Double Cross Secret Pakistan


Double Cross

Documentary exploring accusations made following the death of Bin Laden. Top CIA officers and Western diplomats say Pakistan's military is duping its western allies.


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Transcript


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BARACK OBAMA: 'Today, at my direction,

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'the United States launched a targeted operation in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

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'After a firefight, they killed Osama Bin Laden

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'and took custody of his body.'

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Earlier this year, America shot dead the Al-Qaeda leader

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in his hiding place in Pakistan.

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Publicly, Pakistan is one of America's closest allies,

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yet every step of the operation was kept secret from it.

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This series tells the hidden story of how, for a decade,

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Pakistan deceived America and the West...

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and was then found out.

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Unfortunately, one guy we missed, that's the number one guy.

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And so we got all the blame.

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You didn't have to be Sherlock Holmes to put the dots together.

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Pakistan was playing a double game and double-dealing us.

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It's a story that begins with the hunt for Al-Qaeda.

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I'm a native New Yorker, you know,

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I'm thinking in my heart, this is revenge.

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But it's also a story of how and why

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Pakistan continues to give secret support to the Taliban.

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First, they support us by providing a place to hide.

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Secondly, they provide us with weapons.

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Above all, it is the story of how Pakistan, a supposed ally,

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stands accused by top Western intelligence officers and diplomats

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of causing the deaths of thousands of coalition soldiers in Afghanistan.

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Deaths that continue to this day.

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We are literally seeing hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of fighters pouring in from Pakistan.

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I think it was quite clear to us that the Pakistanis were playing very much a double game.

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'The stakes here are huge.'

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GEORGE W BUSH: 'The Taliban has been given the opportunity to surrender

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'all the terrorists in Afghanistan and to close down their camps and operations.

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'Forewarning has been given and time is running out.

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'The United States is presenting a clear choice to every nation.

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'Stand with the civilised world or stand with the terrorists.

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'And for those nations that stand with the terrorists,

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'there will be a heavy price.'

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The Taliban regime ignored President Bush's threat.

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It refused to hand over Osama Bin Laden.

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My fellow Americans, let's roll.

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A month after 9/11, the United States began to bomb Afghanistan,

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from where the attacks had been planned.

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Yes!

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DISTANT EXPLOSION

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The Americans' aim was to employ their military might

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to prevent Afghanistan being used again as a terrorist base...

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..and to destroy Al-Qaeda.

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Their allies were the Northern Alliance,

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made up of local Afghan warlords,

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united by their hatred of the Taliban.

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US special forces and CIA agents

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were directing operations on the ground.

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Their commander was Gary Berntsen.

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Well, of course, for me, I'm a native New Yorker, you know.

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I'm not ashamed to say the fact that for me this was, in a way,

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I'm thinking in my heart, this is revenge.

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They have come in, they have killed our people.

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I will deliver justice to as many of these people as possible.

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We're going to dispatch them to the next world.

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EXPLOSIONS

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As the bombing intensified, some senior Taliban commanders retreated

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to the airfield at Kunduz in Northern Afghanistan.

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But they were not alone.

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Before 9/11, neighbouring Pakistan had been the Taliban's closest ally.

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Events had moved so fast,

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the Taliban still had Pakistani military advisers with them.

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Now, the Pakistanis were still secretly supporting the Taliban,

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even though they said in public they were on the Americans' side.

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What happened next in Kunduz was the first evidence

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of an audacious Pakistani double cross

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that would last a decade.

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In December of 2001, as American forces,

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American air power and the Northern Alliance on the ground

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was putting the Taliban to the knife across the country,

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one of the more difficult episodes

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that really made it very, very difficult to trust the Pakistanis

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was the Kunduz airlift.

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The Northern Alliance came to me in a fit of rage,

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stating that the Pakistani aircraft were landing in Kunduz on an airfield

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and were evacuating the Taliban.

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I actually asked Amrullah Saleh, who would later become

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the Northern Alliance chief of intelligence, so you know,

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I asked him if he was smoking hashish.

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I couldn't believe it.

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Those planes did fly in.

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The stated reason for them entering was, of course,

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to evacuate some of the military officers that had been up there,

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but the Taliban fought their way onto those planes

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and an air corridor allowed many of the leadership

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of the Taliban's northern command to be flown out of Afghanistan,

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while the rest of us were trying to destroy them.

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I was horrified by the duplicity on the Pakistanis' part.

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One of the Taliban fighters uses the name Commander Aziz.

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He's still active in the Taliban and has hidden his identity.

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He is speaking publicly for the first time.

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We saw wounded and dead everywhere.

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On the roads, in the streets.

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Everybody was escaping, chased by the enemy.

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Aziz claims to have watched

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as the Pakistani military airlifted not just their personnel,

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but also his Taliban commanders.

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I literally saw it with my own eyes.

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The programme of evacuation began around 4pm

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and went on until about 11 at night.

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The roars of the planes to take them away could be heard the entire time.

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God knows everything.

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The military planes transferred them in about ten flights.

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The problem with Pakistan is that they had deceived us in Kunduz.

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I think it demonstrated their true colours.

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In the Pakistani capital Islamabad,

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there was a hidden determination to help the Taliban live

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to fight another day.

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Two weeks before Kunduz,

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the head of Pakistan's intelligence service,

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the ISI, travelled to a secret meeting.

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General Mahmud Ahmed was one of the most powerful men

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in Pakistan's military regime.

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He had nurtured the Taliban since their rise to power.

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General Mahmud, it is claimed, told the Taliban ambassador,

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Mullah Zaeef, that whatever was said publicly,

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Pakistan and the ISI would still secretly support the Taliban.

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In the 1990s, Pakistan had helped create the Taliban

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to prevent Afghanistan falling under the influence of India,

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Pakistan's enduring enemy.

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Of course, for Pakistan, the overwhelming obsession is India.

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This eternal worry that India is using Afghanistan

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to surround Pakistan.

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So, that is the central obsession

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and, of course, as every state is entitled to do,

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their priority is their national security and survival,

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and they regard the Americans and us

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as somewhat impermanent fair-weather friends.

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Support for the Taliban ran through the highest levels

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of Pakistan's military and intelligence establishment.

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Will Taliban go away? They're not going to go away.

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Eventually, it is they who are going to be on our borders.

