A look at crime and punishment in modern Britain. Louise Minchin and Gethin Jones chart the changes in crime, criminals, police and prisons over the last 60 years.
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On Crime And Punishment, a crackdown on kerb crawling...
A silver Citroen we're looking for.
He's picked up a sex worker.
And the eureka moment that released one man from jail
and put another behind bars.
Hello and welcome to Crime And Punishment,
the show that explores the changes in policing and prisons
throughout the Queen's reign.
I'm here at Bristol Prison. Later on I'll be finding out
how modern science is able to put men behind bars
who committed crimes half a century ago.
And I'm at Birmingham Central Police Station.
Like all big cities, there's an ongoing concern with prostitution.
It's a dangerous game.
Since 1990, more than 70 women have been killed
working the streets of Britain.
There's nothing new about prostitution.
Women have always sold their bodies.
Throughout history, prostitutes have endured abuse and violence on a daily basis.
Occasionally, this brutality reaches levels that attract the headlines.
In the 19th century, Jack the Ripper brutally killed 11 prostitutes
in the East End of London.
In 1975, it was Peter Sutcliffe,
who became known as the Yorkshire Ripper,
when he began his terrifying murder spree.
It ended six years later with 13 women dead,
most of them prostitutes.
And in 2006, the Ipswich murderer Steve Wright killed five women,
all of them prostitutes.
They're both serving life sentences.
It's not against the law to be a prostitute,
but the 1956 Sexual Offences Act
made it an offence to solicit sex on the street or to kerb-crawl.
There's no city in Britain that doesn't have its share of prostitutes.
Residents of Walsall, six miles from the centre of Birmingham,
have been complaining about sex workers on the streets for 20 years.
Since Sergeant Richard Jacques started policing Walsall four years ago,
he's been making life very uncomfortable for the men who use them.
It tends to mirror all sections of society.
We've stopped solicitors, barristers, unemployed people.
It just seems strange to me
that people will travel the distance to seek the services of a sex worker
and run the risk of getting caught,
because there's every chance you will get caught.
Richard knows only too well the danger to the girls on the street.
We have had attacks on sex workers,
including rapes and some very serious assaults.
The vast majority of the time, these go unreported.
The sex workers themselves, the vast majority are drug users.
It tends to be crack and or heroin.
A more noticeable trend is also the use of alcohol.
I don't think there's any girl out there
that is loitering for the purpose of prostitution because they want to.
So, why do they do it?
Tracey Gibbs runs Hi's N Lows, a Walsall-based charity
that aims to help addicts and sex workers.
The girls live with varying degrees of violence.
And in a lot of instances,
the girls take risks that you just can't imagine
because you or me wouldn't take those risks.
However, they've got no choice.
They've got to take the risks they take.
Tonight in Walsall, Richard and his team
target the kerb-crawlers who are roaming his patch.
A call soon comes through.
Richard's working with traffic cop Abbi Jones.
A silver Citroen we're looking for.
He's picked up a sex worker.
Erm... So we've got the offence.
Yes, we're not far away now. Are you happy for the stop?
Plain-clothes officers watching the vehicle
continuously feed information to Richard.
The officer that picked the vehicle is going through an allotment area.
We're just going to stop back a little bit to see where it goes.
They need to keep the car in sight, but not to spook the driver.
It's good information for us.
Left, left, left, is it?
Spin it round and we'll go for the strike, I think.
They've got him. There's no escape for this kerb-crawler,
but a successful arrest will depend on what they have to say for themselves.
CAR HORN BEEPS
Blood spots, fibres and hair were the microscopic clues
that led to the conviction of Gary Dobson and David Norris
for the murder of Stephen Lawrence.
The key pieces of evidence linked the killers to the murder using DNA technology.
DNA, the unique code of genetic material that identifies us all,
was only discovered in the mid '80s,
but now its use has transformed crime scene investigations around the world.
It's 1983. Leicestershire Police have found the body
of missing 15-year-old Lynda Mann.
She's been raped and murdered.
Three years on, and another teenager from the same school, Dawn Ashworth,
has been found murdered in a nearby village.
Her father and the police suspect the killer of both girls lives in the community.
I believe that whoever did it...
