Bydd Eric ar un o fynyddoedd mwyaf adnabyddus y byd - Yr Eigr yn y Swistir. In the final programme, Eric is on one of the most famous mountains in the world - the Eiger in Switz...
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-The Alps, the tallest mountains in
-Europe stretch over 74,000 miles...
-..through eight countries
-and is home to 14 million people.
-The Alps are under threat
-due to the thousands who flock here.
-Hundreds of miles
-separate Wales and the Alps...
-..but comparisons can be made.
-In a period
-when we face similar problems...
-..I'll search for solutions.
-The castle of the king of mountains
-In this programme,
-I'll visit the Eiger mountain...
-..and travel to Austria and Italy.
-I meet a friend in Switzerland...
-..to see how tourism and culture
-are encouraged to develop together.
-I'm visiting a farmer in Austria...
-the world's best climber...
-..at his castle in Tirol.
-Eiger rises from the green fields
-of Kleine Scheidegg.
-Visitors watch the climbers
-like an audience in a cinema.
-Eiger isn't the tallest mountain
-in the Alps, but it's well-known.
-The north face
-has a distinctive shape.
-It's notoriously loose, so there's
-a danger of falling rock and ice.
-I came here in September 1980...
-..and climbed its face
-in 18 hours on my own.
-Eiger creates its own,
-that start without warning.
-Climbers often find themselves
-in grave danger.
-Following the first climb
-of the northern face in 1938...
-..many have died scaling this
-wall of loose rock, ice and snow.
-After years of dreaming,
-I reached the peak on my own...
-..and it felt amazing.
-It was the zenith
-of my climbing career.
-People come from far and wide
-to see the Eiger...
-..and travel on the train
-that passes through the mountain.
-Hannes Stahli is a former soldier
-..but earns a living as a climber,
-mountain guide and stonemason.
-Hello, Hannes. My Friend.
-Hello, Hannes. My Friend.
-Hello, Eric. Nice to see you.
-Hannes claims that Eiger is an icon
-for the Swiss and her visitors.
-Eiger is an important mountain
-for those visiting the Alps...
-..especially those interested
-in climbing and mountaineering...
-..even if they do not want
-to conquer the mountain itself.
-She's close to the community...
-..and easy to reach by train from
-Grindelwald to Kleine Scheidegg.
-You could almost touch it.
-How has Switzerland, more than
-any other country in the Alps...
-..gained world recognition...
-..as the true Alpine country?
-Switzerland has the largest area
-of land within the Alps.
-Two thirds of Switzerland
-lies in the Alps...
-..and do not belong to
-France, Italy, Austria or Germany.
-the Alps are not as high.
-From a plane,
-Switzerland is the heart of Europe.
-This is why we are recognised...
-as an Alpine country.
-The Alpine tradition
-is important to the Swiss.
-In the mountains, examples of this
-can be seen to this day.
-Certain images in the Alps
-HORNS PLAY IN UNISON
-We have a structure
-to maintain tourism...
-..in the Jungfrau region.
-Many other areas have developed over
-a number of years thanks to tourism.
-We differ from
-those areas in France...
-..which have been developed
-just for tourism...
-..because we have grown
-and developed organically.
-We have local residents who
-make a living from other sources.
-The focus of our lives
-continues to be local...
-..as it has been for many centuries.
-Some large areas
-are empty and silent...
-..and this is how we want them
-to remain - for a long time!
-I think that the area in which
-one is raised shapes your character.
-was formed by Snowdonia...
-..and I was formed
-by these mountains in Switzerland.
-The tourist and agricultural
-industries of Switzerland...
-..are at the mercy of the weather.
-Hannes and his kind
-..but the recent times
-have been unusual.
-Today's weather is very strange -
-it's more extreme.
-It can either be hot and very dry...
-..or extremely cold and wet.
-Two years ago, we had floods
-that drowned half of the village.
-We had never experienced floods
-of this kind before.
-The changing weather
-has affected the mountains.
-The safe climbing periods are
-shorter due to frequent avalanches.
-I know from experience
-the might of an avalanche.
-Many climbers are killed each year
-by avalanches in the Alps.
-entire villages are buried.
-Last summer, six young soldiers
-were killed on Eiger by the snow.
-Grindelwald will always have
-a place in my heart.
-Their ideas and common sense
-of using and promoting tourism...
-..yet ensuring other means of income
-is a lesson to learn.
-Next, I'm going to visit
-a unique farm in Austria...
-..and meet the climber who scaled
-Everest with me some 30 years ago.
-Differing from those who know
-the perils of living in the Alps...
-..city dwellers have
-a romantic image of the mountains.
-They explore the waterfalls...
-and beautiful valleys.
-These stem from the Romantic era.
-In the final leg of my trip, I'll
-visit a farm in the southern Alps...
-to the Tirol in Italy.
-It's a tough life for farmers
-in the southern Alps.
-Some think it's impossible to make
-a living on these rocky slopes.
-Josef Holzer has spent a lifetime
-farming on the Austrian Alps.
-He fears that he will be
-the last of his family to do so.
-I call these
-the perennial Holzer farms.
-I tend to the land in a way
-that works in harmony with nature.
-One must be cautious of the natural
-symbiotic relationship of plants.