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We have to co-exist with them, we have to learn to live with them.

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Can we afford to have a hostile Afghanistan on our back?

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No, we cannot.

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The collective wisdom of the nation says that we must continue

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to have good linkages with Taliban.

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It is in Pakistan's national interest

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and I think everybody knows

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that it is in Pakistan's national interest.

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Pakistan's support for the Taliban did not come as news to the CIA.

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Philip Mudd was briefing the White House regularly.

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He was in Afghanistan in that autumn of 2001.

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I was there on the ground and the Americans said,

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"Well, you must be with us, we just lost 3,000 people".

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Well, not everybody was.

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We shouldn't be surprised to find

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not only that there are people in Pakistan

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who, before 911, were supporting the Taliban...

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Of course there were.

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They were creating a friend on their back door.

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I remember watching things like the Kunduz operation, saying,

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"We shouldn't be surprised

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"that there were sympathisers within the Pakistani security service".

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The powerful Pakistani security service - the ISI,

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or Inter-Services Intelligence,

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operates from this headquarters in Islamabad.

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The ISI is part of the military.

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Its agents are mostly soldiers

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and it's always commanded by a senior general.

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In the 1980s, it worked with the CIA and MI6

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to support the Afghan Mujahideen

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fighting the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.

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I've worked with the ISI for more than three decades.

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It is part of the Pakistani army,

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but it operates, generally, beyond the control

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of the Pakistani government as a whole.

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There are many grey areas about the ISI's behaviour.

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(GEORGE BUSH) There's an old poster out West, as I recall,

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that said, "Wanted, dead or alive".

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All I want, and America, wants him brought to justice,

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that's what we want.

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In early December 2001,

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in the weeks following the Kunduz airlift,

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more Taliban fighters were cornered.

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This time, in the Afghan mountains of Tora Bora,

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close to the border with Pakistan.

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With them were fighters from Al-Qaeda,

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an estimated 1,500 men in all.

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The CIA's Gary Berntsen discovered Osama Bin Laden

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was tantalisingly within reach.

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One of our people picks up a radio.

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It's essentially a hunting radio. Nothing complicated, no encryption.

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This is what they're using to talk with one another.

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We're able to actually listen to them speak to one another

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and assess, you know, their position.

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We actually saw Bin Laden and his son come out.

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Reporter gave us a pretty good description.

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We thought, "This is a bit suspect".

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We've got B-52s, we've got B-1s, we've got B-2s, F-16s.

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Everything in the US arsenal,

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every aircraft that you can strap a bomb onto

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is flying in there and dropping weapons on Tora Bora.

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But to Berntsen's frustration,

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US Central Command refused to send the extra ground troops

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that he requested.

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And the Taliban fighters, together with Bin Laden and his men,

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had a potential escape route -

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across the Afghan border and into Pakistan.

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The critical piece in this, of course, was,

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we are told that the Pakistani Frontier Force

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will cover the back of the mountain.

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That statement from the Pakistanis convinced the US

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that they didn't need to send additional forces in.

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It was a miscalculation on the part of the US.

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But the trapped Taliban fighters and their Al-Qaeda guests

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needed help somehow to reach the border.

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There are allegations it came from familiar quarters,

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as one of the most influential Northern Alliance warlords,

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Zahir Qadir, reveals.

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The three Afghan warlords convened a secret meeting

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to agree tactics.

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One of them, Haji Zaman, came up with a controversial plan -

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to grant the Taliban a 12-hour ceasefire

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so they could gather their men and weapons and surrender.

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Qadir's fears were borne out.

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Many of the Taliban and their Al-Qaeda guests

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used the ceasefire to head for the border.

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To Qadir, it was evidence that his fellow warlord, Haji Zaman,

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had double crossed him.

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Zaman had once been a major Taliban commander himself

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and was known to have had links with the ISI in the past.

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Qadir's claims are impossible to verify

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and Haji Zaman was assassinated

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when he returned to Afghanistan last year.

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What is certain is that in the months after America attacked,

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most of the Taliban fighters escaped,

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alongside their Al-Qaeda allies.

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One middle-ranking Taliban commander who'd got away at Tora Bora

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and is still an active fighter,

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reveals where they ended up.

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He's an Afghan who uses the name Mullah Qaseem

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but asked for his real identity to be kept hidden.

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TRANSLATION: We fought for some time, but later on, we escaped.

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We all wanted to reach safety.

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We went to places safe from bombardment,

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but when they were invaded, we escaped to Pakistan.

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We had no problem at the border.

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Then, we went to Peshawar.

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We got together into groups of four or five people who we trusted.

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The police were not arresting or jailing Afghans when they saw us...

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..so, we didn't face many difficulties.

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The escaping Taliban fighters were members of the Pashtun tribe.

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The Pashtuns are spread across Pakistan's tribal areas

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and southern Afghanistan.

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Linked by language and ethnicity,

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they don't recognise the border between the two countries.

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They were coming back to their own kith and kin,

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coming to Pakistan, who had been supporting them against the Soviets,

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providing them the sanctuary and the base for the last decade or so,

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who had very deep relations with them.

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They were welcomed.

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We have the same blood running in our veins.

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Senior figures in Pakistan's intelligence

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and military establishment

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were already aware that the Taliban had survived

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to fight another day.

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Did you think that the Taliban had been defeated?

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No.

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I mean, to be very exact,

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the total casualties they suffered was about 1,100, who were killed.

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The rest had hidden themselves, they had fallen back.

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The war in Afghanistan seemed over.

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A new government, under President Hamid Karzai,

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took power, backed by America and its allies.

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America no longer cared about the Taliban.

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Its primary target, as it always had been,

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was Al-Qaeda,

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which now meant hunting them down in Pakistan.

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The Taliban had always been quite distinct, organisationally,

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from Al-Qaeda and I did not see the Taliban

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as being a real material threat.

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We were focused like a laser beam on Al-Qaeda.

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These were the people who were responsible for 9/11,

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these were the people who we feared,

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if they managed to make good their escape,

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would continue attacking US interests around the world.

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That was, by far, our number one priority.

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We didn't want anything to interfere with that.

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Some of their leadership started going into urban spaces of Pakistan.

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So, in the spring,

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you've got a fundamental problem in this campaign,

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and that is starting to try to find people in urban areas of Pakistan

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and starting to try to figure out

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how we could work with the Pakistanis on that.

