Taith o Chamonix i Sambuco wrth i Eric Jones ein cyflwyno i fynyddoedd a phobl yr Alpau. Montaineer Eric Jones introduces us to the Alps starting with a journey from Chamonix to...
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-The Alps, the highest mountains in
-Europe, stretch over 74,000 miles...
-..through eight countries.
-Home to 14 million people.
-I've travelled and climbed
-in the Alps for over 40 years.
-The Alps are under threat.
-The thousands of tourists who flock
-here have caused problems.
-The traditions and customs
-of the mountains may cease to exist.
-Languages and cultures
-are at risk.
-Hundreds of miles
-separate Wales and the Alps...
-..but comparisons can be made.
-We face similar problems.
-I shall journey
-through the mountains...
-..in search of a solution.
-From Summit To Soul
-The Alps were formed
-53 million years ago...
-..when the African continent
-collided with Europe.
-This is Dent du Geant,
-a peak in the Mont Blanc region.
-Mountaineering started in the Alps.
-This type of climbing
-is known worldwide as Alpinism.
-Jungfraujoch in Switzerland
-is 3,500 metres high.
-I've witnessed many changes here.
-There's been an amazing change
-in the last 40 years.
-At my first visit,
-donkeys carried food to the huts.
-a helicopter does everything.
-Mountaineering is much safer
-as a result.
-Years ago, in an accident...
-..it took ages to transport
-the injured to safety...
-..but it only takes a matter
-of minutes by helicopter.
-I've been associated
-with the Alps for years...
-the Matterhorn and Eiger mountains.
-As my interest
-in mountaineering grew...
-..I read about early pioneers,
-like Teray, Heckmair and Harrer.
-I felt a strong attraction
-to the Eiger.
-It's the highest wall in the Alps
-with an exciting history.
-The danger made it
-a challenging climb.
-I came here in September 1980...
-..and climbed the face alone
-in around 18 hours.
-To climb the north face
-of the Eiger and Matterhorn...
-..you must master rock climbing,
-deal with ice and snow...
-when to push forward or turn back.
-The ascents are long and dangerous,
-standing at 9,000 feet high.
-It calls for stamina
-and a bit of luck!
-It felt amazing to reach the peak
-on my own, after years of dreaming.
-It's the zenith
-of my climbing career.
-These are two Austrian climbers.
-As a tribute to those
-who climbed this peak...
-..a statue of the Madonna
-was erected on the summit.
-This is Mont Blanc,
-Europe's highest mountain.
-Our journey takes us
-from Mont Blanc to Italy...
-..then to Switzerland's
-Matterhorn and Eiger...
-..to Austria and back to Italy to
-the home of the King of Mountains.
-I want to know
-what's happening in the Alps...
-..how locals overcome the problems
-caused by the changing climate.
-With the increase
-in tourism and traffic...
-..pollution is worsening...
-..and resources like water
-Farmers diversify and this has
-an adverse effect on agriculture.
-At my home near Snowdonia,
-we face similar problems.
-What can we do
-to overcome these problems?
-Our journey begins in Chamonix...
-..at the highest mountain
-of Western Europe - Mont Blanc.
-I've climbed here many times.
-I've scaled the most difficult
-climbs of the area on my own...
-..including the Central Pillar
-of Brouillard on the southern face.
-Nobody had climbed it before.
-A few of my friends
-must remain here forever.
-I consider the Alps to be a place
-of beauty, peace and adventure.
-However, they can often
-be dangerous and lethal.
-As I wander
-through this cemetery at Chamonix...
-..I'm amazed at the number
-of climbers who have died here.
-I've lost six friends
-on the mountains of Mont Blanc.
-Tom Hurley, Arthur De-Kusel....
-..Rick Knight, John Eastwood...
-..and Roger Baxter-Jones
-who is buried here.
-Roger worked with me at a climbing
-school at Zermatt for three years.
-In 1985, Roger went climbing
-with another friend...
-..a Canadian living in Zermatt
-called John Eastwood.
-They attempted the northern face
-of Triolet, south of Chamonix.
