A Rock and a Hard Place Grand Tours of Scotland's Lochs


A Rock and a Hard Place

Paul Murton tours Scotland's lochs. He embarks on a grand tour from Lairg on Loch Shin to Lochinver and finally, to the summit of Suilven.


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Transcript


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The beautiful scenery of the far north-west of Scotland was created

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by some of the most powerful and destructive forces in nature.

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The hills and lochs of this wilderness are part of an ancient landscape

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that is said to have been formed millions of years ago

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by a truly cosmic impact.

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Lochs are Scotland's gifts to the world

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and are the product of an element that we have in spectacular abundance -

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water. It's been estimated that there are more than 31,000 lochs in

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Scotland. They come in all shapes and sizes from long fjord-like sea

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lochs, great freshwater lochs of the Central Highlands to the innumerable

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lochans that stud the open moors.

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In this series I am on a loch-hopping journey across Scotland,

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discovering how they shaped the character of the people who live

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close to their shores. For this Grand Tour I am heading from loch

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to rock bottom.

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My journey starts in Sutherland and travels along the length of

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Loch Shin to Loch Laxford.

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I then get to grips with our rocky past in some of Scotland's deepest

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limestone caves,

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before climbing a sugar-loaf mountain which is a sweet way to

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end any Grand Tour.

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This is the village of Lairg which lies at the southern end of Loch Shin,

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and this is the Wee Hoose.

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The story goes it was built in 1824 by a local poacher, Jock Broon.

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The island that Jock's house stands on was given to him as a reward by a

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local laird for teaching him how to distil whisky.

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Having become a member of the landed gentry, even if only in a small way,

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Jock felt that he needed a house to consolidate his new social status.

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And that was the biggest that he could build

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on his diminutive estate.

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Sadly, Jock didn't enjoy the pleasures of land ownership for long.

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He died after shooting himself in the foot.

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At least, that's what locals tell you.

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But whatever the truth, his Wee Hoose makes a fine talking point.

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What makes Jock's Wee Hoose seem even smaller is the country round about.

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This is a place of big skies and far horizons where the human scale

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is diminished.

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And to make you feel even smaller, the size of an ancient cosmological

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event that happened here shrinks you to the point of nonexistence.

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Aeons ago - geologists reckon at least 1.2 billion years ago -

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a huge asteroid hurtled from deep space and collided with the Earth

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with unimaginable force.

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Incredibly, the impact was right here, just a few kilometres

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from Lairg. It must have made one hell of a bang.

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Evidence of a huge impact crater with a diameter of 40km has

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been discovered from anomalies in gravity surveys.

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The crater is the only one of its kind known in Britain.

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The asteroid collided so long ago that during the 1.8 billion years

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that have passed,

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the crater was obliterated by later geological convulsions

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which include a clash of long-vanished continents.

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The hills around here have played a hugely important role in developing

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our understanding of the forces that created the landscape,

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and in particular how mountains were built.

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It took some very clever scientific detective work to figure out how.

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This is Loch Laxford,

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which has given its name to a geological feature which scientists

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believe is evidence for a continental collision.

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In 1883, two Victorian geologists - Ben Peach and John Horne - ventured

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north in an attempt to settle a fierce debate about how this

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-landscape was formed.

-That is the black rock in front of us.

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Katherine Goodenough is a rock doctor with the British Geological Survey.

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She is taking me on a hike following in the footsteps of Peach and Horne.

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They achieved world renown by unravelling the secrets of how these

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mountains were created.

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These are some of the oldest rocks in the UK -

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something like almost 3 billion years old.

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What you can see here is that we have got these black rocks and then

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cutting through them you have these pink stripes.

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And these are granite so they were actually formed by partial melting

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-of the black rock.

-What is the relationship between this and the

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process known as mountain building?

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We know this black rock,

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the stretches we can see in it were formed during continental collision.

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When two continents collide they are like bulldozers -

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they force up mountain ranges just as you see in the Himalaya.

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And when that happens you have a mountain range on the surface and

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deep down in the roots of the mountain you can get melting.

