Eric yn yr Alpau Alpau Eric Jones


Eric yn yr Alpau

Taith o Chamonix i Sambuco wrth i Eric Jones ein cyflwyno i fynyddoedd a phobl yr Alpau. Montaineer Eric Jones introduces us to the Alps starting with a journey from Chamonix to...


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-The Alps, the highest mountains in

-Europe, stretch over 74,000 miles...

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-..through eight countries.

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-Home to 14 million people.

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-I've travelled and climbed

-in the Alps for over 40 years.

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-The Alps are under threat.

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-The thousands of tourists who flock

-here have caused problems.

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-The traditions and customs

-of the mountains may cease to exist.

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-Languages and cultures

-are at risk.

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-Hundreds of miles

-separate Wales and the Alps...

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-..but comparisons can be made.

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-We face similar problems.

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-I shall journey

-through the mountains...

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-..in search of a solution.

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-From Summit To Soul

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-The Alps were formed

-53 million years ago...

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-..when the African continent

-collided with Europe.

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-This is Dent du Geant,

-a peak in the Mont Blanc region.

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-Mountaineering started in the Alps.

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-This type of climbing

-is known worldwide as Alpinism.

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-Jungfraujoch in Switzerland

-is 3,500 metres high.

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-I've witnessed many changes here.

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-There's been an amazing change

-in the last 40 years.

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-At my first visit,

-donkeys carried food to the huts.

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-Nowadays,

-a helicopter does everything.

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-Mountaineering is much safer

-as a result.

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-Years ago, in an accident...

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-..it took ages to transport

-the injured to safety...

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-..but it only takes a matter

-of minutes by helicopter.

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-I've been associated

-with the Alps for years...

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-..particularly

-the Matterhorn and Eiger mountains.

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-As my interest

-in mountaineering grew...

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-..I read about early pioneers,

-like Teray, Heckmair and Harrer.

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-I felt a strong attraction

-to the Eiger.

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-It's the highest wall in the Alps

-with an exciting history.

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-The danger made it

-a challenging climb.

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-I came here in September 1980...

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-..and climbed the face alone

-in around 18 hours.

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-To climb the north face

-of the Eiger and Matterhorn...

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-..you must master rock climbing,

-deal with ice and snow...

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-..and learn

-when to push forward or turn back.

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-The ascents are long and dangerous,

-standing at 9,000 feet high.

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-It calls for stamina

-and a bit of luck!

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-It felt amazing to reach the peak

-on my own, after years of dreaming.

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-It's the zenith

-of my climbing career.

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-These are two Austrian climbers.

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-As a tribute to those

-who climbed this peak...

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-..a statue of the Madonna

-was erected on the summit.

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-This is Mont Blanc,

-Europe's highest mountain.

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-Our journey takes us

-from Mont Blanc to Italy...

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-..then to Switzerland's

-Matterhorn and Eiger...

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-..to Austria and back to Italy to

-the home of the King of Mountains.

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-I want to know

-what's happening in the Alps...

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-..how locals overcome the problems

-caused by the changing climate.

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-With the increase

-in tourism and traffic...

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-..pollution is worsening...

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-..and resources like water

-become scarce.

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-Farmers diversify and this has

-an adverse effect on agriculture.

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-At my home near Snowdonia,

-we face similar problems.

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-What can we do

-to overcome these problems?

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-Our journey begins in Chamonix...

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-..at the highest mountain

-of Western Europe - Mont Blanc.

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-I've climbed here many times.

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-I've scaled the most difficult

-climbs of the area on my own...

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-..including the Central Pillar

-of Brouillard on the southern face.

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-Nobody had climbed it before.

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-A few of my friends

-must remain here forever.

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-I consider the Alps to be a place

-of beauty, peace and adventure.

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-However, they can often

-be dangerous and lethal.

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-As I wander

-through this cemetery at Chamonix...

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-..I'm amazed at the number

-of climbers who have died here.

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-I've lost six friends

-on the mountains of Mont Blanc.

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-George Bettenburg,

-Tom Hurley, Arthur De-Kusel....

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-..Rick Knight, John Eastwood...

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-..and Roger Baxter-Jones

-who is buried here.

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-Roger worked with me at a climbing

-school at Zermatt for three years.

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-In 1985, Roger went climbing

-with another friend...

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-..a Canadian living in Zermatt

-called John Eastwood.

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-They attempted the northern face

-of Triolet, south of Chamonix.

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-Halfway up,

-a large piece of ice fell...