-a large piece of ice fell...
-..killing both of them
-and two Italians.
-It was a sad time,
-losing two friends.
-This is the grave of another friend,
-In 1970, four of us
-were climbing in the Alps.
-Mick Coffey, Rick Knight,
-Arthur and me.
-One day, the four of us were going
-to climb the Grand Capucin...
-..near Mont Blanc du Tacul.
-At the last minute, Mick and I...
-..decided to delay
-the climb until the following day.
-Arthur and Rick opted to go ahead.
-That night, a horrific storm
-blew into the valley.
-The mountain was struck by lightning
-killing five mountaineers...
-..including Arthur and Rick.
-Mick and I were very fortunate
-not to have climbed...
-..or we would have been killed too.
-When a friend or climber
-is killed on a mountain...
-..I feel maybe mountaineering
-is not worth the risk...
-..but the enchantment and charm
-of the mountains is so compelling...
-..that I always return here.
-The thousands of tourists
-who frequently return here...
-the face of the Alps forever.
-In the 1940s, a small number of
-people lived in Deux Alpes, France.
-This is where the first
-ski centres were built...
-..but there are no communities here.
-In the 1950s, villages and holiday
-resorts seemed to appear overnight.
-Only 17% of the Alps
-is protected as a national park.
-Nobody worried about the environment
-but as the ice and snow melt...
-..new ideas are needed
-to attract tourists.
-This sort of tourism invests little
-in the future of local residents.
-In the Deux Alpes region...
-..cable cars enable entry
-to 3,600 metres of ski resorts.
-In the process
-of preparing the slopes...
-..the snow is polluted
-which quickens erosion.
-There are currently
-over 600 ski centres in the Alps...
-..but I fear half of these
-will close by 2050.
-My journey through the Alps
-..to an area
-that has seen great depopulation.
-The next village is Sambuco
-in northern Italy.
-student Erich Giordano...
-..and his grandmother,
-Maria Bagnis, who farms.
-I'm meeting them at Sambuco,
-on the French Italian border...
-..in the Stura Valley,
-an area known as the Cottian Alps.
-These valleys experienced
-heavy migration in recent decades.
-many visitors and workers...
-..yet other regions
-experience extreme depopulation.
-A century ago,
-some 1,200 people lived here...
-there are fewer than 90.
-Erich Giordano published the oral
-traditions of the area in a book.
-Hello, I'm Erich.
-Hello, I'm Erich.
-I'm also Eric!
-Here's one of the deserted villages
-- Narbona in the Grana Valley.
-It's beautiful, but Erich Giordano
-can see beyond the beauty.
-I agree that this is
-a beautiful area on the surface.
-It would be difficult
-to imagine any problems here...
-..but I am not afraid to express
-a critical view of the situation.
-You must be critical.
-One must also acknowledge the fact
-that many people have left...
-..so the prospects for the future
-are very bleak.
-Erich is a scientist and author.
-His main interest is the fate
-of his family's native tongue.
-The language is still used
-in the western region of Piedmont...
-..but it's in decline
-due to the influence of Italian.
-What made the people leave
-Erich returned to Narbona
-with a former resident.
-It appears that the residents
-left in haste, leaving everything.
-This village was a busy centre
-until some 40 years ago.
-Young people under 18 years of age
-feel trapped in an area like this.
-They don't want to stay here.
-They choose to leave in search of
-work and start a family elsewhere.
-Let's have something to eat.
-Let's have something to eat.
-Your grandmother doesn't speak
-English and I don't speak Italian.
-I've lived here all my life.
-When I speak to my children...
-that we live in such a safe place.
-Those who move away
-achieve a higher standard of living.
-When I speak to them, I wonder
-if they've made the right choice.
-As I think of the future in the
-village and within the family...
-..I cannot foresee a new generation
-taking my place.
-My nephew - Adriano, is the last
-sheep breeder in Sambuco.
-It has been a family tradition
-His great-grandfather and
-grandfather were shepherds.
-As a result of depopulation,
-the wolves have returned...
-..endangering his livelihood
-and the future of the farm.
