Pennod 1 Huw Edwards a Stori Cymry Llundain


Pennod 1

Huw Edwards sy'n ein tywys trwy bum canrif o hanes y Cymry yn Llundain. Huw Edwards guides us through five centuries of the history of the Welsh people living in London. (1/3)


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-That's it from us.

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-A first look at the papers on the

-BBC News channel in a few minutes...

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-..but now it's time

-for the news where you are.

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-And that's the end

-of another broadcast...

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-..here at the BBC's

-main news studio in London...

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-..watched by around five million

-viewers in Wales, England...

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-..Northern Ireland and Scotland.

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-The location of the studio

-speaks volumes.

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-In the heart of London,

-the capital of the United Kingdom.

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-However, the unity of that kingdom

-is a contentious issue nowadays.

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-The heart of London is where

-the BBC's new news headquarters...

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-..and the headquarters of Britain's

-influential companies are situated.

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-It's been home to millions of people

-over the centuries...

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-..including the Welsh, and the story

-of the London Welsh is intriguing.

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-Over five centuries, from Henry

-Tudor and his Welsh soldiers...

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-..to the age of the drovers...

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-..and the garden girls.

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-From literature societies...

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-..the Gorsedd of the Bards

-on Primrose Hill...

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-..the army of dairymen

-and the busy urban chapels...

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-..to the bustling city today.

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-It's a story

-which sparks the imagination.

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-In this series, we'll convey

-some of that hustle and bustle...

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-..and explain

-the influence of the Welsh...

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-..on one of the world's

-major cities...

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-..and London's influence

-on the Welsh.

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-The story of the London Welsh

-is relevant to everyone in Wales.

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-This is undoubtedly

-the best place to begin the story.

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-On the banks of the Thames, within

-the walls of the Tower of London...

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-..that has served as a royal palace

-and a prison down the centuries.

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-The construction of the White Tower

-began 1,000 years ago.

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-Many unfortunate Welsh people

-have been incarcerated here.

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-Among them

-was Gruffydd ap Llywelyn...

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-..the son of Llywelyn the Great

-of Gwynedd.

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-The cell lies beyond the windows

-that have been filled in with stone.

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-On St David's Day 1244...

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-..he attempted to escape

-but fell to his death.

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-This is the Traitors' Gate...

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-..the tower's main entrance

-for prisoners...

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-..many of whom

-were prominent Welshmen.

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-This is the Bloody Tower...

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-..which once again reminds us

-of this place's gruesome history.

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-But during the 15th century...

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-..the relationship

-between the Welsh...

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-..and England's Royal Family

-is transformed.

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-A new king

-becomes boss of this enormous place.

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-Who is he? Henry Tudor.

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-A young man of Welsh descent.

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-Well, partly Welsh.

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-Born in Pembroke Castle and

-a descendant of Anglesey's Tudors...

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-..Henry travelled across Wales

-in 1485...

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-..en route to battle Richard III

-at Bosworth Field.

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-Having won the battle and the crown,

-Henry Tudor became Henry VII...

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-..and came to the Tower of London

-to celebrate his victory.

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-It became his home

-for some time too.

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-Henry's arrival

-had an electrifying effect...

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-..on the status of the London Welsh.

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-After all, a third of Henry's army

-at Bosworth were Welsh.

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-This heralded major change.

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-The London Welsh went

-from being a group of enemies...

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-..to a group who were accepted.

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-Accepted, that is, under the terms

-of the English establishment.

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-We have to remember that

-he wasn't a fully-fledged Welshman.

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-He had English

-and French blood in him too.

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-But he was interested

-in his Welsh lineage.

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-His associations with Wales

-originated in Penmynydd, Anglesey.

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-At Bosworth, he was very keen...

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-..to show his affiliations

-with Wales...

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-..by flying the red dragon of

-Cadwaladr, a seventh-century king.

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-The new king

-was mindful of the Welsh support.

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-He appointed a Welshman

-as his personal physician.

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-He paid his nurse

-at Pembroke Castle a pension.

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-Legend has it

-that she taught him Welsh.

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-He established his own personal

-guards - the Yeoman of the Guard.

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-By the end of his days,

-one in every four guards...

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-..who wore the striking red uniform

-was a Welshman.

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-For the first time in history...

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-..the Welsh had status

-within the Royal court.

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-Like any new government who comes

-to power, the first thing it does...

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-..is employ its own officials

-in positions of power.

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-Trustworthy people.

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-They were predominantly positions

-within the court.

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-They weren't prominent roles...

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-..but they were roles...

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-..which showed that Henry

-was willing to reward the Welsh...

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-..who had assisted him.

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-They were called

-the Yeomen of the Guard.

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-Some of them

-were Welsh-speaking Welshmen.

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-One of Henry Tudor's

-main qualities was his might.

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-The kind of might

-Tower Bridge conveys today.

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-Much nonsense was written

-about Henry VII by Welsh poets...

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-..among them Sion Tudur...

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-..who claimed that Henry Tudor

-had liberated the Welsh.

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-"Fair Henry, our long lasting joy

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-"The one who set us free

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-"Good was it for Wales all his life

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-"That the man of Gwynedd

-was crowned."

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-Some historians claim that Henry

-achieved very little in Wales...

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-..though he had Welsh blood

-flowing through his veins.

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-Having said that...

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-..we could say that he contributed

-all he could for Wales.