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And so you can see these sheets of newer rock that were formed when

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that melt has crystallised.

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And they kind of squeezed through the older rock, did they, to form those layers?

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Squeezed through the older rock, exactly.

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The area around Loch Laxford is known today as the Laxford Shear Zone,

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where rocks were squeezed like toothpaste deep beneath the earth.

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This is part of the wreckage of a continental collision.

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It is exactly that.

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And the shear zone that you are talking about,

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the collision zone as I would understand it, extends how far?

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This collision zone extends out to the coast there but we can trace

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similar structures out into Greenland.

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Because of course once upon a time Greenland and Scotland were

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connected as part of the same continent.

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Peach and Horne's pioneering work put geologists on a road to discovery.

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It would eventually lead to plate tectonic theory -

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an understanding of how entire continents move and collide over

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unimaginable periods of time.

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They were the first to come here and realise that these rocks that we are

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looking at were incredibly complex and preserved a whole range of different

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geological events and they called this the fundamental complex.

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The fundamental complex?

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The fundamental complex. And of course they didn't have the clever

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analytical techniques we have now but their observations were

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absolutely superb and we still make use of those observations today.

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The geology of this part of Sutherland has created a landscape

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of rugged mountains and beautiful lochs.

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Passing Loch More and Loch Stack, I return to Loch Shin.

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At 25km long, this is the biggest body of freshwater

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in Sutherland, famous for its salmon and trout.

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I have a very early memory of seeing my first ever salmon on this loch.

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It was just after dawn on the morning of my fifth birthday and I

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was down here and the water was like glass,

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when suddenly a huge salmon leapt up and then disappeared.

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I was absolutely amazed - I had never seen anything like it.

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And the memory has stayed with me ever since.

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Returning to the scene of this vision 50 years later, I enlist the

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help of top ghillie George Leligdowicz.

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He has promised to help me catch a fish.

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Not a salmon this time, but a trout

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for which Loch Shin is rightly famous.

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So, George, do you think this is a good day for fishing?

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It certainly is. We have a good wave on the water and the other good

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thing is we haven't got any midges.

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-That is a very important consideration.

-It certainly is.

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Fish have always managed to elude me but I am hoping for success with

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George - I am going to be relying on his knowledge, guile and these.

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An amazing collection of flies you've got here, George.

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-Over 1,000.

-Really?

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Yes. Just to give you an example, daddy-longlegs.

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There is a vast array of garish designs with weird names like Hairy Mary

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or Gold Bead Hare's Ear or - my personal favourite -

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the Woolly Bugger.

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These don't look like any insects I've seen...

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-Correct.

-..flying around here.

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Correct. Some flies I would say are tied to catch the angler

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as well as the fish.

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The true origins of the art of fly tying are lost in the mists of time

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but it is said that the Chinese used kingfisher feathers to lure fish

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3,000 years ago.

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And according to legend a medieval nun called Juliana once used

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a fly to land her catch.

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The art of fly tying using distinct patterns was perfected in the

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18th century, when fishing became a leisure pursuit.

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During the age of Empire, bright feathers of tropical birds were used

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to lure salmon from the peaty waters of Loch Shin.

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But today, as we are fishing for trout, we are using a fly

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that imitates a more native species.

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That is called a phantom midge fly there.

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-And do they work?

-They work very well, actually.

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Ironically, it is Loch Shin's real midges that get the upper hand

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by biting me before I even get the chance to cast my midge fly.

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George has chosen a special spot on the far shore, where he says I am

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almost guaranteed to hook a trout.

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My best tally with one guest in a day was 55 trout.

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-Good grief.

-Yeah.

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We were literally getting a fish every third or fourth cast.

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Having presented me with a challenge I can't hope to match,

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George gets back to basics with some casting tips.

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Can I just show you quickly? Watch.

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You go, flick, flick.

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See that? Flick, flick.

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The more effort you put in...

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The worse it is.

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Yeah. So very, very, very little effort.

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OK?

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OK, very little effort.

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So for all these years, I have just been trying too hard.

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Maybe if we had a big, big juicy worm on the end...

