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-That's it from us.
-A first look at the papers on the
-BBC News channel in a few minutes...
-..but now it's time
-for the news where you are.
-And that's the end
-of another broadcast...
-..here at the BBC's
-main news studio in London...
-..watched by around five million
-viewers in Wales, England...
-..Northern Ireland and Scotland.
-The location of the studio
-In the heart of London,
-the capital of the United Kingdom.
-However, the unity of that kingdom
-is a contentious issue nowadays.
-The heart of London is where
-the BBC's new news headquarters...
-..and the headquarters of Britain's
-influential companies are situated.
-It's been home to millions of people
-over the centuries...
-..including the Welsh, and the story
-of the London Welsh is intriguing.
-In this episode, the influence of
-business and commerce on the Welsh.
-From the age of the drovers...
-..and the hard-working
-..to the army
-of industrious dairymen...
-..and the fervour
-of the large urban chapels...
-..to today's bustling city.
-It's a tale which continues
-to spark the imagination.
-In this series, we'll capture
-a little of that zeal...
-the influence of the Welsh...
-of the world's largest cities...
-..as well as London's influence
-The story of the London Welsh
-is relevant to everyone in Wales.
-The 18th century was a century
-of commerce in London...
-..as the British Empire expanded.
-By this time, the Thames was one
-of the world's main trade routes...
-..and its banks were a hive
-of activity and diversity.
-During the early 1700s,
-a religious revolution took hold...
-..which would inspire
-and excite the Welsh in London.
-Here, on the south bank
-of the river...
-..is the London residence
-of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
-has stood here for centuries.
-It's worth remembering
-that it was here in 1739...
-..that revivalist Howell Harris
-came for the first time...
-to Welsh-speaking exiles...
-..on the Archbishop's doorstep,
-more or less.
-It's remarkable to think...
-..that the foundations
-of Nonconformist Welsh chapels...
-..were laid here,
-in the shadow of Lambeth Palace.
-The 18th century
-was a period of major change...
-..in Britain's religious life.
-Methodism began as a revival
-within the Church of England.
-In time, however,
-it became a separate church.
-To all intents, Howell Harris...
-..founded the Calvinistic
-Methodist Church in Wales.
-This man from Trefeca came to London
-to spread the Methodist message...
-..and save the souls
-of its citizens.
-both in English and Welsh...
-..in the open air,
-in homes and in churches.
-Methodism was readily embraced
-by the London Welsh.
-It greatly influenced
-what would happen next.
-Early on in the revival,
-Harris visited London.
-At the time, many people had been
-influenced by the revival...
-..and belonged to different sects.
-There was conflict
-among the Methodists in London.
-Harris was regarded as a mediator.
-Gradually, they divided
-into separate groups.
-Wesleyan Methodists and Moravians.
-But in the early years,
-they were willing to co-operate.
-all these different sects in London.
-Each time he went, predominantly
-to help the English Methodists...
-..he also visited
-..regularly met at Lambeth.
-There are entries in Harris' journal
-relating to those visits...
-..and he states
-that he preached to them in Welsh.
-During his visits to the city...
-with his brother Joseph...
-..who was a Royal Mint supervisor
-at the Tower of London...
-the manufacture of currency.
-around the country...
-..wasn't without its dangers.
-On many occasions, Harris and his
-fellow Methodists were attacked...
-..and left for dead.
-They were threatened
-by the authorities...
-..and brought before the magistrates
-accused of breaking the law.
-It was quite risky.
-In a way, they were asking for
-trouble, meeting openly in Lambeth.
-They were in danger of being accused
-of worship outside the Church...
-..which was against the law.
-There are indications
-of Harris' influence on the Welsh...
-..among the Methodists.
-There were letters
-written by the Pugh family...
-..who had settled in London.
-A letter from Francis Pugh...
-..imparts some information
-about the fellowship in Lambeth.
-He mentions a dispute
-that had arisen.
-Occasional references like this...
-..indicate the active lives...
-..of Welsh-speaking Methodists...
-..and that Harris' visits
-..to ensure they had
-some Welsh-medium preaching...
-..which was very scarce
-at the time.
-Many London Welsh
-who had heard Harris preach...
-..were inspired to unite.
-Cock Lane is a narrow,
-anonymous street nowadays.
-But it was full of life
-at the end of the 18th century...
-..with shops, taverns and tenants
-renting rooms above them...
-..including a small group of Welsh
-who congregated here to worship.
-London's first Welsh chapel
-had its origins here...
-..and it was eventually built
-about half a mile away.