-In Narbona, Adriano
-was overwhelmed with homesickness.
-Why has everybody left?
-The young girls left
-to go and work in the cities.
-We'd lost touch
-with the outside world...
-..which made it difficult to stay.
-The winter was particularly hard.
-The women went into service
-..and young people were steered away
-from our way of life.
-This landscape had its own cultural
-identity that formed over centuries.
-People have left in droves,
-leaving villages deserted.
-Back in Sambuco,
-I had another coffee...
-..before I bade farewell
-and resumed my journey.
-Depopulation has taken its toll
-on this region of the Alps.
-It's becoming a natural habitat
-for wild animals, like wolves.
-It's the age-long battle
-between urban and rural areas.
-It's an all too familiar story
-back in Wales.
-Young people flocking to the cities
-to seek employment...
-..causes problems in rural areas.
-There are fewer people
-available to work...
-I've witnessed this problem
-at Tremadog - my home.
-I leave Italy for Switzerland
-and travel to San Gottardo.
-It isn't a picturesque region
-but a thriving centre of trade.
-I'm meeting Martin Immenhauser.
-He was the manager at Sasso San
-Gottardo - an underground fort.
-Morning, Martin. I'm Eric.
-Pleased to meet you.
-Nice model you have here.
-Our Bernese Alps.
-Our Bernese Alps.
-Yes, I recognize one or two of them.
-We have Eiger and Jungfrau.
-Is this is the Lauterbrunnen Wall?
-Is this is the Lauterbrunnen Wall?
-During World War II, we were
-under threat from many directions.
-We built a network of underground
-caverns along the Alps...
-..to defend ourselves.
-The aim was to prevent
-other countries from attacking us.
-The fort at San Gottardo was
-the largest structure of its kind.
-The air purification and heating
-systems are still in operation.
-When it was closed in 1997,
-they sought an alternative function.
-The Gotthard Pass was crucial
-for transport in the Alps.
-That's why these forts were built.
-We have some skis here. I used to
-ski on this type when I was young.
-It's changed a lot.
-Less than a kilometre away
-from Gotthard stands another fort...
-..that's been refurbished as
-an underground restaurant and hotel.
-San Gottardo is more than a pass,
-it's a place in its own right.
-Transport has been important
-to the area for centuries.
-It's evident throughout the area
-in its roads and railways.
-This is one of the main themes of
-the scheme, inspired by transport.
-The image of the space changes
-with those who make use of it.
-This is definitely the most
-important route through the Alps.
-1,000 metres beneath the fort...
-..boring takes place
-at an immense speed.
-A tunnel is being built to connect
-the northern and southern Alps.
-The Gotthard Tunnel is the first
-high speed tunnel in Switzerland.
-It'll take an hour off the journey
-from Zurich to Milan.
-The scheme costs
-five billion euros...
-..and opens a new 180km route
-to include a 57km tunnel.
-A large number of major routes,
-both roads and railways...
-..run through this region
-of the Alps in Switzerland.
-We don't consider
-the risks involved.
-Despite the responsibilities,
-we are constantly aware...
-..that we do not own these passes,
-we merely tend them.
-The traditionally impoverished
-district of Surselva...
-..lies to the east of Gotthard.
-A lift will be built to carry people
-from the tunnel to the town.
-is known as the Porta Alpina.
-It's an entrance to the Alps as the
-station's directly beneath Surselva.
-This would be the world's highest
-lift and could transform the region.
-These pioneering schemes
-aim to reduce pollution...
-..and improve transport.
-In the next programme,
-I travel to Switzerland...
-..and Zermatt, where I was a
-climbing instructor for five years.
-The Matterhorn fills the valley.
-I've scaled it seven times,
-twice up the northern face.
-It's an amazing mountain
-and a symbol of the Alps.
-S4C subtitles by Tinopolis
Taith o Chamonix i Sambuco wrth i Eric Jones ein cyflwyno i fynyddoedd a phobl yr Alpau. Montaineer Eric Jones introduces us to the Alps starting with a journey from Chamonix to Sambuco.