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-It doesn't appear much

-because, after all...

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-..he had enough to do in England.

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-To establish himself

-as the monarch, for example.

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-At the rear of Westminster Abbey...

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-..is a symbol

-of Henry Tudor's power and wealth.

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-Choosing a resting place

-in an important place of worship...

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-..was vital to show that Henry's

-sovereignty was worthy...

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-..though he had seized

-the English crown in battle.

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-He used all kinds of symbols

-to emphasize his lineage's might.

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-This is one of London's wonders.

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-This is Henry VII's chapel

-in Westminster Abbey.

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-This is the resting place...

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-..of Henry Tudor and his wife,

-Elizabeth of York.

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-The chapel is spectacular.

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-It's full of symbols of Royal power.

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-If you look closely...

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-..you'll notice

-that the red dragon is everywhere.

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-But these

-aren't symbols of Welshness.

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-They're symbols

-of the Tudors' influence and power.

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-Henry and his descendants' reign...

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-..affected the lives

-of the London Welsh.

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-The Welsh aristocracy were delighted

-with his ascent to the throne.

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-During the reign of his son,

-Henry VIII...

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-..and his granddaughter,

-Elizabeth I...

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-..the Welsh accounted for between

-1% and 7% of London's population.

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-The Welsh had certainly arrived.

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-The notion that being in London

-was the way to thrive socially...

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-..was as important

-as thriving politically.

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-This is evident...

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-..at the beginning

-of the 16th century.

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-It goes to show

-that Henry supported this view.

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-But Wales' relationship

-with the Tudor dynasty...

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-..wasn't without its problems.

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-During Henry VIII's reign,

-the Act of Union was introduced.

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-Its author was the prime minister,

-Thomas Cromwell.

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-This was an anti-Welsh document...

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-..that would undermine

-Wales' language and identity.

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-According to others, one of

-the most influential figures...

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-..in terms of the Welsh language

-was Queen Elizabeth I.

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-In 1563,

-she introduced legislation...

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-..that would secure

-a Welsh translation of the Bible...

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-..for every church in Wales...

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-..providing official status

-for the Welsh language.

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-Unintentionally, of course.

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-William Morgan,

-the clergyman from Penmachno...

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-..was tasked with translating

-the Bible into Welsh.

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-Like all the earliest Welsh books

-that were printed...

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-..William Morgan's Bible

-was published in London.

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-For an entire year, the translator

-of the Welsh Bible stayed here...

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-..at Westminster Abbey

-to oversee the publishing.

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-Bishop William Morgan

-would cross this yard every day.

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-By the way, this place

-hasn't changed in five centuries.

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-He was here at the behest

-of the Dean of Westminster...

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-..Gabriel Goodman.

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-Here, in the heart of London,

-the Welsh Bible was perfected.

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-Gabriel Goodman hailed from Ruthin,

-the son of a wealthy merchant.

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-After studying at Cambridge, he

-began his career with the Church...

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-..which would eventually

-lead him to London...

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-..firstly to St Paul's Cathedral

-and then to Westminster.

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-Upon his return to Ruthin,

-he founded a grammar school.

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-He had already translated the First

-Book of Corinthians into Welsh...

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-..twenty years

-before Morgan arrived.

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-One of today's London Welsh

-is an assistant...

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-..to the current

-Dean of Westminster Abbey.

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-Non Vaughan O'Hagan has acquired

-the abbey library's original copy...

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-..of William Morgan's Bible, which

-was a gift from the author himself.

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-It's always a thrill

-to see William Morgan's Bible.

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-Why is it here in Westminster?

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-William Morgan presented it

-to the abbey as a gift.

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-To Gabriel Goodman specifically...

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-..because it was

-in Goodman's deanery...

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-..that he stayed while the book

-was being printed in London.

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-Why did he stay there?

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-It's believed that the Archbishop

-of Canterbury, John Whitgift...

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-..invited him

-to stay at Lambeth Palace...

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-..but he didn't want to cross

-the river twice a day to St Paul's.

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-The Bible was printed

-in a specific printing house...

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-..which had a special licence

-to print bibles.

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-As we look at this page...

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-..which is very, very famous...

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-..there's a signature

-right at the bottom.

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-Who was Jaspar Gryffyth?

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-Gabriel Goodman

-surrounded himself with people...

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-..who had an interest in Welsh.

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-Not only William Morgan, but also

-the Anglican Jaspar Gryffyth.

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-He realized the importance

-of his Welsh identity.

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-His career had been influenced

-by Gabriel Goodman...

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-..and Gabriel Goodman, in turn,

-had some influence on this Bible.

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-It's important that we consider...

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-..the influence of this Bible,

-not only in terms of religion...

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-..but also in terms

-of Wales' language and culture.

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-William Morgan realized

-the importance of having a Bible...

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-..in a standardized language.

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-Welsh that was poetic, smooth...

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-..with no dialect

-or verbal language...

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-..but a standardized version,

-and it has survived to this day.

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-It created a standardized Welsh...

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-..so that everyone could read

-the Bible in their own language.

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-Yes, and during

-a significant period too.

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-Elizabeth was the monarch,

-but she was keen to ensure...

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-..that Protestantism

-was the country's religion...

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-..and not the Catholicism of old.

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-It was very important to empathize

-with religion in this country.

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-She was willing to compromise

-and have a book written in Welsh...

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-..that would be

-a standardized Bible.