-Thirty five years after Howell
-Harris' first visit to London...
-..the Cock Lane worshippers
-founded a new chapel...
-..in nearby Wilderness Row.
-Among its founders were two men
-who had often heard Harris preach.
-Griffith Jones from Pentre Uchaf...
-..and Edward Jones,
-aka Ginshop Jones, from Llansannan.
-It's remarkable being here,
-among this urban concrete jungle...
-a relatively modern structure...
-..as London's oldest Welsh chapel.
-This is the church
-whose origins lie in Cock Lane.
-It relocated twice
-before reaching this site in 1879.
-The original building
-..during the Blitz of World War II.
-has a very turbulent past.
-# A pure heart full of goodness
-# Fairer than the lily white... #
-One of Jewin's most noted preachers
-in the 20th century was D S Owen.
-His grandson, Geraint Pritchard,
-is able to trace...
-..how Jewin helped the rise
-of Welsh chapels across the city...
-..in the 18th and 19th centuries.
-They opened outposts
-in the heart of London.
-Wilton Square was the first of them.
-People would leave Jewin Chapel...
-..and go there, to Sunday school.
-It later became
-a Welsh Independents' chapel.
-It began as a branch of Jewin.
-There were five or six of these.
-They supported small causes...
-..and this went on from 1774
-until the following century.
-But it wasn't all sweetness and
-light for the Jewin congregation.
-The first leader, Edward Jones,
-was a colourful soul who kept a pub.
-He banned two members
-because they married people...
-..who weren't Methodists.
-He was so strict...
-..that many members
-turned to the Welsh Independents.
-However, the Nonconformist Welsh had
-established themselves in London...
-..and Jewin has survived
-to this day, despite the turmoil.
-During the 18th century...
-..the permanent population
-of London Welsh was rising...
-..along with the number of
-seasonal workers who came to trade.
-and expertise gained in Wales...
-..could have financial benefits.
-between Wales and England...
-..has a very rich history.
-Some claim that the story
-goes back more than 1,000 years.
-By the 15th century
-and the arrival of Henry Tudor...
-..the trade was thriving.
-By the 18th century...
-..drovers from Wales flocked here...
-..to one of the world's
-most famous markets.
-Before the indoor market was built,
-Smithfield was buzzing.
-Six days a week,
-up to 2,000 animals...
-..would be herded to market by
-drovers through the city's streets.
-Sometimes, there was
-considerable chaos along the way.
-The drovers established
-a network of routes...
-..that connected Wales
-to the fairs and markets in London.
-It was by no means easy.
-This is an ancient drovers' path.
-Some of these paths
-would have been rocky and rugged.
-That's why they would have needed
-to shoe the cattle.
-They attached two iron clips
-to each hoof.
-They would have needed
-eight of these for every animal.
-A blacksmith would have accompanied
-the drovers on their journey...
-..to shoe the cattle.
-Special shoes were created
-to protect the cattle's hooves.
-or their men, certainly...
-..threw the cattle on their backs
-and bound their hooves...
-..in order to fit the shoes.
-The trade began
-as a way of transferring money...
-..between Welsh landowners' estates
-and their London residences.
-Relevant permits were issued...
-..so that drovers could herd
-their cattle from Wales...
-..to London, to the aristocrats
-who needed the money there.
-They brought the rent money
-to London on foot.
-They sold the cattle there...
-..only to discover they could
-command exceptionally high prices.
-That's when the major trading began.
-were very responsible men...
-..and some shouldered
-David Jones, Sir Watkin
-Williams-Wynn's chief drover.
-He was a formidable trader...
-..taking huge sums of money
-back and forth to London.
-He brought with him
-important messages too.
-With large sums of money
-creating risks for the drovers...
-..special banks were created
-as a way of safeguarding the trade.
-David Jones established
-the Black Ox Bank in Llandovery...
-..in 1799, to serve the drovers.
-The business was later bought
-by Lloyds Bank.
-This is one of the first banks
-established in Wales...
-..by the son
-of a local farmer, David Jones.
-He spent many years as a drover
-taking cattle to Smithfield...
-..and bringing the money home,
-back to this area.
-He realized there was a need
-for a banking system...
-..from a safety point of view
-more than anything.
-There was no other bank like it
-in the whole of Britain.
-The Black Sheep Bank, established
-in Tregaron and Aberystwyth...
-..and the Black Ox Bank
-They were established
-so that money could be transferred.
-The drover would receive money
-for his animals...
-..at a fair or in a city...
-..and then he would take the money
-to a local bank...
-..which had an arrangement
-with Aberystwyth or Llandovery.
