabulous with Art Nouveau jewellery.

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William Morris was a pioneer. Mackintosh was a pioneer.

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Anything by them would be incredibly expensive.

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Why not think in terms of Georg Jensen jewellery?

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You can buy a Georg Jensen silver ring for less than £100.

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Great names all of them.

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We've had the privilege of encountering many works

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by those pioneering craftsmen of the past.

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And we've stumbled on more modern ones too.

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At a valuation day in 2009,

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Thomas Plant got his hands on an item

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from one of the giants of 20th-century fashion.

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Tell me about it and how it came into your possession.

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Well, my grandmother gave it to me

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when I was about ten and I've had it ever since.

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I don't know much more about it other than it's Christian Dior, I believe.

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It is Christian Dior. We can see it from here.

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The mark there is Christian Dior.

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Of course that conjures up all these wonderful fashion items etc

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and high-end jewellery.

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But this is Christian Dior the costume jeweller

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we are looking at here.

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Christian Dior - after the Second World War

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he sort of established his business

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as the first global fashion house.

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You have the aspirational haute couture which the Hollywood stars

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would wear, by Christian Dior.

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And I think in the '50s and '60s his costume jewellery was aspirational.

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You could actually buy a piece of Christian Dior. He'd realised

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that there was going to be demand for his product, his design.

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And hence, that's why his costume jewellery is so good

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and desirable.

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Now, it is costume jewellery, we should explain that.

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You've got the mauve stones and the pink, and this is glass

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or diamante or paste, as we call it, on a base metal.

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"Vintage" is a new word for antiques. Vintage is very cool.

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So if you're going out to a party

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and you're putting on vintage Dior, they'll all ask,

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"Where is that from?" "Actually, it's vintage."

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It's Dior, isn't it?"

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It would probably make over £50,

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but I should have the estimate sort of £70-£100.

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If it had been...

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an unknown piece of costume jewellery, which you get

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quite a lot, I'd probably have said not worth selling.

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£20-£30, £5-£10.

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It's quite a difficult subject to sell in a traditional saleroom

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-like this, but we're going to give it a go.

-OK. Here we go.

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Fingers crossed. You never know what's going to

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happen at an auction. let's check this one out.

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And as it happened, quite a few bidders also wanted to check it out.

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110. 120. 130. 140. 150. 160.

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-At 160.

-Gosh!

-Lady's bid now. 160. 170 now.

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160. At 160. 170 on the phone. 180.

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190 if you like. 190.

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-200. At 200.

-They absolutely love this!

-They do know it's paste?

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220.

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230. 240.

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I was flabbergasted. I think I said it three times.

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-340.

-I am flabbergasted.

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Did you miss something, Thomas?

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400. 420.

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SHE GASPS

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-Do they know something we don't know?

-I don't know!

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-What's going through your mind right now?

-Oh, I can't believe it!

-Money!

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Good old Nana!

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At £440. It's on the phone at 440...

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-Incredible! £440. Angela, that's wonderful!

-Thank you so much.

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-That's great.

-Good old Nana, eh?

-Yeah, good old Nana!

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I can get something really nice with that.

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I am flabbergasted.

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Auctions are a real education

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and whenever I see a piece of Christian Dior

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costume jewellery now, I give it a lot more attention than I used to.

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Me, too, Thomas!

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Since that auction I won't pass a piece of paste jewellery

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without checking it out to see

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if it bears one of the big fashion house names.

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Without doubt it was the mark of the pioneering designer Dior

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which made Angie's bracelet fly.

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Now, Elizabeth Talbot knew she was on to a winner when she came across

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a piece of pottery by a designer who is a firm favourite on this show.

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I did like Beryl's vase.

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Her Moorcroft vase was a delight.

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It's probably one of the best pieces of Moorcroft I've seen on Flog It!

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What can you tell me about it?

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My parents had it as a wedding present in 1929,

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so it's been around all my life.

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'William Moorcroft was a pioneer to the extent'

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that his methods of production were very individual,

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from the handcrafting of the pot on the wheel through to the

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tube lining, a bit like decorating a cake.

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Throughout the 20th century his designs

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and his factory's successive designs have remained very much

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accessible and relevant to the generations that have followed on.