-In one of the coldest
-has grown lemons and grapes...
-..despite an average annual
-temperature of four degrees Celsius.
-He has a variety of plants...
-..using seeds that are to be planted
-in poor soil...
-the fertilisation process.
-He rears pigs for their meat...
-..which, in turn, rummage through
-the rocky ground in search for food.
-No money or time is wasted.
-All he has to do is plant the seeds.
-It's a Garden of Eden
-in the icy Alps.
-By avoiding chemicals or expensive
-machinery and working with nature...
-that you can live well...
-..whilst caring for the environment.
-He planted crops of barley
-where they wouldn't normally grow.
-I wonder if schemes of this kind
-would work in Wales?
-I've left Innsbruck in Austria
-and am climbing the Brenner Pass.
-Forty years ago, I would travel
-this route every summer...
-..en route to climb the Dolomites.
-At that time,
-there were terrible traffic jams.
-It would take four or five hours
-to travel a mere 20-mile journey.
-They were building the motorway
-at that time.
-the motorway is very busy...
-..carrying hundreds of vehicles
-..and this road is quiet.
-This valley is highly polluted
-due to the traffic.
-In this valley...
-..the petrol stations
-and restaurants have closed.
-There's less work or profit
-for the local residents.
-I first heard
-about Reinhold Messner in 1965.
-The climbing magazines had a story
-about a young climber from Tirol...
-..who did some amazing climbs
-in the Dolomites.
-Climbers were cynical about him...
-..and wondered how this rock climber
-would cope with the Western Alps...
-..and her large ice and snow climbs.
-A year later, Messner
-went to the Mont Blanc region...
-..and did some amazing climbs
-on ice and snow.
-I met him when I accompanied
-Leo Dickinson and his film crew...
-..to film Reinhold in his attempt
-of the southern face of Dhaulagiri.
-A year later, we went to Everest.
-Reinhold and Peter Haberler were set
-to scale Everest without oxygen.
-They were successful.
-I filmed them at 8,000 metres
-when they came down from the peak.
-This climb was very important
-in the history of mountaineering.
-In my opinion, Reinhold Messner
-went down in history...
-..as the greatest mountaineer
-of all time.
-I'm finally making my way
-along this steep and narrow road...
-..to Reinhold Messner's home
-which is a castle.
-It's apt for the king of mountains.
-Eight different nations
-control the Alps...
-..and of all these nations,
-it's the people of the city...
-..who make decisions about the area.
-They decide where development
-is needed, but I don't like it.
-is destroying the mountains.
-I think we should decide
-what takes place here.
-It's a massive problem,
-as it is in Wales.
-How do you ensure that traditional
-methods continue and flourish...
-..and take advantage of tourism
-that doesn't destroy the culture?
-I'm not against tourism -
-I like tourists...
-..but if you want to use the Alps
-as a business...
-..they must be used sensibly.
-Where's your wife from?
-Where's your wife from?
-Reinhold offered to show us
-his traditional farm.
-THEY SPEAK ITALIAN
-We produce good wine on a site
-where a vineyard didn't even exist!
-We're now building a vineyard
-near the castle.
-It's much higher than any other...
-..but I'm sure there'll be
-higher vineyards in a hundred years.
-This is both good and bad
-because we'll have a water problem.
-Water is needed on the mountain.
-The water that irrigates the
-vineyard comes from the glaciers.
-If the glaciers disappear
-and we have a dry summer...
-..it would be difficult
-to get water to the vineyard.
-We must learn how to cope.
-It takes me back to my childhood -
-we had pigs when I was a boy.
-Reinhold's greatest fear is that
-the city folk want to tame the Alps.
-Everything has changed.
-do not fear the mountain.
-The tourist office has eliminated
-all talk of the dangers of the Alps.
-We should stop and close
-the cable cars on the glaciers.
-I think the glaciers are sacred.
-We should protect them
-in the best way we can.
-We should preserve
-our special culture.
-Tourists will come here if
-we have something amazing to offer.
-They enjoy our farms,
-forests and fields...
-..but above these,
-at 2,400 metres high...
-..stand the mountains.
-Those who can venture higher...
-to deal with the dangers...
-..the erratic weather,
-snow and avalanches.
-should not be dismissed.
-The mountain is a natural wall...
-..that reminds us of a danger...
-..that cannot be controlled.
-Messner has a great influence
-over the Alps as a famous climber...
-..and former European
-Member of Parliament.
-Will they listen to his ideas?
-I've enjoyed my journey
-and learnt a lot.
-I've met the wonderful people
-of the Alps...
-..the country folk, descendants
-of those who have shaped the Alps.
-I met people from many remote areas
-and small villages...
-..with a wealth of knowledge...
-..who through variety
-and hard work...
-..try to ensure the Alps' future.
-Global warming means that
-we must care for the environment.
-Tourism is important, but
-one shouldn't depend on it too much.
-like the Welsh mountains...
-..should be a place of enjoyment.
-However, one must respect
-..their culture and way of life.
-S4C subtitles by Tinopolis
Bydd Eric ar un o fynyddoedd mwyaf adnabyddus y byd - Yr Eigr yn y Swistir. In the final programme, Eric is on one of the most famous mountains in the world - the Eiger in Switzerland.