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The next 18 months, through 2002 and 2003,

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seemed to show the US and Pakistan co-operating against Al-Qaeda,

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through their spy agencies, the ISI and the CIA.

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The Taliban's survival mattered to Pakistan.

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Al-Qaeda's didn't.

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Each arrest helped unlock what would become billions of dollars

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of US military aid.

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The ISI would do confirmatory checks on the ground,

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focusing specifically on Al-Qaeda,

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the Arab members of Al-Qaeda who'd fled out of Afghanistan.

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We and the Pakistanis had perfected a methodology

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for conducting raids to capture these people.

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It was a series of rolling raids, almost night after night,

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and that was the way that we did business in those early days.

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But even then, there were limits to US/Pakistani co-operation.

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In the past, the ISI had built close links

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with various Pakistani militant groups fighting India

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in the disputed territory of Kashmir,

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and even with Al-Qaeda.

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Now, the ISI went to great lengths to cover these tracks,

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as became evident during the disappearance

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of an American journalist in early 2002.

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On the 23rd of January,

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the 38-year-old Daniel Pearl was kidnapped

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in the Pakistani city of Karachi.

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It soon emerged that the militant group that had abducted him

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was one of those fighting Indian troops in Kashmir,

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with, the CIA suspected, the secret support of the ISI.

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I think, to the extent that some of those extremists,

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may have been affiliated with groups

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that had received some measure of support

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from the army of Pakistan in the past,

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those were details which the Pakistanis

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would not particularly have wanted to come to light.

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Two weeks later, with Pearl still missing,

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the British-born mastermind of the kidnap, Omar Sheikh,

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decided to hand himself in to the authorities.

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But not to the police.

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Omar Sheikh had links with the ISI stretching back to the 1990s

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and he now chose to give himself up to a former ISI official.

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The ISI kept the news secret.

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We had reason to believe that he had been detained,

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and specifically, by the ISI,

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and so, I went to a very trusted counterpart within the ISI and said,

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"How about it? Do you have him?"

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And he said, "Well, let me look into it".

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He came back to me a few hours later and said, "No, we don't have him".

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And I knew he was lying to me.

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Eventually, but only under extreme pressure,

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the ISI did hand over Omar Sheikh to the police.

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Later, he himself said,

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in open court, that he had been detained by the ISI

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and been kept for, you know, some seven or eight days or so,

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and we can only guess what those conversations were like.

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I suspect that he was strongly encouraged by the ISI

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not to say too much about his past life.

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I think the Pakistanis were probably concerned

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about what other stories he might tell.

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In particular, there were suspicions that before 9/11,

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the ISI had indeed encouraged such groups

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to develop contacts with Al-Qaeda.

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The closeness of the links between Omar Sheikh's group and Al-Qaeda

0:23:270:23:31

were soon to be brutally demonstrated.

0:23:310:23:34

The local police chief, Detective Fayyaz Khan,

0:23:340:23:37

takes up the story.

0:23:370:23:39

The man who beheaded Daniel Pearl

0:24:250:24:27

was the self-proclaimed Al-Qaeda mastermind of 9/11,

0:24:270:24:31

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed.

0:24:310:24:33

When, a year later, he was arrested by the ISI

0:24:340:24:37

in the military town of Rawalpindi, the Pakistanis claimed

0:24:370:24:41

it showed they were indispensable in the battle against Al-Qaeda.

0:24:410:24:44

If you look at the wanted list which the United States issued,

0:24:460:24:50

most of those guys were actually nabbed by the ISI.

0:24:500:24:54

So, ISI was very active and has been keeping a watch in all the cities,

0:24:540:24:59

but then, it's a country of 180 million people,

0:24:590:25:03

so ISI has been active in all these cities, looking for Al-Qaeda,

0:25:030:25:07

picking them up.

0:25:070:25:08

Unfortunately, one guy we missed, that's the number one guy,

0:25:080:25:13

and so, we got all the blame.

0:25:130:25:16

But even in the early days of 2002 and 2003,

0:25:160:25:19

the Americans had doubts about Pakistan.

0:25:190:25:22

Inside the CIA, it was noted that no senior Taliban figures

0:25:220:25:27

were arrested during this period.

0:25:270:25:30

For all the arrests of Al-Qaeda members like Khalid Sheikh Mohammed,

0:25:300:25:33

the CIA questioned the true motives of Pakistan's military dictator

0:25:330:25:37

General Pervez Musharraf.

0:25:370:25:40

Pakistan, and particularly General Musharraf,

0:25:410:25:44

played the Bush administration like a fiddle.

0:25:440:25:48

They gave us just enough, in terms of Al-Qaeda,

0:25:480:25:52

to keep the Bush administration happy,

0:25:520:25:54

but not enough to actually eliminate Al-Qaeda as an organisation,

0:25:540:26:00

and virtually nothing on the Taliban.

0:26:000:26:03

Musharraf knew that before every meeting between the two of them,

0:26:030:26:07

he needed to reinforce his stock,

0:26:070:26:10

and he did that by giving us a prominent Al-Qaeda operative.

0:26:100:26:14

The Pakistanis would, fortuitously,

0:26:140:26:16

on the verge of a summit meeting between Bush and Musharraf,

0:26:160:26:20

produce number three, number four, in the Al-Qaeda hierarchy,

0:26:200:26:25

and that way, take away any criticism

0:26:250:26:27

that might come from the Americans over Pakistan's double game.

0:26:270:26:31

Meanwhile, the reports from Islamabad

0:26:310:26:35

that were reaching the British at this time

0:26:350:26:37

seemed to bear out the American claims.

0:26:370:26:40

Colonel Richard Kemp was working at the heart of Whitehall,

0:26:410:26:45

and intelligence reports from MI5 and MI6 passed across his desk.

0:26:450:26:50

I think it was quite clear to us

0:26:510:26:54

that the Pakistanis were playing very much a double game

0:26:540:26:57

and a lot of what they were saying and some of what they were doing

0:26:570:27:01

was very clearly aimed at the eyes of the West

0:27:010:27:06

and didn't necessarily reflect their real intentions

0:27:060:27:08

and their real actions,

0:27:080:27:10

so, I think we felt that there would be elements of the Taliban

0:27:100:27:13

who were still being supported by Pakistan

0:27:130:27:16

and who Pakistan was still prepared to have operating on its territory.