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But it seems my midge fly isn't delivering.

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After an hour of fruitless casting I reckon the only thing I am likely to

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catch in this weather is a cold.

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Leaving the ever-hopeful George and Loch Shin's reluctant trout,

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I head north-west and back to the coast to a pinch point

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between two lochs.

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This is Kylesku

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at the junction of Loch Cairnbawn and Loch Gleann Dubh.

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For centuries, travellers heading north or south had no choice but to

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cross the kyle by boat - the famous Kylesku ferry.

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And if they missed the last ferry at night, they faced a 100-mile detour.

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The village of Kylesku existed because of the ferry,

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but it is changed days now.

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The last ferry stopped running in 1984,

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replaced by this impressive and elegant bridge.

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Beneath its shadow are the remains of one of the old ferries.

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This is a rather sad sight.

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After its last run, the ferry was hauled ashore and abandoned

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to the elements. It looks like the elements are winning.

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And up here is the old swing bridge where cars would have been trundled

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aboard then carried across the kyle.

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That's the old ramp. It would have been put ashore to allow cars to

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drive on board and there is even the ghost of the name -

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The Maid Of Kylesku, I think.

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Nature is taking over.

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Even got sea pinks growing from the old deck.

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Leaving the old wreck, I head over the Kylesku bridge battling against

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wind and rain in weather that has taken a decided turn for the worse.

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I'm heading for a memorial overlooking Loch Cairnbawn -

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a stone monument that commemorates the men who trained here during

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World War II for a daring and deadly

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raid on the German battle cruiser Tirpitz,

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which was hiding in a Norwegian fjord.

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The idea was to deploy a new and untested secret weapon, the X-Craft.

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These were mini submarines crewed by up to four men -

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the original X-Men of their day -

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and their mission was to infiltrate heavily defended enemy harbours

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and to wreak havoc.

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Six X-Craft took part in the raid.

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None survived, but their mission was a success -

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the Tirpitz was seriously damaged and disabled,

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only to be finished off by the RAF before she could sail again.

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The bravery of the men who undertook this near-suicidal mission was

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exceptional. The surviving crew members were awarded

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the Victoria Cross

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and this humble memorial commemorates their connection

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with this little part of Scotland.

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The road south from Kylesku threads its way below the flanks of

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a complex mountain called Quinag,

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which in Gaelic apparently translates as the "milking pail",

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though why this might be, I have no idea.

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The southern summit of Quinag overlooks one of the most beautiful

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and serene lochs in Sutherland - Loch Assynt.

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As if the view wasn't lovely enough, this beautiful stretch of water also

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comes with a mythological creature of unsurpassed gorgeousness,

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whose fate was sealed right here at Ardvreck Castle.

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According to local legend, as they say,

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this castle was built by Clan MacLeod with the help of the devil.

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Naturally, there is always a price to pay for enlisting the services of

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Beelzebub - in this case it was Eimhir,

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the MacLeod chief's beautiful daughter.

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The evil one wanted her to be his bride.

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Now unsurprisingly, Eimhir was unhappy with this arrangement and in

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despair she threw herself from the tallest tower of Ardvreck Castle.

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But, strangely, her body was never discovered.

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Instead it is said that she plunged into the deep waters of Loch Assynt

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and swam down into a cave, where she transformed herself,

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becoming the beautiful and elusive Mermaid of Assynt.

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When the loch's waters rise above normal levels,

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legend says it is because of Eimhir's tears of grief.

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The tragic story of Eimhir and the devil also offers a mythological

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explanation for the contorted landscape of Assynt.

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The devil was in a hellish rage

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because Eimhir had evaded his clutches

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but he got his revenge by hurling hot rocks across the landscape.

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Which isn't that far from the truth, when you think about the asteroid

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which impacted Scotland 1.2 billion years ago.

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And as for the caves that Eimhir chose to hide in, well,

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there are lots of them,

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including one that's partially filled with a secret loch deep

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inside a mountain, which is where I am heading next.

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Alan. A speleologist if I ever saw one.

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Yes, indeed, fully kitted.