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-It's very ironic, isn't it?

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-This Bible saved the Welsh language.

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-But that wasn't the intention.

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-But that wasn't the intention.

-

-No, it wasn't.

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-During the Tudor period...

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-..the Church provided careers

-for many Welsh luminaries.

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-In the case of William Morgan

-and his supporters...

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-..his outstanding achievement

-would influence generations to come.

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-.

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-Subtitles

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-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

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-While William Morgan,

-translator of the Welsh Bible...

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-..resided at Westminster Abbey

-in 1588, a swathe of Welsh people...

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-..were being trained as lawyers

-at the famous Inns of Court.

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-It was an opportunity for the sons

-of Wales' wealthy families...

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-..to come to London and train

-as clergymen or lawyers.

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-And the Welsh legal tradition

-still thrives in London to this day.

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-This was the destination...

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-..for hundreds of young Welshmen

-from the Middle Ages onwards.

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-This is the ancient Lincoln's Inn,

-the oldest of the Inns of Court.

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-This is where young lawyers

-were trained.

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-Studying the list of names,

-one name in particular stands out.

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-Owain Glyndwr.

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-Yes, the Prince of Wales

-received his legal training here...

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-..at the heart

-of the English establishment.

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-Over the centuries,

-generations of Welsh people...

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-..have come to London to make

-their mark on the legal world...

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-..and been elevated to some

-of the most influential positions.

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-There are four Inns of Court.

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-Middle Temple, Inner Temple,

-Lincoln's Inn and Gray's Inn.

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-The Welsh have gravitated towards

-Gray's Inn throughout the centuries.

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-It was natural for them to go.

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-Not only the eldest sons...

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-..but if the family was wealthy,

-then all the sons would go.

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-It was customary for the aristocracy

-to attend the Inns of Court...

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-..as part of their education.

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-There weren't universities

-other than Oxbridge back then.

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-Of course,

-being a lawyer or a barrister...

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-..was a profitable profession

-and it made them rich.

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-At one time, if you wanted

-to take silk, you came to London.

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-You don't have to nowadays

-but many still come.

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-The bench nowadays

-is full of Welsh people.

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-While young Welshmen come to make

-their mark on the legal world...

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-..the Old Bailey's court records

-show that many others...

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-..pursued a less favourable path.

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-Documents show

-that the London Welsh...

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-..have been involved

-in their share of offending.

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-The punishment for theft was severe.

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-Stealing only a small sum of money

-was punishable by hanging.

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-The reason why people stole

-is very interesting.

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-People assume

-the main reason is poverty.

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-They steal because they're poor.

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-But I've discovered that though

-many London Welsh were poor...

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-..very few said they stole

-because they were poor.

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-Many crimes were opportunistic.

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-They saw something they wanted

-and tried their luck.

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-A lot of that went on.

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-Throughout the centuries,

-many people were hanged in Tyburn...

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-..where there were

-special gallows...

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-..to hang more than one

-at the same time.

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-The site is now marked

-by a commemorative plaque...

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-..at the side of the main road

-near Marble Arch.

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-But one Welshman,

-John Davis from Pembrokeshire...

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-..a blacksmith

-who became a highway robber...

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-..tried to escape

-his gruesome sentence.

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-On the day of his execution,

-he was transported in a cart...

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-..from Newgate to Tyburn.

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-He wasn't strong enough to stand.

-People had to hold him up.

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-"At the place of execution,

-John Davis seemed very sick...

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-"..as if he'd been

-scarce able to speak.

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-"The morning of his execution,

-he was carried on a man's back...

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-"..and two or three men dragged him

-into the cart like a dead lump.

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-"Out of compassion, they did not

-tie his hands fast together."

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-The guard decided

-not to tie his hands in the cart...

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-..thinking he wasn't going anywhere.

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-But he jumped out and escaped.

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-I suspect he'd been

-planning his escape for weeks.

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-"He put his foot to the side of

-the cart, took hold of the spoke...

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-"..and jumped over among the crowd

-in the twinkling of an eye."

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-Many in the crowd were delighted...

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-..and tried to prevent people

-catching him.

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-"The officers and spectators

-were surprised and astonished.

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-"Some of the people

-favouring his escape.

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-"He ran very fast

-till he got over a field.

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-"But the officers, pursuing hard,

-overtook him and brought back.

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-"Two or three men

-holding and pushing him forward...

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-"..with his coat off, his shirt

-and other clothes all torn.

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-"Nothing on his head,

-and in this dismal condition...

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-"..they hurried him into the cart."

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-There's plenty of evidence

-about the London Welsh elite...

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-..but for the highest percentage,

-the paupers...

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-..there's very little information

-about them.

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-The Old Bailey's records provide an

-insight into their lives in London.

0:21:260:21:31

-At the beginning

-of the 17th century...

0:21:420:21:45

-..the city of London

-saw rapid growth.

0:21:450:21:48

-There were opportunities

-for the sons of Wales' landowners...

0:21:480:21:52

-..to make their mark

-in prominent fields.

0:21:530:21:56

-Opportunities that weren't available

-in rural Wales.

0:21:560:21:59

-London was very attractive in terms

-of employment and opportunity...

0:22:020:22:07

-..but in terms of sanitation

-and health, it was a dangerous city.

0:22:080:22:12

-Disease and sickness

-were everywhere.

0:22:120:22:15

-But thanks to the vision and efforts

-of one particular Welshman...