0:27:160:27:20

The clearest evidence for this double game

0:27:200:27:24

lay in the Pakistani town of Quetta,

0:27:240:27:27

just across the border from the Afghan province of Helmand.

0:27:270:27:30

In 2003, the Taliban set up a government in exile there.

0:27:300:27:36

Christina Lamb was reporting from Pakistan at the time.

0:27:370:27:40

In 2003, I was in Quetta and Quetta was like Taliban central.

0:27:440:27:49

Taliban were everywhere.

0:27:510:27:53

You could see them all over the town,

0:27:530:27:55

and there was training camps,

0:27:550:27:59

you could see recruiting going on, fund-raising,

0:27:590:28:02

and it was all quite open.

0:28:020:28:07

From this sanctuary, the Taliban began to launch attacks

0:28:080:28:11

against the forces of the new Afghan government

0:28:110:28:14

and the US troops supporting them.

0:28:140:28:17

Pakistan did not stop the attacks.

0:28:180:28:21

Mullah Qaseem, a Taliban commander,

0:28:240:28:27

was one of those who used Quetta as a base.

0:28:270:28:30

We were sent to different places over the border in Afghanistan,

0:28:300:28:34

places like Paktika and Khost.

0:28:340:28:37

We would cross the border and carry out operations there,

0:28:370:28:41

depending on what equipment we had.

0:28:410:28:43

Once we'd used up our ammunition, we'd return to our base

0:28:460:28:50

and another group would take our place,

0:28:500:28:52

so we were able to keep it going.

0:28:520:28:54

For a fighter, there are two important things -

0:28:590:29:02

supplies and a place to hide.

0:29:020:29:04

Pakistan plays a significant role.

0:29:090:29:11

First, they support us

0:29:110:29:13

by providing a place to hide, which is really important.

0:29:130:29:16

Secondly, they provide us with weapons.

0:29:160:29:21

HE SINGS IN HIS OWN DIALECT

0:29:210:29:27

SHOTS FIRED

0:29:360:29:40

The American troops still in Afghanistan

0:29:410:29:43

had been told the Taliban had been defeated

0:29:430:29:46

and that Pakistan was their ally.

0:29:460:29:49

Their commander, General Dan McNeill,

0:29:530:29:55

found the truth on the ground was the opposite -

0:29:550:29:58

the Taliban was reconstituting itself as a fighting force,

0:29:580:30:02

helped by Pakistan.

0:30:020:30:04

'Along the border, there's an Afghan town called Shkin.'

0:30:050:30:10

It was always a difficult place, it continues to be to this day.

0:30:100:30:14

'We had our forward operating base there, a very small one, very light footprint,

0:30:140:30:19

'but it was sufficient for what we needed it to do.'

0:30:190:30:22

'So one night, late 2002,

0:30:260:30:29

we observed a dismounted patrol, might have been 20 or 30 people,'

0:30:290:30:35

come across the border out of Angoor Adda,

0:30:350:30:37

'the Pakistani village on the other side of the border from Shkin.'

0:30:370:30:43

It was clear that they meant mischief and malice.

0:30:430:30:46

Incoming!

0:30:460:30:47

'We watched them come by the Pakistani Frontier Corps facility, they walked right by the walls,'

0:30:480:30:54

Anybody who was manning those walls

0:30:540:30:56

or guarding the gate would have to see them, without question.

0:30:560:30:59

'They were going to attack the Afghan outpost and wait for us

0:31:010:31:05

'to come out in our mounted quick-reaction force

0:31:050:31:08

'and they were going to ambush the quick-reaction force.'

0:31:080:31:11

We had to quickly devise a plan to ambush the ambushers.

0:31:110:31:15

'And that, indeed, is the way it unfolded.

0:31:170:31:19

'We watched the remnants of that force go back

0:31:190:31:23

'pretty much the same way they came, going back into Pakistan.

0:31:230:31:27

'Someone had to know they were walking,

0:31:270:31:29

'and when I talked the next day or so to the Pakistani brothers about it,'

0:31:290:31:33

if I remember correctly the division commander was in that area,

0:31:330:31:36

"No, didn't happen that way, couldn't have happened, they didn't come by our place."

0:31:360:31:41

While Pakistan proclaimed itself the ally of America,

0:31:470:31:51

it was simultaneously allowing itself to be the Taliban's sanctuary.

0:31:510:31:56

For Mullah Qaseem and his comrades, it was the difference between life and death.

0:31:560:32:01

-TRANSLATION:

-'During the night we planted mines.'

0:32:050:32:08

There is a kind of plane that makes a droning sound.

0:32:110:32:14

They are called computer planes... whatever. They followed us.

0:32:140:32:21

'Later on, helicopters came. My friend was wounded.

0:32:210:32:25

'Pakistan is our second home.'

0:32:280:32:30

'We feel safer in Pakistan than we do in Afghanistan.'

0:32:320:32:35

We took him to a private hospital in Peshawar.

0:32:350:32:39

If a Talib gets injured and is taken to the hospital, he's accepted regardless.

0:32:390:32:44

In Kabul, the new government's intelligence chief monitored

0:32:490:32:53

the Taliban resurgence with dismay.

0:32:530:32:55

Amrulleh Saleh was part of a government

0:32:570:32:59

that bitterly resented Pakistan's role in supporting the Taliban.

0:32:590:33:03

If a wounded guy goes to one of our hospitals and says, "Treat me,"

0:33:050:33:10

the doctor will ask, "How did you get injured?"

0:33:100:33:17

But when a Taliban gets wounded, the entire medical system

0:33:170:33:23

of Pakistan is in his service, nobody asks him, "Where were you wounded?"

0:33:230:33:28

'The Pakistanis never dismantled the infrastructure

0:33:300:33:34

'which was supporting the Taliban back in the '90s.'

0:33:340:33:37

The charge sheet against Pakistan was growing.

0:33:390:33:43

In late 2003, Colonel Tony Shaffer

0:33:460:33:48

was working for US military intelligence in eastern Afghanistan.

0:33:480:33:52

'It was very clear there was major support being provided

0:33:530:33:58

'to the Taliban in Pakistan in some form.'