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It's a very distinctive and quite a rare pattern by Moorcroft.

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I have to hold my hands up at this point

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and say I can't remember the name of the pattern.

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But it is one of the rarer patterns.

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The whole methodology of production was very pioneering

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and it hasn't been bettered or really improved on in terms of that

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type of pottery since the late 19th century.

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His factory is renowned for the double firing.

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So the pot with the colour was fired

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and then the clear glaze was put on top and then it was fired again.

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And that's what's really lifts those marvellous colours out

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and makes it so vibrant and distinctive.

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What do you think it might be worth, offered to the market?

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Well, I would have thought it has to be at least £150-£200,

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but I think it might be more than that.

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Well, it might be, yeah.

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It's rather charming

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when people underestimate the value of their items,

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and it makes my job so much easier and far more enjoyable

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when I can break good news rather than having to beat them

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down from high expectations which are not achievable.

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I would like to see this sell for between £700 and £1,000.

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-Does that please you?

-Yes!

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And the man whose job it was to make good on Elizabeth's estimate

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was Flog It! regular Will Axon. So what did he make of the vase?

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This was a nice early piece.

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A William Moorcroft piece, signed on the base, an impressed Moorcroft.

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The shape was quite interesting,

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that sort of subtle baluster vase, which is very desirable.

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You can value them to a certain degree on the more general patterns, by size and shape.

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-OK.

-But I suspect if she had known the name of the pattern,

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which incidentally is Moonlit Blue,

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I mean, at £700-£1,000

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they'd be queuing up with the chequebooks at that sort of estimate.

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-I would.

-Yeah.

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I've got interest. At 500. 550. 600. 650. 700.

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At 700. And it's in the market. 750. 800.

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850. 900. 950. 1,000. 1,100. 1,200. 1,300.

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-They absolutely love it.

-1,400.

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1,450. It all helps. 1,500.

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And another 50. At 1,500 I'm bid here. Try me again, sir.

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At £1,500 I'm bid here. At 1,500.

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Who else is in now? At £1,500. Are you sure?

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I shall sell it. The hammer is up. On commission then, at £1,500...

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-Sold!

-Not bad, eh? What are you going to put all that money towards?

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-Go on a train journey to Austria.

-Oh, are you?

-Oh, how romantic!

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This particular vase sold very well indeed, partly because of the

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pattern, which is relatively rare, so a very choice collector's piece.

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It was a nice size and the pattern suited the shape

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and the condition was great.

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Yes, Beryl's vase certainly had a lot going for it,

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especially the name Moorcroft, whose items always do the business.

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There are of course other pioneering potters. Take Clarice Cliff,

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she was a leading businesswoman whose Jazz Age designs

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bucked the trend.

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Today there's a huge market for her work

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and we see many pieces on the show.

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-The magic name of Clarice Cliff.

-Absolutely.

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Which is so desirable and so collectable.

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Clarice Cliff is an old Flog It! favourite.

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If you're eager to become a Clarice Cliff collector,

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get to know your subject. When buying always check condition.

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This is key. But it's also worth researching the pattern.

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I've never seen this in this blue colour before.

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You'd normally see this colour in reds and greens.

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Clarice Cliff always does well at auction,

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but some of her rarer designs can fly.

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2,200.

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Gosh, this is rare! They know something we don't know, Philip.

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2,600. 2,700.

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2,800.

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Are we all done at £2,700?

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Hammer's gone down. What a wonderful moment. £2,700!

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What a result!

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But it isn't just the great designers like Clarice Cliff

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who demonstrated a pioneering spirit.

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It was also the merchants who sold their wares.

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In 1875 a new London emporium opened its doors.

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It quickly became known for its eclectic and cutting-edge stock.

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Arthur Lasenby set up Liberty's, which was a quite new

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and innovative type of department store at that time.

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And his association with the finest craftsmen

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and artists of the day certainly showed in the goods that he sold.

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He wanted to sell things which were, erm, innovative.

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The most exciting goods, the best quality goods.

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They are made of pewter and the pewter is hand-hammered.

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They have these asymmetric squares on them

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and we have the little enamelled medallions in the middle.

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So they are aesthetically pleasing.

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If we look on the back, we can see that these are called Tudric.