..is living a double life.
For them to be able to commit an act like that
and then just carry on as normal,
which they have done, apparently,
there must be something wrong with them.
A local man has confessed to killing Dawn Ashworth,
but the police have no evidence to link him to either murder.
They turn to science for an answer.
It was a call out of the blue saying, "We've heard about DNA.
"Could I possibly use this weird stuff
"to look at a very serious local double-murder case,
"involving two young schoolgirls, both raped and murdered?"
They had semen evidence recovered from both victims
and a young man who confessed to one of the two murders.
The police were pretty sure that whoever committed the second murder,
in other words, the man who confessed, also committed the first.
They requested I look at the forensic evidence using DNA,
confirm the guilt with respect to the second murder
and see if I could tie this person into the first murder, as well.
DNA profiling was a new science in 1986.
Alec Jeffreys and his team had pioneered a way of identifying a unique genetic fingerprint
from blood and bodily fluids.
They are patterns obtained on x-ray film.
These patterns look rather like a barcode.
The pattern consists of a series of bands or stripes,
each band or stripe being a genetic character.
The pattern is extremely variable from one person to the next.
The pattern is completely individual-specific, with the sole exception of identical twins.
They, and only they, have the same DNA fingerprint.
Also, rather usefully, and unlike ordinary fingerprints,
these DNA fingerprints are inherited in a very simple fashion.
Back then, Alec Jeffreys had no idea
his breakthrough would revolutionise crime detection.
Nobody had ever tackled a murder investigation using DNA,
so I took it on with very considerable caution.
Alec Jeffreys' results surprised everyone
and on paper, they're clear to see.
This DNA profile is from the first victim, her DNA,
and two additional bands here, that's the profile from the semen of the assailant.
DNA profile from the second victim.
And then trace semen samples, recovered from that second victim,
showing a very faint two-band profile.
Not much DNA. Faint profile.
But that profile is very similar to the profile of semen from the first victim.
The police were right in their suspicion.
The same man had almost certainly raped and murdered both of these girls.
This is the DNA profile from the young man who confessed to the second murder.
A complete and utter mismatch to the semen profile seen from both of the victims.
The result was conclusive. The lead suspect, Richard Buckland, was not the killer.
DNA had saved him from a life behind bars.
It was a serious blow to the police, who genuinely thought they had their man.
I remember when I phoned the police with the first result.
Their reaction was decidedly Anglo-Saxon, and understandably.
The investigation may have stalled, but the police still believed the murderer was a local man.
They decided to trust in the new DNA technology for their next move.
They then asked voluntarily for blood samples
from all men aged between 17 and 35 in the local community.
It was over 5,000 people.
Virtually the whole lot came forward and volunteered a blood sample.
Of course, the last few,
the social pressure on them was considerable to come forward.
The upshot of that was, they couldn't find the perpetrator.
The investigation was the talk of the community
but the murderer still hadn't been found.
What they didn't know was that the killer was local.
He lived in a neighbouring village and worked in a bakery in Leicester.
He'd managed to evade the police investigation with a simple yet clever ruse.
It turned out that the perpetrator, Colin Pitchfork,
had persuaded a colleague of his to switch blood samples.
So Pitchfork almost got away with it.
It was only when someone overheard a conversation in a pub
describing this deception
and reported back to the police, that the case broke open.
Colin Pitchfork was charged with the murder in September 1987.
He pleaded guilty to both murders and was sentenced to life imprisonment.
His conviction was the first in the world to rely on DNA evidence.
DNA profiling, within a year, had become the gold-standard technology.
It went right the way round the world.
The FBI and the New Zealand Police were implementing it,
the Royal Canadian Mounted Police were getting the technology up and running.
I've no idea how many people have been DNA-profiled worldwide.
It's definitely more than 30 million.
I would guess probably nearer 50 million.
So the impact of DNA has been absolutely dramatic
to an extent that I would never have predicted.
It's been very exciting. Quite a roller-coaster ride.
Michelle, we're in this cell because what we're about to discuss
is quite sensitive within the prison.
There is an ageing population now behind the bars.
Why is that?
I think it's all down to DNA.