-The local bank would give
-these special notes to the drover.
-The term used for them
-was promissory notes.
-They were dated and numbered...
-..and only the recognized customer
-in Llandovery or Aberystwyth...
-..could cash them in for money.
-If they fell into the hands
-of a thief...
-..they'd be worthless...
-..because the thief wouldn't be able
-to cash in the note.
-The drover's work
-was laborious and dangerous.
-Some travelled all the way
-from Anglesey to London...
-..walking 20 miles a day whilst
-looking after around 400 animals.
-They also faced
-the constant threat...
-..of being targeted by thieves.
-They also carried a staff...
-something like that.
-A sword within the stick...
-..to defend themselves.
-There's a danger that our
-modern perception of the drover...
-..might be too simplistic.
-Opinions about them
-varied at the time.
-Some regarded them as
-dishonest people with no morals...
-..for buying goods on credit.
-They were also regarded
-..as Twm o'r Nant
-suggested in a poem.
-"Here, an old drover lies dead
-"He wasted his life, deceiving
-"He went from his world
-to a cradle of earth
-he will deceive no more."
-It was a temptation
-for some of them...
-..to disappear with the money...
-..and use it to cross to America
-or even Ireland...
-..in order to buy land
-and set up home there.
-It happened occasionally.
-By 1855, the cattle market
-was moved from Smithfield...
-..to Caledonian Road
-..to reduce the chaos it caused.
-By the start of the 20th century,
-that market had disappeared too.
-But Smithfield Market
-was still an important centre.
-on the outskirts of London...
-..were transported here
-on an underground train.
-That car park there
-used to be the station.
-Men would carry tonnes of meat...
-..up the ramp, across this street...
-..into the market,
-where it would all be sold.
-The drovers established
-very familiar routes...
-..and those routes were followed
-by another group of people.
-The garden girls, who carried
-produce to street markets like this.
-They worked in gardens
-right across London.
-It was very hard labour.
-Due to its growth,
-London's population needed feeding.
-Many gardens were being developed
-to the west of the city.
-It indicates the extent of poverty
-in rural Wales at the time...
-..that these girls
-were prepared to walk for a week...
-..in order to reach London
-and work endless hours...
-..under very difficult conditions
-to earn 10 over the summer months.
-The garden girls
-led a dangerous life.
-The story of Ruth Watkin
-She was attacked
-by a man who wanted her money.
-She shouted in Welsh
-and he replied in Welsh.
-He was a man from Rhandir-mwyn
-by the name of Black Wil.
-Twenty years later, he was hanged
-for a lifetime of crime.
-They spent hours weeding...
-..and on top of that, they often
-had to walk five or six miles...
-..with baskets laden with fruit
-on their heads.
-They'd carry them
-into the city to be sold.
-At the time,
-if they were carried in a cart...
-..they'd probably be damaged...
-..and the strawberries
-would be impossible to sell.
-It was a very hard life.
-It took great effort.
-It's surprising it lasted so long...
-..from the mid-18th century
-until the end of the 19th century.
-The garden girls
-belong to a long tradition...
-..of economic migrants to London
-who met the demand for workers...
-..and who were pursuing
-a better life.
-It's a pattern
-that continues to this day.
-Trade opportunities in London...
-..have attracted thousands
-of Welsh people over the centuries.
-But their accommodation was poor.
-However, one famous family
-from Wales lived in a grand house...
-..in one of London's
-most privileged areas.
-They were among
-Britain's wealthiest families.
-It's unusual to note
-that there's a clear connection...
-..between the London Welsh
-and this square.
-It's one of the most expensive
-and luxurious addresses in London.
-St James's Square, a stone's throw
-from St James's Palace.
-There's a rather corporate feel
-about the place nowadays...
-..but 200 years ago, this is where
-the country's most affluent lived.
-Our point of interest is number 20.
-That was the London residence...
-..of Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn
-and his family from North Wales.
-At the time, it was customary
-for Britain's wealthy families...
-..to spend some months of the year
-in London socializing...
-..and being politically active.
-The Wynn family owned an estate
-of over 100,000 acres...
-..in North Wales and Shropshire.
-They were regarded as the
-uncrowned monarchs of North Wales.
-the fourth Baronet of Wynnstay...
-architect Robert Adam...
-..to design the house
-and adorn it with masterpieces.
-Here's an interesting fact.
-Though the Wynn family's
-wealth and style...
-..fitted perfectly into the upper
-echelons of London society...
-..they certainly didn't disregard
-the importance of Welsh culture.