0:22:150:22:20

-..the situation changed.

0:22:200:22:22

-We have to come to Finsbury Park

-to understand why.

0:22:220:22:26

-For the people of London,

-clean water was hard to come by.

0:22:290:22:33

-They relied on rivers and natural

-wells for their water supply.

0:22:340:22:38

-People even sold water

-on the streets.

0:22:390:22:41

-This was the scene

-that greeted Hugh Myddelton...

0:22:450:22:48

-..the youngest son of Denbighshire's

-member of parliament.

0:22:480:22:52

-He was an entrepreneur

-and worked in many different fields.

0:22:520:22:56

-He made his mark

-by building a new river...

0:22:560:23:00

-..to bring clean water

-into the centre of London.

0:23:000:23:03

-Consider the nature of the task.

0:23:040:23:06

-The new river brought water from

-Hertfordshire to the city of London.

0:23:070:23:11

-It took five years to complete

-the 38-mile-long channel.

0:23:120:23:16

-The residents of London

-were grateful to Hugh Myddelton...

0:23:170:23:21

-..for performing a miracle.

0:23:210:23:23

-Plans to build a new river

-to supply clean water to London...

0:23:260:23:32

-..had been in the offing

-for some time.

0:23:320:23:35

-But it was Hugh Myddelton

-who secured the money...

0:23:360:23:39

-..and led the engineering work.

0:23:390:23:41

-The New River Company

-made very little profit...

0:23:440:23:49

-..during Hugh Myddelton's lifetime,

-but within two centuries...

0:23:490:23:54

-..the company was a leading

-financial force in London.

0:23:540:23:58

-Even today,

-part of the river is used...

0:23:580:24:01

-..to supply water

-to the residents of the capital.

0:24:020:24:06

-The people of London

-were indebted to Hugh Myddelton.

0:24:080:24:12

-He was made a baron.

0:24:120:24:14

-A commemorative statue of him

-was erected on Islington Green...

0:24:150:24:20

-..near the end of the new river.

0:24:200:24:22

-One memorial

-wasn't enough for such a feat.

0:24:230:24:26

-There's another statue of him

-on the Royal Exchange.

0:24:260:24:29

-Many locations across the city

-have been named after him.

0:24:290:24:34

-From Myddelton Square,

-Myddelton Avenue, Myddelton Road...

0:24:340:24:39

-..to an eponymous primary school

-and secondary school...

0:24:390:24:43

-..Hugh Myddelton's contribution

-is still evident today on city maps.

0:24:440:24:49

-.

0:24:540:24:54

-Subtitles

0:24:580:24:58

-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

0:24:580:25:00

-In the ensuing centuries

-after the reign of the Tudors...

0:25:040:25:08

-..the roads to London

-for Wales' nobility...

0:25:080:25:12

-..were clear enough.

0:25:130:25:15

-By the 18th century, the elite had

-established themselves in the city.

0:25:160:25:21

-A cultural renaissance was afoot.

0:25:210:25:24

-During this time, coffee houses

-were opening across London.

0:25:290:25:33

-They were places

-to discuss the day's major issues.

0:25:330:25:36

-The Welsh wanted

-to be part of the commotion...

0:25:370:25:40

-..so they established

-special societies.

0:25:410:25:43

-The origins

-of the first society can be seen...

0:25:440:25:47

-..in the heart

-of the city's theatre district.

0:25:470:25:50

-In order to understand

-the lives of the London Welsh...

0:25:590:26:02

-..in the early 18th century,

-one must come here.

0:26:030:26:06

-St Paul's Church, Covent Garden.

0:26:060:26:08

-It's now known

-as the Actors' Church.

0:26:080:26:11

-It was here,

-on St David's Day 1715...

0:26:110:26:14

-..that the very first Welsh sermon

-was preached in London...

0:26:140:26:18

-..or at least

-the first recorded Welsh sermon.

0:26:190:26:22

-It was also here that the Society

-of Ancient Britons was established.

0:26:230:26:27

-It was the first

-of the famous societies...

0:26:280:26:31

-..that would transform

-Wales' cultural life.

0:26:310:26:34

-Many Welsh people

-came to London...

0:26:420:26:44

-..at the end of the 18th century

-and the early 19th century.

0:26:450:26:48

-It was customary during that era...

0:26:490:26:51

-..for men

-to frequent coffee houses...

0:26:510:26:54

-..to read the newspapers and so on.

0:26:540:26:57

-The Welsh became part

-of that scene in the capital.

0:26:570:27:03

-The full name

-of the Society of Ancient Britons...

0:27:030:27:06

-..featured the words

-privileged and loyal.

0:27:070:27:09

-They are the two important words -

-privileged and loyal.

0:27:100:27:15

-They were loyal

-to the Hanoverian regime.

0:27:160:27:18

-To king, country and church.

0:27:180:27:21

-That was their aim.

0:27:210:27:22

-They weren't the hoi polloi.

0:27:230:27:24

-They were very wealthy and

-were aristocrats of Welsh descent.

0:27:250:27:30

-It was their aim to ensure

-that the Welsh were acknowledged...

0:27:300:27:34

-..as people

-who were loyal to the monarchy.

0:27:340:27:37

-The term Ancient Britons...

0:27:380:27:40

-..was trying to prove

-to the people of Britain...

0:27:400:27:44

-..that the Welsh

-were the first inhabitants.