We have historic cases now,
meaning that the crimes were committed 20, 25 years ago,
and with the help of DNA,
we can prove that these prisoners are guilty of such crimes as rape.
So some people think they've got away with a crime
that they committed 20 to 25 years ago.
They're told that they're guilty and they're put into prison.
What reaction do you get from them?
I would say that most of them are either in complete denial,
they've also thought that they've got away with this crime,
and there would be a majority that have forgotten the crime
due to their age.
You've got illnesses of senility, so you know...
I know of only one that I dealt with that actually said to me,
"I've always waited for this to come back and bite me."
-All the others I have dealt with are denying it.
They've never said they're guilty.
And which prison are they in? Do they share a wing with everyone else?
I know it's a bit like a revolving door here, prisoners come in and go out.
Do they share the same cells or wings as maybe an 18, 19 year old?
Yes. The wing itself will house 18 year olds and upwards.
This is another thing that's quite daunting for them,
because an 18-year-old boy or man is quite loud,
and we're dealing with anything between 65 and 80.
We've an 80 year old.
I mean, if they're guilty, then they come to prison.
To mix those two is quite hard,
so they're all housed in what we call a Safer Custody Unit.
-Do you have children yourself?
How do you deal with that? How do you deal with these people
who have maybe offended with young children?
-How do you deal with that yourself?
In most cases, I never look to see what a prisoner's in for.
Obviously, if it's a big case, you can't help it.
But my job is looking after the prisoner when they're in prison
and making sure that we support them
and help them with their sentence.
So I try to do that to the best I can.
And you've done your job so well that you are a past National Prison Officer of the Year?
-That's right, yes.
-What did you win the award for?
For helping elderly prisoners that come in for the first time
and trying to initiate them into prison life.
In Bristol, the police, probation and prison authorities
have pioneered a new approach to crime
which is transforming the lives of the city's residents.
We need to clarify things. Because you made off from the vehicle,
-I suspect you stole it.
I'm arresting you on suspicion of theft,
failing to stop at a road traffic accident,
-and suspicion of money laundering.
This is for us to speak to you in interview and find out where this money's from.
The crackdown on crime begins on the streets around Bristol Prison.
One of the main aims of this approach
is to stop phone and drug trafficking into the prison.
Traffic cops, unmarked vehicles,
stop-and-search specialists and dog and drug sensor teams
have combined with prison officers to arrest any individuals who may be part of the problem.
Today is about telling everybody and showing all our cards -
"This is what we're going to throw at you."
Today's operation is part of a large scheme called "IMPACT".
And that's exactly what it's been doing to the criminal fraternity - hitting them hard.
We will go home tonight, and the Prison Service will go home,
with the certainty that no drugs or phones have been taken into prison.
This man was chased by the Traffic Unit.
He crashed his car and then fled on foot.
Is there any drugs in the vehicle?
-I don't smoke. I play football!
As he ran, the man had chance to offload any illicit items.
He denies any dealings with drugs,
but Troy's highly sensitive nose will soon see if he's telling the truth.
-Have you got any drugs on you at the moment?
The dog just said you have.
Troy has found him out.
Although arrests are happening on the street,
this operation is all about the prison.
If we're not stopping drugs in prison,
what that means is, when the offenders come back out,
having been rehabilitated,
they go back to a life of crime. That cannot be right.
By working closely with the prison, sharing intelligence,
we create an environment where rehabilitation can start
and when they come out, they stand a chance of being crime-free.
I've got a drugs marker going past Cambridge Road, inbound.
Pulling out from the left is an unmarked police car.
It's now in a position to stop this Nissan safely.
Hi. Do you want to just step out the vehicle, please?
The occupants and their car are searched.
Even the steering wheel is swabbed for any trace.
The red in here indicates that it's detected drugs.
On this one here, it's detected THC, which is levels of cannabis.
He'll be taken to the station under the Misuse of Drugs Act.
On the concourse to the prison itself, visitors are searched.
Once inside, there's another line of defence
with hand-swabbing and more sniffer dogs.
IMPACT was set up three years ago to reduce crime
by breaking the cycle of reoffending.
All the agencies focus their resources together onto prolific criminals,
whether they're in prison or back in the community.