-In 1820, when the Society
-of Cymmrodorion was revived...
-..Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, the
-fifth Baronet, was named president.
-His father, the fourth baronet,
-was the former president...
-..who built this luxurious house
-on St James's Square.
-No-one had done more to patronize
-the arts in Wales than Wynn.
-He collected the artwork
-of the Old Masters...
-..and commissioned work by Welsh
-artists and European contemporaries.
-Exhibiting paintings of Wales
-at Number 20...
-..was a way of conveying
-the family's Welshness...
-..to the intelligentsia
-who visited them.
-They felt it was their duty
-to patronize Welsh artists...
-..such as Richard Wilson
-and William Parry.
-They patronized music from Wales.
-William Parry's father
-was John Parry...
-..who helped establish the belief...
-..that there was
-such a thing as Welsh music...
-..in the 18th century.
-They were very eager to be
-presidents of the Cymmrodorion.
-For more than a century...
-..one Sir Watkin after another...
-..was ready to become
-Throughout the 19th century...
-..noble families like the Wynnstays
-made the most of London's good life.
-The number of ordinary Welsh folk
-was growing too...
-to poverty in rural Wales.
-By the mid-19th century...
-..almost 18,000 people born in Wales
-lived in London.
-It had an impact on the rise
-of chapels in the capital.
-Chapels in London
-had a pleasant problem...
-..during the mid-19th century.
-There wasn't enough room
-and there weren't enough chapels.
-So a fund was established
-to build new chapels.
-Thousands of Welsh migrants
-were coming to London every year...
-..to answer the demand,
-especially from the dairy industry.
-But in this chapel, it proved
-both a blessing and a curse.
-In Jewin, the first
-of London's Welsh chapels...
-..some complained that people
-were putting milk before chapel.
-It was a seven-day week
-in the dairy industry.
-Since that meant
-working on the Sabbath...
-decided to take a firm stance.
-It's a stance that appears
-even more extreme these days.
-They refused to christen
-the children of those...
-..who worked in the dairy industry.
-Naturally, it caused a rift.
-The congregation was split.
-That was one of the main motives
-for establishing a new chapel...
-..in the heart of London.
-was a very famous chapel in its day.
-The link between the Welsh
-and London's dairy industry...
-..was made in the 19th century...
-..with young girls
-selling milk on the city's streets.
-They carried large milk cans
-that weighed up to 50kg when full.
-In 1840, the train was introduced...
-..to transport cattle
-from one place to another.
-Gradually, the drovers
-came to produce milk in London...
-..rather than bringing cattle
-That heralded the beginning
-of the dairy industry in London.
-As the industry
-grew and stabilized...
-moved to shops across the city.
-Before the end of the century...
-..half the corner shops
-in London were Welsh dairies...
-..that sold milk, cheese and butter.
-Many dairies kept a cow
-in a shed behind the shop.
-You'd find dairies
-on every street corner.
-Remnants of some of the dairies
-can still be seen today.
-Some of them are intact.
-You can walk into some
-that still operate as shops.
-The Jones dairy
-is situated off Columbia Road.
-are spread across the city.
-The shop would be at the front...
-..and the shed would be at the rear.
-Often you can see
-where the cattle were kept.
-A generation of London Welsh
-..the days of keeping cattle
-at the back of the dairy.
-Bowen Williams followed his parents
-into the business.
-Where I was born...
-..my parents at the time
-kept 18 dairy cattle.
-Of course, they'd also have milk
-transported from Somerset too.
-In my husband's
-..they kept cattle
-at the back of the shop.
-They opened the shop every day
-and sold the milk...
-..along with many other produce,
-like a grocer's shop nowadays.
-The milk was on tap, as they say!
-was delivered to us in churns...
-..at two o'clock in the morning.
-I'd start work
-at half past three every morning.
-I made sure the cream was broken up.
-The first thing the men did...
-..was fill the milk bottles.
-Then they'd load the push barrows...
-..and deliver the milk
-to people's doors.
-They'd open the shop
-at six in the morning...
-..because they were so close
-to Smithfield Market.
-The porters started work early
-and came into the shop.
-They sold sandwiches
-and tea and coffee too.
-The Welsh were adapting...
-..by selling milk to different
-ethnic communities in London.
-I remember my mother
-telling me about the Jews...
-..who brought in jugs to fill
-with milk straight from the cow.
-would have to bless the milk...
-..before they could sell it
-to the Jews, of course.
-That happened regularly.
-They had to do it
-otherwise the Jews wouldn't buy it.
-There were over 2,500 dairies
-in London at one time.