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Tudric was the name for the Arts And Crafts pewter

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that was made for Liberty & Company.

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We had all sorts of boxes.

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We had we had frames of clocks, Arts And Crafts, Art Nouveau -

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these were the themes, the feeling that these items had.

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-Where did you get them?

-Well, they belong to my son, really.

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-I'm just bringing them in on his behalf.

-Where did he get them?

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-I believe he got them at a boot sale.

-A car boot story, I love them!

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How much did you pay for them?

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Not a lot, knowing my son.

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Probably under a tenner, I'd think.

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I would put an auction estimate on these of £60-£80.

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They may do more than that.

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We do have a pair and they do have the Tudric name on them.

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Anita was confident that the car boot napkins were going to

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make a good return on their money.

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What did auctioneer Claire Rawle think?

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I love it if something has Liberty on it because you know it is

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going to appeal across the board and is going to make good money.

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That name is just so popular.

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And this one I have to start away at £100.

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-At 100.

-Wow.

-At 100. Do I see 110 in the room? At £100.

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110. 120. 130. The bid is in the room now at £130.

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At £130. Are you all done? Selling then at 130...

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-130.

-The hammer's gone down.

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Do you know, I wish it was as easy to turn

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£4 into £130 just like that every day of the week.

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It was a good price for the napkin rings.

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I felt they made good money and it was down to the Liberty's name.

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When you see the name Liberty and Tudric on an item, you know

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that it's going to soar.

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So the next time you're trawling a car boot, jumble sale or a

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charity shop, it's definitely worth keeping an eye out for this stamp.

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But what other innovative names are worth considering?

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Well, Rene Lalique was a great pioneer in 20th-century glass-making.

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And he was widely copied as a result afterwards by other glass-makers.

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But they never managed to achieve the sort of design quality

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and the production quality that Lalique used to achieve.

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There was quite a range of glass that was produced - bowls

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and vases and, of course, car mascots.

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Sue, very nice to see you here in Hereford Cathedral.

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Has this come off one of your cars?

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Unfortunately not, because I think he would have gone on a Rolls-Royce.

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-HE LAUGHS

-Right! He's a Lalique mascot.

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He's a falcon, known as the Faucon.

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-Yes, yes.

-Designed in 1925, I believe.

-Oh, really?

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And we've got the moulded Lalique mark just there.

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What you did in those days, of course,

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you didn't just have your Rolls-Royce with your

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silver lady or whatever on the front,

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you'd get your own mascot that you fancied for your car.

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So you'd go and you say you wanted want a falcon or an eagle or a fox,

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and then you'd have that done.

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So they weren't made for specific cars,

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they were made for the people who then bought them for their cars.

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Condition, the chip to the beak,

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which obviously drastically compromises the value.

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There were often damaged, of course.

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A glass mascot on front of a car isn't going to last long,

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and I would have thought a few of them probably got pinched.

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I think in good condition, this is £500's worth.

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-I would have thought about 400-ish.

-£400-£500 in good condition.

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-But because of the chip, I'd halve it, probably.

-As much as that?

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-So 200 to 300, I'd think, is sensible.

-Really?

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-That's interesting.

-I think so.

-I would have thought less.

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-You'd have thought less?

-Yes.

-Less than 200?

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Well, that's what I'd just guessed.

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Well, I figure 200 to 300 is a sensible guide on it.

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There's a huge demand for all sorts of Lalique,

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especially the early Lalique, and especially car mascots, actually.

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But I'm acutely aware of the fact that any damage -

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particularly on a piece of glass, that can't be restored, it can't

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be made good, it's always going to have that chip on its beak -

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I thought that would drastically reduce the price.

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Was Adam right? Time to find out.

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-I'm bid £500.

-That's a good start.

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At £500 only.

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At 520.

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-Twice the price already!

-£520 only.

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520.

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550 on the telephone. 580.

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On the net, 580.

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-That's the beauty of auctions, isn't it?

-Two people or more...

-Exactly.

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600 on the telephone.

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620 on the net. 650. 680.

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700.

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£700 only, on the telephone.

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720.

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At £720...

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On the net at 720.

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Is there any more?

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£720 and done...

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-Thank you.

-It's made its money. 720.