0:33:580:34:00

The most notable evidence we had early on was a female intelligence operative -

0:34:030:34:11

'an ISI operative - being rolled up as part of Taliban raiding party.

0:34:110:34:15

'This was something that you could not deny.

0:34:150:34:19

'There was vetting done to verify

0:34:190:34:23

'this female operative's affiliation with the ISI.'

0:34:230:34:26

And apparently, there was a great effort made behind the scenes to bring her back.

0:34:280:34:32

I was of a mind, as were other officers, to send her to Guantanamo Bay,

0:34:320:34:36

we believed that that would be the adequate disposition.

0:34:360:34:39

Unfortunately, politics came into play

0:34:390:34:41

and eventually she was returned to the Pakistani ISI.

0:34:410:34:45

'So in my eyes, and the eyes of others who I was working with,

0:34:450:34:50

'it was irrefutable evidence of Pakistani support for the Taliban.'

0:34:500:34:54

The American claim is lent further credence by the Taliban commander,

0:34:550:35:00

Mullah Qaseem, who says he witnessed the ISI in action.

0:35:000:35:03

-TRANSLATION:

-'I have seen the ISI dressed as Mullahs, as preachers,

0:35:050:35:11

'and as Muslim scholars.'

0:35:110:35:13

'They do come but they don't come in uniform.'

0:35:140:35:18

The Taliban movement was created with the help of the ISI.

0:35:210:35:25

It is like when a tree grows - one has to plant it and water it.

0:35:260:35:31

Supported by Pakistan, the Taliban killed 52

0:35:320:35:36

and wounded hundreds of American troops in Afghanistan in 2004.

0:35:360:35:41

But as long as Pakistan helped hunt Al-Qaeda, America was willing

0:35:410:35:46

to downplay what they saw as Pakistan's duplicity.

0:35:460:35:49

-ANNOUNCER:

-President George W Bush!

0:35:490:35:52

CHEERING

0:35:520:35:53

2004 was an election year.

0:35:530:35:55

7,000 miles away in Washington,

0:35:550:35:58

the President wanted to claim progress in the War on Terror.

0:35:580:36:02

GEORGE W BUSH: 'Our strategy is succeeding.

0:36:020:36:05

'Four years ago, Pakistan was a transit point for terrorist groups.

0:36:050:36:10

'Today, Pakistan is capturing terrorist leaders

0:36:100:36:14

'and more than three quarters of Al-Qaeda's key members and associates

0:36:140:36:18

'have been detailed or killed, and America and the world are safer.'

0:36:180:36:23

CHEERING

0:36:230:36:27

President Bush had already formally named Pakistan as a "major non-NATO ally",

0:36:270:36:33

in recognition of its role in fighting Al-Qaeda.

0:36:330:36:36

'I think the Bush administration, for a long time,

0:36:360:36:39

'was in denial about Pakistani behaviour.'

0:36:390:36:42

The Pakistanis were our most important ally

0:36:420:36:46

in going after Al-Qaeda.

0:36:460:36:48

Their duplicity in continuing to support the Taliban was

0:36:480:36:52

something the Bush administration didn't want to face up to.

0:36:520:36:56

You've got the state diplomatic interest, of look, you know,

0:36:560:37:00

we need the Pakistanis, and we can't insult them and embarrass them,

0:37:000:37:06

we need to work with these guys, everybody acknowledges that.

0:37:060:37:09

'So there's only so much pressing you can do if you want to get

0:37:090:37:13

'the kind of positive reaction from them that we all know we need.'

0:37:130:37:17

Meanwhile, Pakistan's apparent willingness

0:37:190:37:22

to barter Al-Qaeda figures to divert American attention

0:37:220:37:26

from its support for the Taliban had provoked a reaction...

0:37:260:37:30

from Al-Qaeda and its sympathizers.

0:37:300:37:33

NEWSREADER: '14 people have died in a failed assassination attempt

0:37:330:37:37

'on the President of Pakistan.

0:37:370:37:38

'It's the second time in less than a fortnight

0:37:380:37:41

'that President Pervez Musharraf has been targeted.

0:37:410:37:43

'His motorcade was heading towards the capital, Islamabad...'

0:37:430:37:47

In December 2003,

0:37:490:37:51

two assassination attempts were made on the Pakistani President.

0:37:510:37:55

Both were thought to have been masterminded by Pakistani militant groups

0:37:550:37:59

working in association with Al-Qaeda.

0:37:590:38:02

'Two attempts were made on him.'

0:38:040:38:06

And the people who were caught,

0:38:060:38:08

there were three from his own commando unit,

0:38:080:38:13

there were two from his security.

0:38:130:38:15

Five of them were hanged for the crime that they had committed.

0:38:150:38:19

The attacks were eventually blamed on Amjad Farooqi,

0:38:210:38:24

an Islamic militant with links to Al-Qaeda.

0:38:240:38:27

In retaliation, President Musharraf ordered the army to attack Al-Qaeda

0:38:300:38:34

and their allies in their stronghold of South Waziristan,

0:38:340:38:38

in the heart of Pakistan's untamed tribal areas.

0:38:380:38:42

'Musharraf was told, "Look, they masterminded it in Waziristan,"'

0:38:420:38:47

and at that time, Waziristan was kind of in a point of boiling.

0:38:470:38:52

'And Musharraf, without a second thought, unleashed the army on them.'

0:38:520:38:56

The fighting that followed was fierce.

0:39:000:39:03

But at the height of the offensive, an incident took place

0:39:040:39:07

that raised American doubts about whether Pakistani intelligence could be trusted

0:39:070:39:12

when it came to hunting down Al-Qaeda's top leadership.

0:39:120:39:15

Spies working for the Americans had pinpointed Bin Laden's number two,

0:39:180:39:22

Ayman al-Zawahari, in the Pakistani town of Wana,

0:39:220:39:27

capital of South Waziristan.

0:39:270:39:29

'The bad guys if you will, Al-Qaeda and Taliban,

0:39:300:39:33

set up at a place called the Al-Qaeda hotel.'

0:39:330:39:35

This was a full-on hotel which was actively a headquarters

0:39:350:39:43

for everything we could see going on to conduct operations to kill people.

0:39:430:39:49

'The most notable interest we had was that there was a pattern

0:39:490:39:52

'of what we would call a high-value target, HVT.'