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-..killing both of them

-and two Italians.

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-It was a sad time,

-losing two friends.

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-This is the grave of another friend,

-Arthur De-Kusel.

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-In 1970, four of us

-were climbing in the Alps.

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-Mick Coffey, Rick Knight,

-Arthur and me.

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-One day, the four of us were going

-to climb the Grand Capucin...

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-..near Mont Blanc du Tacul.

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-At the last minute, Mick and I...

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-..decided to delay

-the climb until the following day.

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-Arthur and Rick opted to go ahead.

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-That night, a horrific storm

-blew into the valley.

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-The mountain was struck by lightning

-killing five mountaineers...

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-..including Arthur and Rick.

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-Mick and I were very fortunate

-not to have climbed...

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-..or we would have been killed too.

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-When a friend or climber

-is killed on a mountain...

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-..I feel maybe mountaineering

-is not worth the risk...

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-..but the enchantment and charm

-of the mountains is so compelling...

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-..that I always return here.

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-The thousands of tourists

-who frequently return here...

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-..have changed

-the face of the Alps forever.

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-In the 1940s, a small number of

-people lived in Deux Alpes, France.

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-This is where the first

-ski centres were built...

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-..but there are no communities here.

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-In the 1950s, villages and holiday

-resorts seemed to appear overnight.

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-Only 17% of the Alps

-is protected as a national park.

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-Nobody worried about the environment

-but as the ice and snow melt...

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-..new ideas are needed

-to attract tourists.

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-This sort of tourism invests little

-in the future of local residents.

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-In the Deux Alpes region...

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-..cable cars enable entry

-to 3,600 metres of ski resorts.

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-In the process

-of preparing the slopes...

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-..the snow is polluted

-which quickens erosion.

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-There are currently

-over 600 ski centres in the Alps...

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-..but I fear half of these

-will close by 2050.

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-My journey through the Alps

-continues southwards...

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-..to an area

-that has seen great depopulation.

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-The next village is Sambuco

-in northern Italy.

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-I'm meeting

-student Erich Giordano...

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-..and his grandmother,

-Maria Bagnis, who farms.

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-I'm meeting them at Sambuco,

-on the French Italian border...

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-..in the Stura Valley,

-an area known as the Cottian Alps.

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-These valleys experienced

-heavy migration in recent decades.

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-SPEAKS ITALIAN

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-Chamonix attracts

-many visitors and workers...

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-..yet other regions

-experience extreme depopulation.

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-A century ago,

-some 1,200 people lived here...

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-..but nowadays

-there are fewer than 90.

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-Erich Giordano published the oral

-traditions of the area in a book.

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-Hello, I'm Erich.

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-Hello, I'm Erich.

-

-I'm also Eric!

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-ITALIAN GREETINGS

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-Here's one of the deserted villages

-- Narbona in the Grana Valley.

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-It's beautiful, but Erich Giordano

-can see beyond the beauty.

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-I agree that this is

-a beautiful area on the surface.

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-It would be difficult

-to imagine any problems here...

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-..but I am not afraid to express

-a critical view of the situation.

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-You must be critical.

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-One must also acknowledge the fact

-that many people have left...

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-..so the prospects for the future

-are very bleak.

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-Erich is a scientist and author.

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-His main interest is the fate

-of his family's native tongue.

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-The language is still used

-in the western region of Piedmont...

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-..but it's in decline

-due to the influence of Italian.

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-What made the people leave

-so suddenly?

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-Erich returned to Narbona

-with a former resident.

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-It appears that the residents

-left in haste, leaving everything.

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-This village was a busy centre

-until some 40 years ago.

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-Young people under 18 years of age

-feel trapped in an area like this.

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-They don't want to stay here.

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-They choose to leave in search of

-work and start a family elsewhere.

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-Let's have something to eat.

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-Let's have something to eat.

-

-Yes, maybe.

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-Your grandmother doesn't speak

-English and I don't speak Italian.

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-I've lived here all my life.

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-When I speak to my children...

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-..I'm pleased

-that we live in such a safe place.

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-Those who move away

-achieve a higher standard of living.

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-When I speak to them, I wonder

-if they've made the right choice.

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-As I think of the future in the

-village and within the family...

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-..I cannot foresee a new generation

-taking my place.

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-My nephew - Adriano, is the last

-sheep breeder in Sambuco.

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-It has been a family tradition

-for generations.

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-His great-grandfather and

-grandfather were shepherds.