0:18:290:18:32

It was damaged. Um...

0:18:320:18:34

But I'm not surprised it made what it did

0:18:340:18:36

just because of the strong areas of collecting.

0:18:360:18:39

-That's fabulous, Sue.

-I'd have got 700-800 if it was perfect.

-That's fabulous.

0:18:390:18:44

I never thought it would make anything like that.

0:18:440:18:46

Indeed, I had undercooked the estimate.

0:18:460:18:49

Partridge values falcon too low.

0:18:490:18:52

We are quite familiar with the work of Rene Lalique on Flog It!

0:18:530:18:56

And often we see high prices realised at auction.

0:18:560:18:59

But Sue's car mascot, that took us all completely by surprise.

0:18:590:19:03

It had double the appeal.

0:19:030:19:05

The Lalique collectors were fighting it out

0:19:050:19:08

with the car mascot enthusiasts.

0:19:080:19:10

And there really is a huge market out there for the rarer designs.

0:19:100:19:14

In 2011 a Rene Lalique mascot of a fox sold for around £125,000.

0:19:150:19:22

And if you're interested in pioneering makers like Lalique,

0:19:220:19:26

what should you be aware of?

0:19:260:19:29

Never underestimate the value of a good name.

0:19:290:19:31

It can increase the worth of a collectable exponentially.

0:19:310:19:34

Incredible! £440.

0:19:340:19:36

-Angela, that's wonderful!

-Thank you so much, that's great.

0:19:360:19:40

If you're investing in pieces from one of the leading potteries,

0:19:400:19:43

consider shape, colour and rarity of pattern

0:19:430:19:46

to find a winner.

0:19:460:19:49

And always think out of the box.

0:19:490:19:51

It's not only the designers' names you should keep an eye out for.

0:19:510:19:55

The association with an innovative retailer like Liberty

0:19:550:19:58

can help a collectible soar.

0:19:580:20:00

Liberty never revealed the names of its designers,

0:20:060:20:09

but between 1899 and 1912,

0:20:090:20:12

there was one prolific artist on its books whose work was so distinctive,

0:20:120:20:16

his name just couldn't be kept secret.

0:20:160:20:20

It's made by Liberty and the famous designer Archibald Knox

0:20:200:20:24

and when you put those two names together,

0:20:240:20:26

-of course it's a very, very collectible field.

-Yeah.

0:20:260:20:29

The nice thing with Knox's work is it's very different.

0:20:290:20:33

You can see in his designs almost immediately

0:20:330:20:36

if it's an Archibald Knox piece, the way it's organic,

0:20:360:20:40

the enamelling is wonderful,

0:20:400:20:41

you get a very rich texture in the enamelling,

0:20:410:20:45

which is very appealing and which, of course,

0:20:450:20:47

adds a lot of value to the pieces.

0:20:470:20:50

And when Knox collectibles come up for sale,

0:20:500:20:53

they achieve great prices.

0:20:530:20:55

All done at £430? Any advance on 430? 430.

0:20:550:21:00

They've done it, £430. That'll do you, won't it?

0:21:000:21:03

Oh, yeah, champion, there.

0:21:030:21:04

Archibald Knox was born on the Isle of Man in 1864.

0:21:070:21:11

At a young age, he joined the newly-opened Douglas School of Art,

0:21:110:21:15

where he developed a lifelong interest in Celtic design.

0:21:150:21:18

His creative talent blossomed

0:21:200:21:22

and he designed a huge range of both ornamental

0:21:220:21:25

and utilitarian objects - clocks, jewellery,

0:21:250:21:28

tea sets, boxes, garden ornaments,

0:21:280:21:31

ink wells, carpets, fabrics and even gravestones.

0:21:310:21:35

His work at Liberty made him a household name.

0:21:360:21:39

He was one of their leading designers,

0:21:390:21:41

creating items for its Pewter Tudric range

0:21:410:21:44

and the Cymric range, made from precious metals.

0:21:440:21:47

Knox's sense of his Celtic ancestry can be seen in the stylised knots

0:21:470:21:52

decorating many of his wares.

0:21:520:21:54

These were often intertwined with flowering Art Nouveau motifs.