0:39:520:39:55

The patterns of activity and communication

0:39:550:39:58

indicated that there was a large fish there.

0:39:580:40:00

We found out that Dr Zawahiri was hanging out there,

0:40:010:40:05

and this information was passed to the Pakistanis.

0:40:050:40:09

The information was promptly used to plan a great military operation

0:40:090:40:14

using the Pakistani army, and the end result was pretty much nothing.

0:40:140:40:18

I was in Wana and I am the one who carried out this operation.

0:40:190:40:23

And once we got the information

0:40:230:40:25

there were reports that some elements are there.

0:40:250:40:29

So the operation started early morning, with the first light.

0:40:290:40:34

And first the aviation and the special forces, they went in,

0:40:340:40:38

and they went in and killed a number of people.

0:40:380:40:41

But by that time the ground forces, which I was commanding, went in.

0:40:410:40:46

A number of dead bodies were there but others had been taken

0:40:460:40:50

and any surviving members might have fled.

0:40:500:40:55

Although the Pakistani military had captured many Al-Qaeda prisoners,

0:40:570:41:01

the most high-value target, Zawahari himself, was not among them.

0:41:010:41:05

We found out that 24 hours before going in, the HVT,

0:41:080:41:14

in this case Dr Zawahiri, was given fair warning,

0:41:140:41:17

"You're about to be attacked, you'd better skedaddle."

0:41:170:41:20

And the reason being is because the ISI was able to give tip-off information

0:41:200:41:24

to the Al-Qaeda and Taliban folks in the safe haven

0:41:240:41:28

and allow them to escape ahead of the attack.

0:41:280:41:31

The Americans suspected the ISI of secretly protecting Zawahiri,

0:41:320:41:38

because while the Al-Qaeda threat remained high,

0:41:380:41:41

the case for continued US aid to Pakistan remained strong.

0:41:410:41:46

When you're running these operations, I think you have a legitimate concern

0:41:460:41:50

that a few of the people you're dealing with might let that information out the back door.

0:41:500:41:55

And that clearly was a concern we had over time.

0:41:550:41:58

If you develop critical information on a point target

0:41:580:42:00

that's unique and perishable,

0:42:000:42:02

you just can't afford to let that stuff go out the back door

0:42:020:42:06

because that target will spook immediately.

0:42:060:42:08

He'll go back to plotting. You might not pick him up for another year or two.

0:42:080:42:12

The Pakistanis deny the charge that they deliberately let Zawahiri get away.

0:42:120:42:18

What is clear,

0:42:180:42:20

is that Zawahari continued in overall charge of Al-Qaeda's military operations

0:42:200:42:24

for the next five years.

0:42:240:42:26

During that time, Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for 313 attacks,

0:42:290:42:34

resulting in the deaths of 3,010 people.

0:42:340:42:38

And since Osama Bin Laden's death earlier this year,

0:42:400:42:43

Zawahiri has become the new Al-Qaeda leader.

0:42:430:42:47

After the Battle Of Wana, the first of a series of truces was struck.

0:42:510:42:56

The Pakistanis would back off Al-Qaeda and their local allies

0:42:560:43:01

if they agreed not to attack Pakistani targets.

0:43:010:43:03

But to American frustration, throughout this period,

0:43:050:43:08

the Pakistani military had not confronted the Taliban fighters

0:43:080:43:12

who continued to attack the Americans in Afghanistan

0:43:120:43:16

from their bases in Pakistan.

0:43:160:43:18

It's been a long war for a lot of people.

0:43:200:43:22

I think the first time I ever... killed a man...

0:43:240:43:30

certainly had an effect on me.

0:43:300:43:32

It's been a difficult campaign in which, you know,

0:43:320:43:36

I lost several friends and I think that heightens the frustration

0:43:360:43:41

that I have about Pakistan.

0:43:410:43:44

To Captain Andrew Exum,

0:43:460:43:48

who was part of a Special Operations task force,

0:43:480:43:50

one particular incident stands out.

0:43:500:43:53

In the spring of 2004,

0:43:550:43:56

I was leading a quick reaction force of US Army Rangers

0:43:560:44:00

in Eastern Afghanistan...

0:44:000:44:01

Allahu Akbar!

0:44:010:44:04

..and we got spun up one night because a Ranger unit that was in a blocking position

0:44:040:44:09

down in the border with Pakistan had come under fire.

0:44:090:44:12

The quick reaction force, that unit had a young Ranger named Pat Tillman,

0:44:130:44:18

who was a US football star

0:44:180:44:22

and, in that firefight,

0:44:220:44:24

he was killed by friendly fire actually from his own unit.

0:44:240:44:29

In the aftermath of his death,

0:44:290:44:31

people lost sight of the fact of why those Rangers were there on the border in the first place.

0:44:310:44:37

They were there in expectation of a Pakistani army offensive through Waziristan,

0:44:370:44:42

that was going to push these militants out of Waziristan and back into Afghanistan.

0:44:420:44:48

And obviously that never took place.

0:44:480:44:50

And I think that in Tillman's death you see so much the futility

0:44:500:44:55

with which this conflict has been waged

0:44:550:44:58

in light of our partner in Afghanistan that at times has been incompetent,

0:44:580:45:02

at times has simply not had the capacity

0:45:020:45:06

or the will to take on these militant groups,

0:45:060:45:08

and at times and in instances has been complicit with these militant groups.

0:45:080:45:14

The Forward Operating Base was re-named in honour of the young football star.

0:45:170:45:21

Meanwhile, the CIA made another discovery

0:45:320:45:35

that was to have lethal repercussions.

0:45:350:45:37

Inside Pakistan, scores of training camps had been built

0:45:420:45:47

to help teach Taliban fighters how to kill American soldiers.

0:45:470:45:52

Mullah Qaseem was an early recruit.

0:45:520:45:56

It was like a workshop.

0:45:560:46:00

The important thing was that we should be able to convince people.

0:46:020:46:08

The Americans and British who'd come to your country

0:46:080:46:11

hadn't come to build it but to destroy it.

0:46:110:46:15

"Your country has been invaded.

0:46:160:46:19

"Remember your ancestors who made the British run away

0:46:190:46:22

"and successfully fought the Russians.