0:27:450:27:48

-They were the first natives

-of the Isle of Britain...

0:27:480:27:52

-..as far as they knew back then.

0:27:520:27:54

-They needed

-to emphasize to the English...

0:27:550:27:58

-.."You mustn't ignore us as people.

0:27:590:28:02

-"We were here first."

0:28:020:28:04

-Every St David's Day

-was a chance for the London Welsh...

0:28:040:28:08

-..to remind the English

-that we were here first.

0:28:080:28:13

-They did very little except come

-together every St David's Day...

0:28:130:28:18

-..to carouse and listen to a sermon

-that was usually in English.

0:28:190:28:23

-Preachers came from Wales and

-urged them to do something in Wales.

0:28:230:28:27

-To use their wealth

-to support the poor...

0:28:280:28:31

-..and establish apprenticeships.

0:28:310:28:33

-But they did very little in Wales,

-in actual fact.

0:28:340:28:37

-Though the Ancient Britons failed

-to leave their mark on Wales...

0:28:370:28:41

-..they made a vital contribution

-to the lives of the London Welsh.

0:28:420:28:46

-By 1715...

0:28:460:28:49

-..many prominent Welsh figures

-in London...

0:28:490:28:53

-..were saddened

-that Welsh people were dying...

0:28:530:28:56

-..leaving orphaned children.

0:28:560:28:58

-They needed a school

-and they needed apprenticeships....

0:28:590:29:04

-..to ensure a good start in life.

0:29:040:29:07

-The society's biggest feat

-was to establish and fund...

0:29:100:29:14

-..a charitable school for children

-from poor Welsh families.

0:29:140:29:19

-The school started with 12 pupils...

0:29:190:29:22

-..in the same year

-as the society was formed.

0:29:220:29:25

-By 1737, they'd moved

-to this handsome building...

0:29:250:29:31

-..on Clerkenwell Green.

0:29:310:29:33

-The Ancient Britons' annual dinner

-was pleasant enough...

0:29:350:29:39

-..but they needed something

-with more substance and consistency.

0:29:390:29:44

-Thanks to the vision

-of three brothers from Anglesey...

0:29:440:29:48

-..the Morrises, a new society

-was established in 1751.

0:29:480:29:52

-Y Cymmrodorion

-are still with us today.

0:29:520:29:55

-They met in taverns like this,

-the London Stone on Cannon Street.

0:29:550:30:00

-Richard Morris

-was the leader in London.

0:30:000:30:03

-His intention

-was to educate the Welsh...

0:30:030:30:06

-..to remind them

-of their rich literary tradition...

0:30:060:30:10

-..and offer guidance to the Welsh

-nation from the English capital.

0:30:100:30:16

-These days, the Cymmrodorion

-meet in locations across London...

0:30:210:30:25

-..to listen to lectures

-on a wide range of topics...

0:30:260:30:30

-..just as they did

-almost 300 years ago.

0:30:300:30:33

-They also publish

-the annual transactions...

0:30:360:30:39

-..which include

-the articles and contributions...

0:30:400:30:43

-..of one of Britain's

-oldest erudite periodicals.

0:30:430:30:47

-The society

-also acknowledges individuals...

0:30:490:30:52

-..who have made a special

-contribution to Welsh life...

0:30:520:30:56

-..as they did in the late 1960s

-for TH Parry-Williams.

0:30:560:31:00

-As a tribute and as a mark of

-our respect and adoration for him.

0:31:000:31:05

-The 18th century was a golden age

-for societies and clubs in England.

0:31:050:31:11

-Due to the failure

-of the Society of Ancient Britons...

0:31:110:31:15

-..the Welsh were keen to form

-a society of London Welsh...

0:31:160:31:20

-..who represented their ideas.

0:31:200:31:22

-The middle classes

-were emerging in Wales.

0:31:230:31:25

-Among them

-were the Morrises of Anglesey.

0:31:260:31:28

-The three brothers

-were predominantly responsible...

0:31:290:31:33

-..for establishing

-the Cymmrodorion in London.

0:31:330:31:36

-The society's current president

-is Professor Prys Morgan.

0:31:360:31:40

-But the first president,

-until his death in 1779...

0:31:400:31:45

-..was Richard Morris,

-one of three intelligent brothers...

0:31:450:31:49

-..known as the Morrises of Anglesey.

0:31:500:31:52

-The third brother, Richard,

-lived in London all his life.

0:31:520:31:56

-He was a clerk

-in the Navy's headquarters.

0:31:570:32:00

-His fellow London Welsh

-were very fond of Richard Morris...

0:32:010:32:05

-..because he was very generous.

0:32:050:32:07

-Richard Morris was

-"Our Father, who art in the Navy."

0:32:070:32:13

-Richard, Lewis and William Morris...

0:32:130:32:16

-..saw the need

-for a society in London...

0:32:170:32:22

-..that met on a more regular basis

-and behaved more like an academy...

0:32:220:32:27

-..with lectures and seminars

-on topics like the history of Wales.

0:32:270:32:32

-Lewis Morris

-is an incredibly interesting man.

0:32:320:32:36

-He was a giant of a man

-with a big belly.

0:32:360:32:39

-He was known to his brothers

-as 'Y Tew' (The Fat One).

0:32:390:32:44

-His belly was so fat...

0:32:440:32:46

-..he looked as if he was pregnant.

0:32:460:32:48

-He was an animated character,

-full of ideas and energy...