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Alan Jeffreys and his team of cavers have spent many years exploring

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Assynt's vast underground system of passages and tunnels which stretch

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several kilometres beneath the mountains.

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Alan wants to take me literally to rock bottom

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to explore a fascinating underground world and a type of loch I have

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never seen before.

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The first bit is a bit low but you can stand up after that.

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A bit low? It's very low!

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Hence the overalls.

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Just think of something you've lost under the bed.

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Right.

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Never to be seen again.

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The cave system takes us into the heart of Cnoc Nan Uamh,

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the Hill of the Caves,

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where a fast-flowing torrent roars through the darkness.

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After two hours of wriggling and squirming,

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climbing and wading through water,

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we have only managed to travel about 500 metres.

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But it's far enough to reach an extraordinary sight.

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This is amazing.

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It's almost surreal being down here.

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-Take a seat.

-Wow.

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A ringside seat in a spectacular location.

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-It's cathedral-like.

-It is a natural cathedral.

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-You are quite right.

-And it's all

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worn out by the erosive power of water.

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The erosive and acidic power of water.

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Water picks up acid from the soil

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and the peat on the surface and over

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thousands - sometimes millions - of years, it dissolves the limestone.

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That's an amazing sight.

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A lake in front of us, a black lake.

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And how deep is that lake?

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It's about eight metres deep and it has been dived horizontally

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for about 145 metres.

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There has been no exit yet, it pinched down to nothing.

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I can't think of anything worse than plunging eight metres into that

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black water and then making my way through an unknown passage

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to goodness knows what end in a cave under the ground.

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Yes, we are all lunatics.

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It's a common joke that climbers, that little worn-out phrase,

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"Why do you climb mountains?"

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"Because they are there."

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But for us it is because it MIGHT be there.

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We just don't know. Human beings are curious.

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What is round the next corner?

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BOTH: It could be this.

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Indeed. Some of the best caves in Britain have been long, arduous,

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tight crawls and then, suddenly, boom, you intersect something huge.

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And that is what we're all about - finding new caves.

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The first person in here...

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..is the first person in the history of the Earth to set foot and set his

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eyes on this. And it's a bit cheaper than going to the to moon

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to do the same thing. But then in the primitive times,

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people were afraid to come into caves because they thought there

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were bogles or ghosts in them.

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And you can see why, because the human imagination is such...

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In fact, I think being a slightly superstitious person myself,

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I need to make a little offering to whatever is down here, particularly

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-in the dark depths.

-Why not?

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You never know, it might be a mermaid.

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Well, that would be a bonus.

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Do you think she would appreciate that?

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Not if she is sitting directly underneath.

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It's a pretty poor offering, that.

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I think maybe it gives us a good chance of getting out anyway.

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Having made my offering to Eimhir, the Mermaid of Assynt,

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it's time to return to the surface, following the river that emerges

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from the cave and flows eventually into the sea,

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and to a village that takes its name from the loch where it is situated.

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This is Lochinver, on the loch called Loch Inver.

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The village is the largest in this part of Sutherland,

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and is an important fishing port.

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Fish landed here makes its way to southern Europe,

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but I'm not here for the seafood.

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Much as I love fish, I am also very partial to pies, and Lochinver

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has become famous for them.

0:20:570:20:59

A huge array of pies you've got here.

0:20:590:21:02

Yes. We have 15 savoury and six sweet.

0:21:020:21:05

Chestnut and mushroom.

0:21:050:21:07

Vegetable curry. Pork, apple and cider.

0:21:070:21:09

Have you got a favourite of your own?

0:21:090:21:11

My favourite is the pork apple cider.

0:21:110:21:13

-I think I might take one of those.

-One of them, yes, sir.

0:21:130:21:17

How many pies would you sell on a good day, do you reckon?

0:21:170:21:19

In the height of summer it would be between 400 and 500.

0:21:190:21:22

That is a lot of pies.

0:21:220:21:23

-It is a lot of pies.

-And are they made on the premises?

0:21:230:21:26

Yes, they are made fresh every day.