The offenders are given a lot of help to go straight,
but if they show signs of reverting to crime,
they're faced with the full force of the law.
The scheme is credited with impressive results.
In the last two years, burglary alone has dropped by a third.
Later, we'll be out with the police again
to see how they manage to prevent ex-prisoners from reoffending.
Back to the streets of Walsall now,
where girls as young as 15
are regularly going out as prostitutes.
Richard Jacques and his team are about to pounce on a kerb-crawler
who's picked up a sex worker.
They've pulled into a quiet lane, completely unaware that they've got company.
-How are you doing? Just come into our vehicle.
-No problem, mate.
HE SPEAKS INTO RADIO
Whilst Abbi deals with the kerb- crawler, Richard talks to the girl.
What's the sketch with this?
When was the last time you were arrested?
OK. What was the agreement? What did he offer you?
OK. What did he want?
I know, but I'm asking. What did he want? Have you seen him before?
You took a risk, didn't you?
Is there any drugs in the car?
I didn't say you. Don't worry. Don't get upset.
The girl gives Richard all the information he needs.
She's a known sex worker.
Very shortly, he'll be arrested.
She understands what she's done.
This gent will understand what he's done.
He's sat in the back of our car.
Very shortly, he'll understand he's made a really big mistake tonight.
Back at his own car, Richard is about to make it crystal clear to him.
The other thing for yourself to think about is,
do you think she's here, doing what she's doing, because she wants to?!
Police officers search his car for any drugs or weapons.
These days, technology allows the police to run checks on anyone they stop,
and when Abbi runs this man's name through the system,
it turns up even more bad news for our kerb-crawler.
-He's only got a provisional licence, which has expired anyway.
They've got something to speak to you about.
I'll make sure you get the paperwork.
Just to let you know, this gent is about to be arrested.
He hasn't got a full substantive licence for his vehicle.
He's not driving with L-plates, thus, his insurance will be void,
so his vehicle will be seized, as well.
A bad night for him.
He's going to be walking home.
His car will be taken to the pound
and he will be bailed to attend Walsall Police Station.
The sex worker has also been bailed. She'll be charged with soliciting.
She's come to no harm this time, but tomorrow could be a different story.
I don't say for one minute that he is a particular risk.
There's nothing within the vehicle that indicates that.
However, what I can't say is,
the next person could have a knife, the next person could beat her.
Why people choose to take that risk, I can't understand it.
Please don't do it.
But the operation is not over yet.
While they wait for the recovery truck, another call comes in.
The car cruising the red-light district has gone up a dead end.
The officer's having a look to see if he picks up the known sex worker.
The likelihood is that he'll drive some distance away
and wait for her to walk towards the vehicle.
We'll see later if Richard Jacques' patience pays off.
It's 7am in Bristol.
PC Danny Toogood is preparing his vehicle for a series of raids on ex-prisoners
who are suspected of reoffending.
We make sure the cars have got door-entry kit,
door-ram ladders for getting in through windows
so we can save money without forcing a door.
We've got a snapper and a hydraulic system, as well,
should we come up against anything, like UPVC doors.
He's working in a focus team that is part of a countrywide scheme called IMPACT,
designed to manage the rehabilitation of prolific criminals.
We're off to an address in Fishponds.
There's a young lady who is an IMPACT-managed offender.
She's got previous convictions for burglary, robbery.
The court decided they would give her a tag to curfew.
In her infinite wisdom,
she felt that to comply with that curfew wasn't an option,
so we're going to lock her up for breaching her bail conditions.
We've got someone looking, so fingers crossed.
It's the police! Open the door!
If an ex-prisoner's on the scheme,
he or she is monitored by all the agencies.
Morning. You're under arrest for breaching your tag curfew.
Police, probation, prison, housing, health, employment and volunteer sectors
all know how the offender is behaving.
If the offender has failed to attend an appointment,
within ten minutes, we know
and my colleagues will be out looking for them
and nudging them back on the pathways they need to pursue to rehabilitate themselves.
Danny's team have got their first catch of the day.
They are the stick in a carrot-and-stick approach.
Offenders are given help with their issues, such as drugs rehab, housing or employment,
but the minute they veer back into crime, the police are onto them.
We're off to an address in Easton.