0:32:490:32:53

-..despite his size.

0:32:530:32:56

-Lewis was a steward for the crown

-at the mineral mines in Ceredigion.

0:32:560:33:01

-He spent lengthy periods

-in London...

0:33:010:33:04

-..reporting back to the crown.

0:33:040:33:07

-He was a very inventive soul.

0:33:070:33:09

-He was responsible

-for drafting the constitutions...

0:33:090:33:12

-..which were the Cymmrodorion's

-work schedule in 1755.

0:33:130:33:16

-Richard Morris,

-the younger brother...

0:33:200:33:23

-..was the most famous

-of the three in London.

0:33:230:33:26

-Despite the Morrises' energy

-and inspirational ideas...

0:33:260:33:30

-..getting

-the Cymmrodorion's early members...

0:33:300:33:34

-..to commit to anything worthwhile

-was hard work.

0:33:340:33:38

-He carried

-the administrative burden...

0:33:390:33:42

-..of sustaining the Cymmrodorion.

0:33:420:33:44

-He had a heavy workload...

0:33:450:33:47

-..because the Cymmrodorion members

-were so snobby...

0:33:470:33:52

-..so dour and so mean...

0:33:520:33:55

-..that they didn't support

-Lewis Morris' vision...

0:33:550:33:59

-..of publishing Welsh books,

-safeguarding manuscripts...

0:33:590:34:03

-..and ensuring

-that Welsh culture was thriving.

0:34:030:34:07

-The Cymmrodorion

-established the model...

0:34:070:34:10

-..of a Welsh cultural society

-in London.

0:34:100:34:13

-But by the end

-of the 18th century...

0:34:140:34:17

-..many other groups from Wales

-would form in the city...

0:34:170:34:21

-..and leave their mark on the

-language and culture of Wales.

0:34:210:34:26

-.

0:34:270:34:27

-Subtitles

0:34:300:34:30

-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

0:34:300:34:32

-The 18th century was the golden age

-of cultural societies in London.

0:34:370:34:41

-The Cymmrodorion

-had already been set up...

0:34:420:34:46

-..the Morris brothers attempt

-at creating a Welsh academy.

0:34:460:34:50

-This was a society

-that would re-emerge many times...

0:34:500:34:54

-..over the centuries,

-and it still exists today.

0:34:540:34:58

-But before the end of the century,

-there were more to come.

0:34:590:35:03

-Although Richard Morris,

-his brothers and the Cymmrodorion...

0:35:030:35:07

-..had made a valuable contribution,

-an increasing number of critics...

0:35:070:35:12

-..regarded the Cymmrodorion

-as an anglicized, snobbish society.

0:35:130:35:17

-An injection of gaiety was needed.

0:35:170:35:20

-In 1770, a new society was formed.

0:35:200:35:22

-The Gwyneddigion Society

-also liked to meet in taverns.

0:35:220:35:26

-But they discussed

-weighty matters...

0:35:260:35:29

-..literature, politics, philosophy,

-through the medium of Welsh.

0:35:290:35:34

-The backbone of this new society...

0:35:340:35:37

-..was one

-of the most influential figures...

0:35:370:35:40

-..in the history of Welsh culture.

0:35:400:35:42

-Owain Myfyr.

0:35:420:35:44

-Owen Jones, who became Owain Myfyr,

-was a wealthy businessman.

0:35:440:35:49

-He made his fortune as a leather

-merchant in the St Paul's area.

0:35:490:35:54

-Myfyr was in a prime position...

0:35:560:35:58

-..to fund the work

-of this new cultural society.

0:35:590:36:02

-Owain Myfyr was very affluent.

0:36:020:36:06

-He was the president

-of the Cymmrodorion...

0:36:070:36:10

-..and later, the Gwyneddigion.

0:36:100:36:12

-He was a very important man

-and incredibly influential.

0:36:120:36:16

-He was the Tony Soprano...

0:36:160:36:19

-..of the Welsh Mafiosi

-in London at the time!

0:36:190:36:23

-He was wealthy and used his money

-for cultural purposes.

0:36:230:36:28

-There was plenty of fun to be had

-in the Gwyneddigion meetings.

0:36:320:36:37

-But unlike other cultural societies

-founded earlier in the century...

0:36:370:36:42

-..the Gwyneddigion

-published literary anthologies...

0:36:430:36:47

-..which contributed greatly

-to Welsh culture.

0:36:470:36:51

-A stone's throw from Owain Myfyr's

-workshop on Thames Street...

0:36:510:36:57

-..which is a busy road these days,

-is All Hallows Church.

0:36:570:37:01

-It was here

-that Owain Myfyr was buried.

0:37:020:37:04

-He's here somewhere

-but his headstone was removed.

0:37:040:37:08

-It was taken to Llanfihangel Glyn

-Myfyr in 1951 by the Cymmrodorion.

0:37:080:37:13

-They wanted to emphasize

-his contribution.

0:37:130:37:16

-It's thanks to Owain Myfyr

-and the Gwyneddigion...

0:37:160:37:19

-..that Dafydd ap Gwilym's work

-was published for the first time...

0:37:190:37:24

-..along with a body

-of medieval work.

0:37:240:37:27

-Publishing

-Dafydd ap Gwilym's work in 1768...

0:37:310:37:35

-..was part of a wider campaign

-by the Gwyneddigion.