0:21:540:21:58

What I particularly like about it

0:21:580:21:59

are these little sort of Art Nouveau, heart-shaped roundels here,

0:21:590:22:03

which are rather nice.

0:22:030:22:04

So what do you need to know if you're interested

0:22:050:22:09

in collecting items by Archibald Knox?

0:22:090:22:11

Get to know your subject.

0:22:110:22:13

Although Knox's Liberty pieces weren't signed,

0:22:130:22:16

his designs often shout his name, but if in doubt,

0:22:160:22:19

look at a pattern number,

0:22:190:22:21

which can be related to a known book of Knox designs.

0:22:210:22:24

When considering one of Knox's silver items from the Cymric range,

0:22:250:22:30

check for a clear hallmark

0:22:300:22:32

and make sure the item hasn't been altered or isn't a cast copy.

0:22:320:22:37

Pewter is far softer than silver,

0:22:370:22:39

so with Knox's items from the Tudric range,

0:22:390:22:42

consider the clarity of the design and the original patination.

0:22:420:22:46

You should also take into account

0:22:460:22:48

any wear to the pattern from over-polishing.

0:22:480:22:51

If you're only going to invest in one Knox collectible,

0:22:510:22:55

then his clock cases in either silver or pewter

0:22:550:22:58

are a timeless favourite,

0:22:580:23:00

especially those which incorporate enamels into the decorative scheme.

0:23:000:23:04

Pioneers work across all areas of society, not just in design.

0:23:100:23:14

In mid-19th century Rochdale,

0:23:160:23:18

the Industrial Revolution brought benefits but also misery,

0:23:180:23:22

with long working hours, low pay, grinding poverty and hunger.

0:23:220:23:26

But those desperate living conditions

0:23:280:23:30

proved to be a force for good.

0:23:300:23:32

Back in 2007, I went to find out more.

0:23:320:23:35

A radical group of young men who, appalled at what they saw,

0:23:360:23:39

decided to offer the people of Rochdale an alternative,

0:23:390:23:42

a different way to feed their families and a chance

0:23:420:23:45

to escape the appalling poverty

0:23:450:23:47

and the conditions that most of them faced.

0:23:470:23:50

These young men were called the Rochdale Pioneers

0:23:500:23:53

and it was here 160 years ago

0:23:530:23:56

that their story began, right here in Toad Lane.

0:23:560:24:01

In fact, this building,

0:24:010:24:02

number 31, is regarded as the home of the Co-op.

0:24:020:24:06

This is where the Co-op began.

0:24:060:24:09

Let's go in.

0:24:090:24:11

So who were the men who started the Co-op, the Rochdale Pioneers?

0:24:140:24:18

Well, I've come to find out

0:24:180:24:20

and I'm here to meet the Co-op's historian, Dorothy Greaves.

0:24:200:24:23

-Hello, Dorothy.

-Hello.

-Thank you so much for talking to me today.

0:24:230:24:26

Where did it all start and why?

0:24:260:24:29

Well, it started because of the absolute poverty in this area.

0:24:290:24:33

People were starving because wages had gone right down from, say,

0:24:330:24:37

up to £2 a week to five shillings, six and ninepence.

0:24:370:24:40

When you had eight children, six and ninepence didn't go very far.

0:24:400:24:44

Of course, shop keepers used to adulterate their food

0:24:440:24:46

to make more profit.

0:24:460:24:47

What, give the wrong weights and the wrong measures?

0:24:470:24:50

They put sand in the oatmeal,

0:24:500:24:51

plaster of Paris and chalk in the flour,

0:24:510:24:54

-brown earth in the cocoa.

-Really?!

-Leaves from the trees in the tea.

0:24:540:24:58

And, of course, they put the blobs of lead on the back of the scales.

0:24:580:25:02

Now, everybody knew the lead was there, of course they did,

0:25:020:25:05

but everybody was in debt to the shopkeepers.

0:25:050:25:08

Angered by the poverty the people of Rochdale faced,

0:25:100:25:13

the Pioneers decided to save a small amount of their wages each week

0:25:130:25:17

so they could start their own co-operative shop.

0:25:170:25:20

They got £28 together and started looking for an empty shop

0:25:210:25:25

and then they came across this building.

0:25:250:25:27

So then it was a question of, "Right, lads, what's next?"