This chap is a red-IMPACT offender,
heavily committing crime at the minute.
He's currently wanted for burglary, where property has been taken
and he's been forensically linked.
We're going to pay him a visit and give him the good news.
OFFICERS BANG ON DOOR
Wakey-wakey! Police! Open the door!
Many offenders that commit these types of crime
receive very short sentences.
They come out of prison
no better equipped to manage in the community than before.
In fact, if anything, there's a likelihood they come out
feeling possibly more resentful towards society.
So we're releasing people into the community who are very likely,
and all the statistics show, to commit further offences.
Police! Open the door because it's going to go in!
-We will force entry!
-Stand clear of the door!
What we can do is actually work with those offenders
both during their sentence and on release
to ensure that when they come out,
they are coming out into as stable an environment as we can create with them
and address those issues that are likely to lead them into offending.
Hiding under the bed!
-Car over the road.
-Car over the road, please.
Being on the IMPACT scheme is no soft option for a criminal.
One of the reasons it's so effective - there's nowhere for them to hide.
We have that offender in view all the time,
whether they're in prison, the community, the police station
and all agencies have that information.
So the moment they stray out of line, life becomes uncomfortable and almost claustrophobic.
Our experience is that some offenders give up their offending
because of the sheer relentlessness of how they're managed.
Nathan has spent 15 years in and out of prison.
He's due for release again, but this time as part of IMPACT.
We'll see later what happens.
WHISTLE BLOWS In the 1950s,
a whistle was the only way a copper could raise the alarm.
Things have changed a lot. Gary, are you all right?
-You're ready to go, aren't you?
If you see something happening, what's the first thing you do?
Speak on the radio and tell the control room what you can see.
-And they can talk to you through your earpiece.
-People won't hear what's said.
-It keeps it confidential.
Run us through the kit. It's pretty sophisticated.
You've got your radio, stab vest,
which protects me if anybody comes at me with a sharp article,
you've got your handcuffs, which everybody knows about,
-a Casco, which is...
-What we would've called a truncheon.
-It would've been a truncheon, yes, years ago.
-A first-aid kit, CS spray.
Erm, torch, in case you go into anything that's really dark,
and obviously your boots and hat. There's quite a lot to carry.
-What's the most useful piece of kit?
-What, for simply writing things down?
-That's brilliant. Thanks.
Let's go back to the police now in Walsall,
who are cracking down on kerb-crawling.
Sergeant Richard Jacques is heading towards a car
whose driver has just picked up a known sex worker.
They've been spotted by one of his team, who radios the information through.
They must be careful not to alert him.
We're going to give the gent a bit of space,
see if he gets some more courage up.
If they see a police car, they may abort what they're doing.
But this guy's not been put off.
"The vehicle's pulled into Morrisons' car park, possibly the cash point."
That's interesting. We'll let it run.
He's maybe getting money for what he's trying to do.
What's happened is, we see this quite a lot,
the vehicle, that has a sex worker with it now,
has gone to a cash point.
Erm... It quite often does this.
Sometimes there's a negotiation in terms of price
and the gent might not have enough on him.
So we're suspecting that's what's happened.
He's coming in! He's coming in!
-"..into the car park opposite Morrisons."
They've just come out. Right, lights off.
If they'd stopped where they was, I'd have got him. He's pulling up.
He's pulling up for sex now. There we go.
Always a minute.
It's a go-go.
Where have you gone? Sneaky. Sneaky.
Got to be. Come on, where are you?!
-Dear, oh, dear.
-Hello, mate. How are you doing?
What are you doing here?
Well, we was, er, in the middle of, er, kissing.
Kissing. OK. Just take your keys out your vehicle.
-If you want to come out -
-GIRL: Can I get dressed first?
-Why do you need to get dressed?
Because your trousers are off. OK. If you come out...
Out you come, then, mate.
Just have a sit in the back of our vehicle. Just have a sit down.
He's actually a familiar face to us, so, er,
I can almost certainly say this will end in arrest.
We'll just see if he's got anything in the vehicle that shouldn't be.
I'm just going to search the boot and his belongings,
just to check that there's nothing of interest to ourselves
in relation to drugs or any other...