0:21:260:21:27

-Good grief.

-Secret recipe, though.

0:21:270:21:29

Right, OK. Mum's the word.

0:21:290:21:31

-There you go.

-Thank you.

0:21:310:21:33

-There we are, sir.

-Thank you very much.

0:21:330:21:35

-Enjoy your pie.

-Cheers now.

0:21:350:21:36

Leaving Lochinver, I am hiking to my final destination,

0:21:430:21:47

the mighty Suilven.

0:21:470:21:49

But as I reach the start of my climb, the weather closes in again.

0:21:490:21:54

Even the most experienced hill walker and climber can be caught out

0:21:560:22:00

by the unpredictable Scottish climate,

0:22:000:22:03

and it's easy to lose your bearings.

0:22:030:22:06

Fatigue and exposure to the elements can quickly affect your faculties.

0:22:060:22:11

Before you know it, you can find yourself in a desperate

0:22:110:22:14

life-threatening situation.

0:22:140:22:17

Grid reference is November Charlie 147 25...

0:22:170:22:21

Thankfully, there are committed and experienced people who can be called

0:22:210:22:25

upon to come to the rescue.

0:22:250:22:27

On a hillside, Assynt Mountain Rescue team

0:22:280:22:31

are on a training exercise.

0:22:310:22:33

Many people owe their lives to their timely interventions.

0:22:330:22:37

A key member of the team is Molly,

0:22:400:22:42

and I am about to discover for myself

0:22:420:22:45

just how she and dogs like her have become indispensable saviours in the

0:22:450:22:49

most challenging conditions.

0:22:490:22:51

My role as a volunteer casualty

0:22:540:22:56

begins with a very enthusiastic greeting.

0:22:560:22:59

I've been saved!

0:22:590:23:02

-Hello.

-Hello. Hello.

0:23:020:23:04

-RADIO:

-Go ahead.

0:23:060:23:07

We found a casualty, I can give you his location, grid reference, over.

0:23:070:23:14

Assynt, go ahead, ready to receive.

0:23:140:23:16

I will just get a quick assessment

0:23:160:23:17

of your breathing. How are you feeling with your breathing?

0:23:170:23:20

-Any pain in your chest or anything like that?

-No pain in my chest yet.

0:23:200:23:23

-OK.

-I'm just worried if your hands are cold.

0:23:230:23:25

I'll tell you what I'll do, if you are breathing nice and easily,

0:23:250:23:28

that all feels nice...

0:23:280:23:30

The Assynt Mountain Rescue team has been saving lives for many years.

0:23:300:23:35

It depends on the skills of volunteers.

0:23:350:23:37

-So this is the team.

-These are our hearty volunteers, yes.

0:23:370:23:42

And, Charlie, this is your dog, Molly.

0:23:420:23:44

This is Molly the collie.

0:23:440:23:46

She is a Sarda Scotland search-and-rescue dog.

0:23:460:23:49

-How old is Molly?

-She is six and a half now.

0:23:490:23:51

Molly and her canine chum Assynt belong to an illustrious group

0:23:530:23:57

of Scottish search-and-rescue dogs.

0:23:570:24:00

The man who first saw the potential for dogs to find the lost and

0:24:010:24:05

injured in Scottish hills was the climbing legend Hamish MacInnes.

0:24:050:24:10

The techniques he developed are still used to train dogs like Molly

0:24:110:24:15

to find casualties, should someone like me need help.

0:24:150:24:19

So the dog will come in,

0:24:190:24:23

she will bark at you and then she will come back to me and take me

0:24:230:24:27

back in to you.

0:24:270:24:29

-Just like Lassie?

-Just like Lassie.

0:24:290:24:31

They're so intelligent, as well.

0:24:310:24:33

Usually the handler gets in the way.

0:24:340:24:36

It is the dog that is actually doing the work.

0:24:360:24:38

It knows it needs to go and seek something.

0:24:380:24:41

Absolutely. And it is driven by play, really.

0:24:410:24:45

For her, the whole reward is playing with you.

0:24:450:24:48

So this is all just a game.