0:25:270:25:30

"Ee, well, we better do summat wit' t'walls."

0:25:300:25:33

"What about a counter?"

0:25:330:25:34

"I think a few planks and two barrels will do it."

0:25:350:25:38

-Incredible, isn't it?

-And then they bought some scales.

0:25:380:25:40

No lead on these scales. This was an honest co-operative, of course.

0:25:400:25:44

So tell me about the very first opening day.

0:25:440:25:48

-What happened?

-That was a red-letter night.

0:25:480:25:50

-Oh, a night?

-Oh, indeed.

0:25:500:25:51

Yes, don't forget these men had to do their own jobs during the day.

0:25:510:25:54

They couldn't give their jobs up,

0:25:540:25:56

so they were supposed to open at seven o'clock,

0:25:560:25:58

but there was such a big crowd waiting outside making such a noise,

0:25:580:26:01

all the cheeky doffers from the mill shouting,

0:26:010:26:03

"Come on, when are you going to open?"

0:26:030:26:05

"Hurry up, what are you selling?"

0:26:050:26:06

"Come on, it's dark, it's cold! Come on!"

0:26:060:26:08

All that noise made these men nervous.

0:26:080:26:10

The three anxious Pioneers in the shop that night were

0:26:110:26:15

James Smithies, Billy Cooper and Sam Ashworth.

0:26:150:26:18

Seven o'clock came and went, got to ten to eight, still haven't opened.

0:26:180:26:22

James said, "Come on, you lads, who's going to open the door?"

0:26:220:26:26

"Oh, no," they go.

0:26:260:26:29

So he went round and he opened the door wide.

0:26:290:26:32

There was such a rush forward from outside to see what was happening.

0:26:320:26:35

They heard so many stories, but what do they see?

0:26:350:26:38

This tiny dark room.

0:26:380:26:40

Just a few flickering candles.

0:26:400:26:42

Nine sacks on the floor.

0:26:420:26:44

And a bit of butter on the end of the counter.

0:26:440:26:46

One or two ladies walked in, then they walked out.

0:26:460:26:50

Then an old lady walked in and she asked for sugar.

0:26:500:26:54

And that was the very first sale here.

0:26:540:26:57

They went on to have a lovely evening and actually took five shillings and fourpence.

0:26:570:27:01

-I mean, how great can you get?

-Yeah, history was made.

-Indeed.

0:27:010:27:04

It said, they hopped and skipped down Toad Lane just after midnight,

0:27:040:27:07

thrilled to bits that they had opened their honest co-operative shop.

0:27:070:27:12

So what happened when the group realised this was a roaring success?

0:27:120:27:17

One of the big things they did was to decide that

0:27:170:27:20

2.5% of their profits would to go education.

0:27:200:27:23

-They realised knowledge is power.

-It is.

0:27:230:27:26

So they actually had a school for their members upstairs.

0:27:260:27:28

They did so many things.

0:27:280:27:29

And then, eventually they decided, let's have a nice big department store."

0:27:290:27:33

So by 1867, they bought a piece of land higher up Toad Lane

0:27:330:27:38

and they built a magnificent department store.

0:27:380:27:41

What an inspirational story.

0:27:440:27:46

The Rochdale Pioneers proved what can be achieved

0:27:460:27:49

when people come together and work for a common cause.

0:27:490:27:52

The world of antiques would be a poorer place

0:28:000:28:03

without the talent and vision of those rare individuals

0:28:030:28:06

whose pioneering approach pushed the boundaries of their craft.

0:28:060:28:11

-Oh!

-Not bad, eh?!

0:28:110:28:14

And there's little doubt

0:28:140:28:16

that the astonishingly innovative work they produce

0:28:160:28:19

will continue to be sought after for many more years to come.

0:28:190:28:24

Well, that's it for today's show.

0:28:240:28:26

I hope you've enjoyed it, so go out there, buy some antiques,

0:28:260:28:29

have some fun and put some of this knowledge to good use.

0:28:290:28:32

And see you next time for more Trade Secrets.

0:28:320:28:34

The Trade Secrets team take a look at the work of pioneering designers and craftsmen, and Paul Martin unravels the story of the co-operative movement's early days.