The 19-year-old woman in the car
has been a sex worker since she was 15.
To them, it's a job.
It's a way of earning the money they need
to be able to live and survive.
It's quite often the only thing they know.
For a lot of the girls, they've been victims of abuse in their early years
or they've grew up experiencing abuse.
So for them, it's just normal.
Tracey's charity, Hi's N Lows,
will take care of this young woman so she's safe for the night.
But it could've been a completely different story.
The man she was with has a criminal record
and is already on the Sex Offenders Register.
For now, he's been arrested and bailed.
Are you using the motorway or the A roads?
-Er, the A roads.
-You're using the A roads.
OK, we'll make sure you get safely out of the, er, area.
-It's not a good place to come to, Walsall, is it?
If you're going to break the law,
-it's not a good place to break the law in.
You have broken the law and we've witnessed it.
You might think it's acceptable. I don't think it is.
OK. Please leave Walsall as quick as you can.
Do not come back, other than to answer your bail.
It's a great stop in terms of we've managed to, er,
get to that girl before any more, what I say is a form of abuse.
It's a young person. She doesn't want to be out working.
She's forced into working due to a drug habit.
I do honestly believe that she's vulnerable
and it's nice that we're able to offer her some form of support with our partner agencies.
The kerb-crawler gives him more cause for concern.
We will look at the possibility of trying to have his current order
to see if there's any variations
to keep him out of the red-light district of Walsall.
Unfortunately for him, I know him, my team knows him,
and I'll do everything I possibly can
to try and keep him out of this area.
"Sorry, you're not welcome within the Borough of Walsall."
So 25 years after the Yorkshire Ripper struck,
kerb-crawlers are still causing problems for the police.
With better communication,
their chances of catching and controlling them are much improved.
For the girls who put themselves at risk to earn money on the streets,
life is not much better.
Without punters, there wouldn't be girls.
It's just a really awkward situation.
The punters are not all bad, they can't possibly be all bad,
but, however, a lot of them are.
They don't get - well, who does -
what it's like to be heroin dependent,
that the girls are doing this because they've no choice.
Their bodies are telling them they need heroin
and they've got to go out and get the money.
In jails like Bristol, prisoners are always rewarded for good behaviour.
Early parole, more visits,
or working in a privileged area like the kitchen or laundry are all up for grabs.
And as Fletcher found out in the 1970s sitcom Porridge, it's all about trust.
All right, Fletcher, don't let me catch you thieving.
-You won't what?
I won't let you catch me, Mr Mackay.
Classic stuff! Working in the kitchen is also one of the top jobs here in Bristol.
Louise has been down there.
-Hello, Mark! You're in charge here, aren't you?
Tell us a bit about this kitchen. It's very large, isn't it?
Yes, it's a big kitchen.
It serves a lot of meals, so it's got to be of a certain size.
It's quite old, by Prison Service standards,
but it serves a purpose.
We usually produce 1,900 meals a day.
Which is an enormous amount. Who helps you?
-We have 36 prisoners working.
That's usually managed by three members of staff.
The kind of things we produce,
today we've got a sauce for the vegetables
and a Szechuan sauce for pork balls.
It's for a Chinese-themed meal we're doing for Chinese New Year.
How much does it cost you to feed somebody each day?
I work on a budget of £2.03 per day and that's for three meals,
bread, tea, coffee, sugar, everything that goes in their mouth.
-Hi there, Phil.
-You teach the cooking here.
-Or oversee it.
-I oversee all these wonderful students.
-Two of them here, Adie and David.
When people first come to you, how much do they know about food?
I'd say the majority, very little.
We've got a horticulture here where we grow our own stuff.
So celery, for instance,
no-one really knows what they are when you pull them out the ground.
-So it's really difficult -
-You're going right back to basics.
-And they don't shop like we do, as such.
So we make all our own stuff.
These guys are starting their NVQs.
Adie, what do you like about working in the kitchen?
It's a good job to have. I've learnt a lot of stuff.
Like, I knew little bits about cooking, but not a lot.
But now, and also, like, because I work in the storage,
I'm managing food and stuff for the inmates
and it gives me something to get out to.
When I get out, I'll have more qualities.
And that's a responsible job, to look after all the stock.