0:46:220:46:25

"In the name of Islam, you should gather people together

0:46:250:46:28

"and get them ready for jihad."

0:46:280:46:30

Another Taliban commander,

0:46:330:46:35

who still actively fights under the name of Mullah Azizullah,

0:46:350:46:39

says many of his teachers were from Pakistani intelligence.

0:46:390:46:43

He's asked to hide his identity.

0:46:430:46:45

They are all the ISI's men.

0:46:480:46:51

They are the ones who run the training.

0:46:510:46:54

First they train us about bombs. Then they give us practical guidance.

0:46:570:47:04

Their generals are everywhere. They are present during the training.

0:47:040:47:12

The official spokesman for the ISI

0:47:120:47:15

denies that there was any such support for the camps.

0:47:150:47:19

These camps, they got...

0:47:200:47:23

probably reinitiated by themselves

0:47:230:47:28

when the Taliban crossed over from Afghanistan in 2001/02

0:47:280:47:33

and they started reorganising.

0:47:330:47:36

So to say that these militant groups

0:47:360:47:40

were being supported by the state

0:47:400:47:44

with the organised camps in these areas, et cetera,

0:47:440:47:47

I think nothing could be further from the truth.

0:47:470:47:50

The official denial is dismissed by Latif Afridi,

0:47:520:47:56

one of Pakistan's senior judges and a native of the tribal area.

0:47:560:48:01

He has no doubt about the importance of Pakistani intelligence

0:48:010:48:05

to the Taliban training camps.

0:48:050:48:08

< Would it have been possible for those camps to have been created

0:48:080:48:12

without the knowledge of the ISI?

0:48:120:48:14

No, it was not possible.

0:48:140:48:16

See, during this period, ISI had trained guerrilla fighters.

0:48:160:48:22

People say there were 600 Chinese there, Punjabis there,

0:48:220:48:27

you see Chechens, there's Arabs, there's Tajiks,

0:48:270:48:30

God knows how many other...

0:48:300:48:33

peoples from other nationalities. But these people have been allowed

0:48:330:48:39

with the explicit approval of our agencies.

0:48:390:48:42

But the ISI were not the only backers of the camps.

0:48:430:48:46

According to another middle-ranking Taliban commander,

0:48:460:48:50

breaking his silence for the first time.

0:48:500:48:53

Still fighting under the name of Najib,

0:48:530:48:56

he joined the insurgency eight years ago.

0:48:560:48:59

I was in the camp for a month.

0:49:000:49:04

They were giving us practical training in whatever weapons we specialised in.

0:49:040:49:10

I was trained to fire RPGs.

0:49:100:49:14

The instructors were from Al-Qaeda. We were all Al-Qaeda.

0:49:180:49:23

They were preaching about the importance of jihad,

0:49:230:49:28

and suicide bombers were taken to a different section and were kept apart from us.

0:49:280:49:32

Those who were taught to be suicide bombers were there.

0:49:320:49:36

The CIA were becoming aware of the scale of the Taliban training camps

0:49:380:49:42

and the fact that Al-Qaeda were talent-spotting potential suicide bombers.

0:49:420:49:48

What we were seeing was people, for example kids from Britain, kids from North America,

0:49:480:49:53

showing up in little training compounds in the tribal areas.

0:49:530:49:58

In some cases you might have Al-Qaeda running them.

0:49:580:50:00

I'm talking about the core group of Al-Qaeda people

0:50:000:50:03

who were charged with training and sending people

0:50:030:50:06

into western Europe and North America.

0:50:060:50:09

In the winter of 2004, two young British men

0:50:120:50:16

made the long journey to Pakistan to be trained for jihad.

0:50:160:50:20

While there, they were singled out by Al-Qaeda,

0:50:200:50:23

who decided they would be more useful to the jihadi cause

0:50:230:50:27

if they returned home to conduct operations there.

0:50:270:50:31

'Emergency?'

0:50:310:50:33

'Hi, there's a bus just exploded outside, in Tavistock Square,

0:50:330:50:36

'just outside my window.

0:50:360:50:39

'There's people lying on the ground and everything.

0:50:390:50:42

'There's a London bus, it's a 30, I think,

0:50:420:50:45

'but there's people dead and everything, by the looks of it.'

0:50:450:50:49

On 7/7, I was in my office in Whitehall in the Cabinet Office

0:50:510:50:56

and I received notification of explosions in the London Underground

0:50:560:51:00

and, obviously, this was not an accident, this was obviously...

0:51:000:51:03

Britain was under attack.

0:51:030:51:05

The intelligence reports soon revealed the bombers' visits to the training camps in Pakistan.

0:51:050:51:12

Over a number of years,

0:51:120:51:13

I'd been monitoring international terrorist activity,

0:51:130:51:16

not just in the UK but around the globe,

0:51:160:51:18

and I'd seen, in virtually every case, links back to Pakistan,

0:51:180:51:22

so it didn't come in any way as a surprise to find

0:51:220:51:25

that terrorists operating in the UK

0:51:250:51:27

were being directed by Al-Qaeda leaders in Pakistan.

0:51:270:51:31

The British also suspected the role of Pakistani intelligence in the training camps.

0:51:310:51:38

The ISI, of course, must take responsibility

0:51:380:51:40

for the fact that some of these camps were still up and running,

0:51:400:51:44

including, perhaps, the camp that was responsible for training the 7/7 attackers.

0:51:440:51:49

The new influx of suicide bombers trained in the camps

0:51:530:51:57

soon made their presence felt on the ground in Afghanistan too.

0:51:570:52:01

The numbers on suicide attacks...

0:52:080:52:11

2003 in Afghanistan - there were two suicide attacks,

0:52:110:52:15

2004 - five suicide attacks,

0:52:150:52:19

2005 - 17 suicide attacks in Afghanistan.

0:52:190:52:23

Those are the three primary years I was there.

0:52:230:52:26

The following year in '06 - there were 139 suicide attacks.

0:52:260:52:29

MAN SCREAMS

0:52:360:52:39

That leads me to suspect that our friends in Pakistan

0:52:420:52:46

may have decided to re-energise the Taliban

0:52:460:52:49

so that they would have a proxy force in whatever was going to happen after the Americans were gone.

0:52:490:52:54

But the Americans, too, must shoulder some responsibility for the resurgent Taliban.