0:37:350:37:38

-The Gwyneddigion were intent...

0:37:380:37:41

-..on helping Welsh culture

-back in Wales.

0:37:410:37:44

-That was one of the biggest changes.

0:37:450:37:47

-By the 1780s, they were keen

-to see a renaissance...

0:37:470:37:51

-..in the culture

-they embraced here in London.

0:37:510:37:54

-They wanted to revive Welsh culture

-back in Wales.

0:37:550:37:58

-Although the Gwyneddigion

-focused on Welsh culture...

0:38:000:38:03

-..they also enjoyed socializing,

-drinking, singing...

0:38:040:38:08

-..and playing the harp.

0:38:080:38:10

-The Welsh language had a more

-respectable place in society now.

0:38:100:38:15

-They were called the Gwyneddigion

-because most came from Gwynedd.

0:38:160:38:20

-They were people from a much lower

-class than the Cymmrodorion members.

0:38:210:38:26

-They were much jollier, more lively

-and much more interesting.

0:38:260:38:31

-They were people who liked drinking.

0:38:320:38:34

-They liked smoking

-and held smoking competitions.

0:38:350:38:39

-They were very fond

-of swearing and ribaldry.

0:38:390:38:43

-Men like John Jones Glan-y-gors...

0:38:440:38:46

-..and Dafydd Samuel,

-who had been in the South Seas...

0:38:460:38:49

-..and witnessed

-Captain Cook's murder.

0:38:490:38:52

-Men who had tales to tell.

0:38:520:38:53

-Owain Myfyr was the first president

-of the Gwyneddigion.

0:38:560:39:00

-He was something of a tyrant.

0:39:010:39:03

-He attracted many prominent figures

-to the society.

0:39:030:39:06

-Not everyone was from North Wales.

0:39:060:39:09

-Owain Myfyr was a very generous man.

0:39:100:39:12

-Many took advantage

-of his generosity...

0:39:130:39:16

-..one of whom was Edward Williams,

-or Iolo Morganwg.

0:39:160:39:20

-He spent a lengthy time in London,

-promoting revolutionary ideas...

0:39:210:39:25

-..like the Gorsedd of the Bards.

0:39:250:39:28

-Iolo was a colourful

-but contentious genius.

0:39:280:39:31

-Owain Myfyr

-was Iolo Morganwg's patron.

0:39:340:39:37

-Like other members

-of the Gwyneddigion...

0:39:370:39:40

-..Iolo was inspired by the ideology

-of the French Revolution.

0:39:400:39:45

-He campaigned against war...

0:39:450:39:47

-..slavery, high taxes

-and political oppression.

0:39:470:39:51

-He called himself

-the Poet of Freedom.

0:39:510:39:55

-The product of his imagination

-and, possibly, of his drug taking...

0:39:560:40:01

-..was the Gorsedd of the Bards...

0:40:020:40:04

-..and the ceremonies that are now

-integral to the National Eisteddfod.

0:40:040:40:09

-Iolo was very fond of Owain Myfyr.

0:40:090:40:12

-He regarded him as a charitable,

-kind and interesting man.

0:40:120:40:16

-He described him as

-"a man without peer in the world".

0:40:170:40:22

-The reason for that is because

-Owain Myfyr would give him 10...

0:40:220:40:27

-..and occasionally 20...

0:40:270:40:29

-..so that he could pursue

-his literary interests...

0:40:300:40:33

-..and produce work for him,

-and Iolo obliged.

0:40:340:40:37

-But in time, the relationship

-between Iolo and Owain turned sour.

0:40:370:40:43

-Unbeknown to anyone...

0:40:430:40:45

-..Iolo had been including

-his own fake literary work...

0:40:450:40:49

-..in the Gwyneddigion's

-publications.

0:40:490:40:52

-Although Owain Myfyr

-suspected him...

0:40:520:40:55

-..it all boiled down to money

-in the end.

0:40:550:40:58

-The relationship cooled off

-during the 1790s...

0:40:580:41:02

-..because Owain Myfyr suspected

-Iolo of producing forgeries.

0:41:020:41:08

-He also thought he was using

-his money to promote Unitarianism.

0:41:080:41:13

-On the other hand, Iolo Morganwg

-thought Owain had betrayed him...

0:41:130:41:17

-..and forgotten about his promise

-to pay him an annual pension.

0:41:180:41:22

-The pair quarrelled

-and never made up.

0:41:230:41:27

-Iolo never forgave anyone.

0:41:280:41:30

-He called Owain Myfyr

-the Grand Deceiver.

0:41:300:41:33

-That's rich, coming from Iolo,

-who knew how to deceive people!

0:41:330:41:37

-Despite their quarrels...

0:41:390:41:41

-..Iolo went on to establish one

-of Wales' most vital institutions...

0:41:410:41:46

-..and our first national body.

0:41:460:41:49

-He did that

-on this hill in north London.

0:41:490:41:52

-This is the best place to come...

0:41:530:41:55

-..for those who want

-a spectacular view of London.

0:41:550:42:00

-It's easy to understand...

0:42:000:42:02

-..why Iolo Morganwg

-came to Primrose Hill in 1792...

0:42:020:42:07

-..to hold an important event in

-the history of the London Welsh...

0:42:070:42:11

-..and in the history

-of Welsh culture.

0:42:110:42:14

-It was here that the Gorsedd

-of the Bards was created.