0:24:480:24:50

She loves this, this is what she absolutely loves to do.

0:24:500:24:54

Having been restored to full mountain vigour

0:24:570:25:00

by the playful Molly,

0:25:000:25:02

I wait for the clouds to lift before continuing on my way,

0:25:020:25:06

heading for the summit of Suilven.

0:25:060:25:08

Suilven isn't a high mountain by Scottish standards,

0:25:100:25:13

being just 731 metres above sea level,

0:25:130:25:17

but it's certainly dramatic.

0:25:170:25:19

Viewed end-on, it has the classic sugar-loaf outline.

0:25:190:25:23

The lung-bustingly steep path I am taking leads to a breach

0:25:260:25:30

in Suilven's defences.

0:25:300:25:32

Geologists love this mountain

0:25:380:25:41

and to be fair they love the whole of Assynt.

0:25:410:25:44

But the landscape you can see below me with its low hills

0:25:440:25:48

and lochans is composed of an ancient rock called gneiss,

0:25:480:25:53

spelt with a "G".

0:25:530:25:55

And it was formed deep within the Earth millions of years ago.

0:25:550:25:59

In fact, the rock is thought to be part of a lost continent that is

0:25:590:26:03

at least 3,000 million years old.

0:26:030:26:07

And that makes you think, doesn't it?

0:26:070:26:09

The next significant geological event occurred

0:26:130:26:16

about 1,000 million years ago when rivers and lakes deposited

0:26:160:26:21

a thick layer of sand and mud and buried the old landscape.

0:26:210:26:25

The sand and mud then became the rock that now makes up Suilven.

0:26:250:26:30

During the ice ages, the sandstone was worn away by the action of

0:26:300:26:35

glaciers, except in a few places

0:26:350:26:37

where it was tough enough to survive.

0:26:370:26:39

Many of the curiously shaped and dramatic mountains of Assynt

0:26:410:26:45

are those nuggets of resistance,

0:26:450:26:48

and Suilven is definitely one of the toughest.

0:26:480:26:52

HE PUFFS

0:26:520:26:54

It's amazing to think of the aeons of time that it has taken to form

0:26:580:27:03

this extraordinary landscape,

0:27:030:27:05

and how insignificant and puny we are in this immensity.

0:27:050:27:09

And yet we all try to leave our mark on the world -

0:27:110:27:14

like here.

0:27:140:27:15

Now, this is a bizarre sight, it's almost surreal.

0:27:160:27:20

I don't know who was responsible but someone has built a great wall,

0:27:200:27:25

a giant dry-stane dyke on the final summit slopes of Suilven.

0:27:250:27:30

Now apparently it was built to mark a boundary,

0:27:300:27:34

a boundary of ownership.

0:27:340:27:36

Now that is a futile gesture, surely.

0:27:360:27:39

But it makes me think, in an age when wall building has become

0:27:390:27:44

popular again, I wonder who picked up the bill for this one.

0:27:440:27:48

For the first time in days,

0:27:520:27:55

Suilven's beautiful ridge is clear of cloud.

0:27:550:27:58

The summit dome is an unexpectedly smooth grassy area -

0:27:580:28:03

just the spot for a picnic,

0:28:030:28:05

a place to contemplate the view which takes in the hills and lochs

0:28:050:28:10

of Assynt in a grand sweep that reminds you of the enormity

0:28:100:28:15

of geological time.

0:28:150:28:17

With the world at my feet, I can't think of a better place

0:28:170:28:20

to end my Grand Tour from Lairg to Lochinver, and to enjoy a pie.

0:28:200:28:25

Join me for my final loch-hopping tour, when I will be heading

0:28:310:28:35

up the Trossachs from lake to loch.

0:28:350:28:38

1.2 billion years ago, the far north of Sutherland was struck by a meteorite. The wreckage of this cataclysmic event has been almost completely worn away by time, but the rocks in the landscape still bear some traces, which Paul unpicks as he embarks on a grand tour from Lairg on Loch Shin to Lochinver and, finally, to the summit of Suilven - the sugarloaf mountain.


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