-How are you coping with that?
-It's all right. I'm in with another lad. We get on all right.
We make sure everything's done by the end of the day.
But it's OK.
What about you, David? What did you eat before you used to work in this kitchen?
-Burgers and chips, I suppose.
-So it's learnt me quite a lot.
You made your own pastry today. What have you learnt?
We've done a quiche, a meringue,
we've done a pie, some pork pies, as well.
I wouldn't have done none of this before. It's perfect.
Enjoyable, as well.
-Is it important for you to have a job like this within the prison?
When you get back out, I want to work again,
so it's give me... it's put me in good stead.
-Adie, how much do you get paid per week to do this?
-£11 a week.
-And you work every day, do you?
-Yes, most days.
What's your favourite thing to cook?
I like cooking tuna pasta bake. I enjoy that.
-And you, David?
-I enjoy the quiches.
-There they are, they look beautiful.
-Thank you very much.
-ALL: Thank you.
Today we've been with police, probation and prison officers
as they target known criminals to stop them reoffending.
The path to the straight and narrow begins the moment they leave prison,
as Nathan is about to find out.
It's the last day of Nathan's latest stint on C-Wing.
Prisoners who have a drug addiction are placed here to help them with their rehabilitation.
I started on drugs when I was about 14,
smoking cannabis in school and that.
Outside of school...
Then, round about 15, 16,
me and all me mates started dabbling in the class-A drugs, heroin.
Er, before I knew it, it got out of hand really.
It started stealing off me mum, me family and all that.
It just started a downhill spiral from there really.
As a perpetual criminal, who's been in and out of prison many times,
Nathan is a perfect candidate for the IMPACT scheme.
When a prisoner comes out of the prison,
they come out with very little money.
They often lose their accommodation.
People in accommodation prior to their sentence
are homeless on release.
And it's very difficult for an ex-prisoner to find employment.
So somebody's starting in a very poor position.
What we know from the people we deal with in IMPACT,
often they would rather be in prison than in the community.
They commit offences so that they can go back into prison.
So what we need to ensure
is that people are being given all the right supports,
but also constraints, when they come out of prison
in order to start living a law-abiding life.
If the first day back out for a prisoner goes well,
they stand a better chance of staying away from crime in the weeks and months ahead.
Even at the gates, some prisoners have made the wrong choice
and headed straight for their dealer.
PC Rob has arrived to meet Nathan.
He and Senior Prison Officer Peter Withers
will make sure Nathan gets to his new accommodation.
-You know what's happening, don't you?
-Sound. Looking forward to it.
Well, the plan's quite simple.
We've managed to get accommodation with the Addiction Recovery Agency.
We'll take you to their head office. They will do an assessment.
-How are you feeling?
-I'm feeling all right.
I'm a bit apprehensive about it all, but...
-Well, you look well.
-Well, I've put a lot of weight on.
-Happy to engage with IMPACT?
-You know what it's about?
-Let's do it. Good.
Prisoners often lose contact with their families
and IMPACT will work hard to mend fences.
They all know it's me, but it breaks my heart.
It gets me upset just thinking about it when I'm off drugs.
When I'm on drugs, I don't care.
-You don't think about it.
-I don't care for anyone but myself.
-Two different people, aren't you?
Nathan's been given a good opportunity to start a law-abiding life.
If he shows any signs of going back to crime,
the authorities will come down on him hard.
What we know is that our workers
actually reduced crime in Bristol to a great extent
and that's what really matters.
I'm a bit worried, obviously, because I don't want to go back.
I want to go forward. I'm 30 years of age, so...
I'm looking forward of getting out and cracking on with it
and hoping for the best.
A month on and Nathan is doing well.
He's kept out of trouble and is still taking part in the IMPACT scheme.
That's it from Crime And Punishment. We'll see you next time.
Subtitles by Red Bee Media Ltd
A look at crime and punishment in modern Britain. Louise Minchin is at Birmingham City Centre Police HQ and Gethin Jones is behind the bars of Bristol Prison. In diamond jubilee year, they chart the changes in crime, criminals, police and prisons over the last 60 years. They revisit dramatic landmark cases and present hard-hitting real life stories from the city streets and prison life today.