0:42:140:42:18

-Iolo Morganwg

-was ahead of his time.

0:42:190:42:22

-He was aware of the need

-for Welsh institutions nationally.

0:42:220:42:26

-Almost a century before others

-started similar campaigns...

0:42:260:42:31

-..Iolo demanded a national library,

-a national museum...

0:42:310:42:35

-..and a Welsh university for Wales.

0:42:350:42:38

-When the Gorsedd of the Bards

-was founded...

0:42:380:42:41

-..it was regarded as Wales'

-first national institution.

0:42:410:42:45

-Establishing it in London

-was part of his purposeful plan.

0:42:450:42:50

-It would ensure

-that the Gorsedd, and Iolo...

0:42:500:42:53

-..would attract

-as much attention as possible.

0:42:540:42:57

-Today, a special memorial...

0:43:000:43:02

-..commemorates Iolo's achievement

-on Primrose Hill.

0:43:030:43:06

-It's the culmination

-of years of hard work...

0:43:070:43:09

-..for Rhian Medi,

-one of today's London Welsh.

0:43:090:43:13

-Why are you

-so interested in Iolo Morganwg?

0:43:140:43:19

-It probably stems

-from my childhood...

0:43:190:43:23

-..when I competed at eisteddfodau

-at a young age.

0:43:230:43:27

-I won the Llwyd o'r Bryn award...

0:43:270:43:30

-..and I became

-a member of the Gorsedd.

0:43:300:43:34

-Now that I live in London,

-this place is very dear to me.

0:43:350:43:39

-I spend many a weekend

-on this lovely hill.

0:43:400:43:44

-It seemed a pity

-there was no memorial here.

0:43:440:43:47

-Was it a struggle?

0:43:480:43:50

-Yes, it was. It took me five years.

0:43:500:43:53

-I tried to seek public support

-as well as financial support.

0:43:530:43:58

-I also had to win over

-the Royal Parks.

0:43:580:44:02

-It was quite a challenge...

0:44:030:44:05

-..bearing in mind

-that Iolo himself was a republican!

0:44:050:44:10

-Of course!

0:44:100:44:11

-That's an element in the story.

0:44:110:44:13

-Many who realized that

-took a big gulp, I'm sure!

0:44:130:44:17

-The fact that you succeeded

-is a remarkable achievement.

0:44:170:44:21

-As we all know,

-memorials are rare in these parks.

0:44:210:44:25

-When Elfyn Llwyd and I

-met the Parks' chief executive...

0:44:250:44:30

-..he told us

-that his answer was usually no...

0:44:300:44:33

-..but on this occasion he said yes.

0:44:330:44:36

-Victory!

0:44:360:44:38

-Yes, and it's important to me...

0:44:380:44:41

-..that there's Welsh here

-at the top of the hill.

0:44:410:44:44

-I think Iolo would have liked that.

0:44:440:44:45

-I think Iolo would have liked that.

-

-Iolo would have been delighted.

0:44:450:44:48

-I doubt he'd believe

-that centuries later...

0:44:480:44:51

-..his presence is still here.

0:44:510:44:53

-Here we are, Rhian,

-the memorial itself.

0:45:000:45:03

-I have to say, it's wonderful.

0:45:030:45:05

-Yes, it's fantastic.

0:45:060:45:07

-The slate

-is from Blaenau Ffestiniog.

0:45:090:45:11

-The stone, from Moelfre,

-was a favourite of his.

0:45:110:45:15

-He compared this stone

-to Italian Carrara marble.

0:45:150:45:18

-He wasn't a big fan of North Wales.

0:45:180:45:20

-He wasn't a big fan of North Wales.

-

-He wouldn't have liked me at all!

0:45:200:45:22

-But I have to say,

-it fills me with great pride...

0:45:240:45:27

-..to think that people

-from all over the world come here...

0:45:280:45:32

-..and see an element

-of pure Welshness on Primrose Hill.

0:45:320:45:36

-And the symbols and the motto

-"The truth against the world."

0:45:360:45:40

-Well done. Congratulations.

0:45:400:45:41

-Well done. Congratulations.

-

-Thank you.

0:45:410:45:43

-A few miles from Primrose Hill...

0:45:580:46:01

-..in this narrow street

-in the heart of London...

0:46:010:46:04

-..a small group of Welsh people

-shared a very different experience.

0:46:050:46:09

-This is Cock Lane,

-where the foundations...

0:46:090:46:13

-..of the first Welsh chapel

-in London lie.

0:46:130:46:16

-It's a remarkable story about

-a preacher who kept a tavern...

0:46:160:46:21

-..fierce squabbling...

0:46:210:46:23

-..and a rising number

-of Welsh chapels across this city.

0:46:230:46:27

-That will be our focus next time.

0:46:270:46:30

-We'll look

-at a century of commerce...

0:46:330:46:37

-..which attracted drovers from Wales

-and female gardeners to London.

0:46:370:46:42

-We'll also visit the urban home of

-one of the era's wealthiest men...

0:46:420:46:46

-..and study the architecture

-of a man from West Wales...

0:46:470:46:51

-..who designed some

-of London's most famous streets.

0:46:510:46:55

-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.

0:47:230:47:25

-.

0:47:260:47:26

Huw Edwards sy'n ein tywys trwy bum canrif o hanes y Cymry yn Llundain. Huw Edwards guides us through five centuries of the history of the Welsh people living in London. (1/3)