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-As a result of depopulation,

-the wolves have returned...

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-..endangering his livelihood

-and the future of the farm.

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-In Narbona, Adriano

-was overwhelmed with homesickness.

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-Why has everybody left?

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-The young girls left

-to go and work in the cities.

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-We'd lost touch

-with the outside world...

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-..which made it difficult to stay.

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-The winter was particularly hard.

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-The women went into service

-in Turin...

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-..and young people were steered away

-from our way of life.

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-This landscape had its own cultural

-identity that formed over centuries.

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-People have left in droves,

-leaving villages deserted.

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-Back in Sambuco,

-I had another coffee...

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-..before I bade farewell

-and resumed my journey.

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-Depopulation has taken its toll

-on this region of the Alps.

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-It's becoming a natural habitat

-for wild animals, like wolves.

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-It's the age-long battle

-between urban and rural areas.

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-It's an all too familiar story

-back in Wales.

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-Young people flocking to the cities

-to seek employment...

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-..causes problems in rural areas.

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-There are fewer people

-available to work...

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-..maintaining families

-and communities.

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-I've witnessed this problem

-at Tremadog - my home.

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-I leave Italy for Switzerland

-and travel to San Gottardo.

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-It isn't a picturesque region

-but a thriving centre of trade.

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-I'm meeting Martin Immenhauser.

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-He was the manager at Sasso San

-Gottardo - an underground fort.

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-Morning, Martin. I'm Eric.

-Pleased to meet you.

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-Nice model you have here.

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-Our Bernese Alps.

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-Our Bernese Alps.

-

-Yes, I recognize one or two of them.

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-We have Eiger and Jungfrau.

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-Is this is the Lauterbrunnen Wall?

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-Is this is the Lauterbrunnen Wall?

-

-Yes.

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-During World War II, we were

-under threat from many directions.

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-We built a network of underground

-caverns along the Alps...

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-..to defend ourselves.

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-The aim was to prevent

-other countries from attacking us.

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-The fort at San Gottardo was

-the largest structure of its kind.

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-The air purification and heating

-systems are still in operation.

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-When it was closed in 1997,

-they sought an alternative function.

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-The Gotthard Pass was crucial

-for transport in the Alps.

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-That's why these forts were built.

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-We have some skis here. I used to

-ski on this type when I was young.

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-It's changed a lot.

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-Less than a kilometre away

-from Gotthard stands another fort...

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-..that's been refurbished as

-an underground restaurant and hotel.

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-San Gottardo is more than a pass,

-it's a place in its own right.

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-Transport has been important

-to the area for centuries.

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-It's evident throughout the area

-in its roads and railways.

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-This is one of the main themes of

-the scheme, inspired by transport.

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-The image of the space changes

-with those who make use of it.

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-This is definitely the most

-important route through the Alps.

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-1,000 metres beneath the fort...

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-..boring takes place

-at an immense speed.

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-A tunnel is being built to connect

-the northern and southern Alps.

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-The Gotthard Tunnel is the first

-high speed tunnel in Switzerland.

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-It'll take an hour off the journey

-from Zurich to Milan.

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-The scheme costs

-five billion euros...

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-..and opens a new 180km route

-to include a 57km tunnel.

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-A large number of major routes,

-both roads and railways...

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-..run through this region

-of the Alps in Switzerland.

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-We don't consider

-the risks involved.

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-Despite the responsibilities,

-we are constantly aware...

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-..that we do not own these passes,

-we merely tend them.

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-The traditionally impoverished

-district of Surselva...

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-..lies to the east of Gotthard.

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-A lift will be built to carry people

-from the tunnel to the town.

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-The project

-is known as the Porta Alpina.

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-It's an entrance to the Alps as the

-station's directly beneath Surselva.

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-This would be the world's highest

-lift and could transform the region.

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-These pioneering schemes

-aim to reduce pollution...

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-..and improve transport.

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-In the next programme,

-I travel to Switzerland...

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-..and Zermatt, where I was a

-climbing instructor for five years.

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-The Matterhorn fills the valley.

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-I've scaled it seven times,

-twice up the northern face.

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-It's an amazing mountain

-and a symbol of the Alps.

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-S4C subtitles by Tinopolis

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-.

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Taith o Chamonix i Sambuco wrth i Eric Jones ein cyflwyno i fynyddoedd a phobl yr Alpau. Montaineer Eric Jones introduces us to the Alps starting with a journey from Chamonix to Sambuco.


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