0:52:540:53:00

In the years after 9/11,

0:53:110:53:13

the Americans had shown little interest in rebuilding Afghanistan,

0:53:130:53:17

which helped the Taliban to take root and prosper.

0:53:170:53:21

Then, in 2005, just as the Taliban was becoming an effective fighting force,

0:53:240:53:29

the Americans decided to hand over military control to NATO.

0:53:290:53:34

The Americans wanted to concentrate on Iraq instead.

0:53:350:53:39

The decision was to have momentous consequences,

0:53:430:53:46

as the Taliban sensed an opportunity and stepped up their attacks.

0:53:460:53:50

The night before I went back into one particular area -

0:53:550:53:58

this was in Helmand Province in the spring of 2006 -

0:53:580:54:02

a friend of mine came and knocked on my door

0:54:020:54:05

and said, "Look, Mike, as your friend, as your classmate,

0:54:050:54:09

"I'm begging you not to go in there. We are literally seeing hundreds

0:54:090:54:13

"and hundreds and hundreds of fighters pouring in from Pakistan

0:54:130:54:17

"and it is not what you think it is any more."

0:54:170:54:20

And he was truly concerned for my life.

0:54:200:54:23

And it turned out to be a very legitimate concern.

0:54:230:54:26

There were many times when I didn't know if I was going to live.

0:54:280:54:34

We experienced insurgents crossing the border

0:54:340:54:37

within very close proximity of Pakistani military posts.

0:54:370:54:41

We experienced both artillery and rocket fire from the other side of the border,

0:54:430:54:48

that the Pakistanis didn't respond to.

0:54:480:54:51

We were experiencing 200/300/400-man ambushes.

0:54:510:54:56

These we're very sophisticated three-sided ambushes,

0:54:560:54:59

particularly along the Helmand River valley.

0:54:590:55:02

Things as sophisticated as floating barges with RPG and mortar teams,

0:55:020:55:08

multiple layers of mortar, artillery and heavy machine guns.

0:55:080:55:12

It was definitely a turn for the worse

0:55:120:55:15

in both the security situation but also the insurgents' capabilities.

0:55:150:55:21

Major Mike Waltz, who had spent two years in the field,

0:55:210:55:26

during which time the Taliban attacks on coalition troops had more than doubled,

0:55:260:55:30

now returned to Washington in 2006 as an adviser to the Pentagon on the Afghan desk.

0:55:300:55:35

My message coming back to Washington,

0:55:370:55:40

particularly on the state of the Taliban,

0:55:400:55:42

was that the insurgency had reconstituted,

0:55:420:55:44

the security situation was getting appreciably worse

0:55:440:55:47

and that if we didn't adopt a different strategy,

0:55:470:55:50

namely a counter-insurgency strategy and the resources to back it,

0:55:500:55:54

that the situation was just going to continue to decline.

0:55:540:55:58

And yet this harsh appraisal

0:55:580:56:00

and the critical role of Pakistan didn't shape British thinking.

0:56:000:56:05

As part of the new NATO-led campaign,

0:56:050:56:08

the British set off for Helmand Province in southern Afghanistan,

0:56:080:56:13

believing this was a peacekeeping and reconstruction mission.

0:56:130:56:17

We certainly didn't have a good handle on that at the time

0:56:170:56:20

and I don't think that the decision to go into Helmand

0:56:200:56:23

was informed by intelligence.

0:56:230:56:27

That then turned out to be a mistake.

0:56:270:56:31

Without the support that Pakistan gives, without providing a safe haven

0:56:310:56:35

and also physical support and in some cases direction,

0:56:350:56:38

I don't think the Taliban could have operated

0:56:380:56:40

and built themselves up in the way they did.

0:56:400:56:43

-Nobby!

-White house, three building.

-On that target!

0:56:460:56:49

Almost immediately, the British troops found themselves in the most brutal and intense combat

0:56:520:56:56

the army had seen for decades.

0:56:560:56:58

Last burst, last burst.

0:57:000:57:03

At times, they were in danger of being overrun.

0:57:040:57:08

Nobby! Nobby!

0:57:080:57:11

Probably, the first fatalities when I was there

0:57:110:57:13

was three guys that were attached to the company

0:57:130:57:15

were killed one night and that, obviously...

0:57:150:57:18

really brings it home. Quite a sobering sense.

0:57:180:57:21

Rapid...fire.

0:57:210:57:24

This isn't what were supposed to be doing, defending places.

0:57:240:57:28

We're supposed to be having a positive effect,

0:57:280:57:30

not being tied down exchanging fire with Taliban.

0:57:300:57:34

What was by now unmistakable to the West

0:57:380:57:41

was that Pakistan's complicity with the Taliban

0:57:410:57:44

was costing British lives.

0:57:440:57:46

By 2006, it was abundantly clear

0:57:480:57:52

that the Pakistani intelligence service

0:57:520:57:54

was orchestrating the revival of the Afghan Taliban.

0:57:540:57:57

And, to me, that was the moment when it was clear we'd been double-dealt.

0:57:570:58:02

We'd had our suspicions before then but in 2006 it was unequivocal.

0:58:020:58:07

The Afghan Taliban were back,

0:58:070:58:10

they were surging across southern Afghanistan

0:58:100:58:13

and they could only do that if they had the support of the Pakistani intelligence service.

0:58:130:58:18

Next time on Secret Pakistan, The double-cross is discovered...

0:58:200:58:25

..America strikes back

0:58:260:58:29

but Pakistan's help to the Taliban continues.

0:58:290:58:32

Subtitles by Red Bee Media Ltd

0:58:370:58:40

E-mail [email protected]

0:58:400:58:43

In May this year, US Special Forces shot and killed Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan. Publicly Pakistan is one of America's closest allies - yet every step of the operation was kept secret from it.

Filmed largely in Pakistan and Afghanistan, this two-part documentary series explores how a supposed ally stands accused by top CIA officers and Western diplomats of causing the deaths of thousands of coalition soldiers in Afghanistan. It is a charge denied by Pakistan's military establishment, but the documentary makers meet serving Taliban commanders who describe the support they get from Pakistan in terms of weapons, training and a place to hide.

This first episode investigates signs of duplicity that emerged after 9/11 and disturbing intelligence reports after Britain's forces entered Helmand in 2006.


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