-You could liken them
-to today's corner shop, I suppose.
-Many owners were Welsh speakers.
-Lots of Welsh people learnt the
-languages of the local community.
-By the 1980s,
-the last of the Welsh dairymen...
-..like Richard Pugh in Soho...
-..and DR Daniel in Pimlico,
-started to consider selling up.
-They reminisced about the golden age
-of the industry.
-There were Welsh people
-in almost every street.
-In every street, in actual fact.
-They had businesses like mine.
-They all had dairies.
-They've gone now, of course.
-After the last war,
-they've almost all gone.
-We feel as if we should retire.
-But I don't think we'll return
-to Wales. We're happy in London.
-It's always been a village to us.
-I don't know
-how my sister feels about that.
-No, I don't want to return home.
-I'm too comfortable in London!
-Eirlys Bebb was raised
-in a dairy in the East End...
-..and remembers worshipping
-at a chapel with numerous dairymen.
-We're here in the heart
-of the East End here, in Mile End.
-Where were you born?
-I was born not far from here,
-in Bethnal Green.
-Very close then.
-There were lots of Welsh people
-in the vicinity.
-Yes. There were
-lots of dairies, you see.
-The dairy business was everything.
-Everyone had a milk business.
-a very special building.
-I know you have a strong connection
-with this building.
-It should have a blue plaque...
-..saying that it was here
-that I was christened...
-..when it was a chapel.
-I'm willing to tell you
-that it was 80 years ago.
-Have you been back since?
-Have you been back since?
-Let's go inside.
-It's hard to imagine it as a chapel.
-But there are one or two
-indications, aren't there?
-Like the gallery.
-And the ceiling, of course.
-It's a thrill to be here.
-It sends a shiver down my spine
-when I think I was christened here.
-What kind of life
-did the dairymen lead?
-I doubt they had
-any spare time at all.
-It was a very early start
-in the morning.
-Not for me,
-but it was an early start.
-They had to fill the bottles
-before delivering them.
-Did people come to the shop
-late into the night?
-You say that impatiently!
-I remember them
-knocking on the front door.
-I opened the door
-and a woman wanted washing powder!
-She was never going to start washing
-clothes at 10 o'clock at night.
-She was on her way home
-from the pictures.
-I suppose she wanted it
-for the following morning.
-Any spare time during the week?
-The only free time we had
-was Thursday afternoon...
-..because all the dairies closed...
-..right across London.
-If you wanted to get married,
-you did so on a Thursday afternoon!
-Did you marry on a Thursday?
-Did you marry on a Thursday?
-Those who died were buried
-on a Thursday afternoon.
-It was the only time
-you could be sure...
-..that all the London Welsh
-who worshipped at Mile End Chapel...
-..and who worked in the dairy
-industry was a Cardiganshire man...
-..by the name of Jenkin Edwards.
-A familiar surname, you might think!
-was my grandfather's uncle.
-At the start of the 20th century,
-he and brother Daniel...
-..came to London
-to work in the dairy industry.
-He settled in the East End.
-This was the chapel
-in which they worshipped.
-When Jenkin died in the 1930s...
-..they paid tribute to him
-in the London Welsh paper.
-They talked of his generosity
-to Mile End Chapel.
-As the status and ambition
-of the Welsh grew in London...
-..during the 18th century,
-it was reflected in the chapels...
-..which were being built
-across the city.
-The Charing Cross Road
-eminent architect James Cubitt...
-..to design their chapel.
-It's a striking building
-which is now an arts centre.
-The growth of the dairy industry
-and that of the chapels...
-..went hand in hand.
-This is one of the most prominent
-and popular landmarks in London.
-Marble Arch, near Park Lane.
-But this isn't
-its original location.
-It was designed as the main entrance
-to Buckingham Palace.
-However, the entrance was too narrow
-for the state carriage...
-..so it was moved here.
-There's a strong connection
-between Marble Arch and West Wales.
-The architecture is Regency style...
-..which many associate
-with London's city centre streets.
-such as Regent Street...
-..Oxford Circus and Piccadilly
-Circus were designed by John Nash.
-Nash's influence and design
-is prominent in London today.
-Park Crescent is a special example.
-It was widely believed that Nash
-was a typically English architect...
-..though his mother
-hailed from Carmarthenshire...
-..and his father from Neath.
-played an important part...
-..in Nash's development
-into an eminent architect.
-Nash inherited 1,000
-from his uncle...
-..and he spent it all
-on building a grand residence...
-..on Great Russell Street
-and Bloomsbury Square.
-Failure to rent led to bankruptcy,
-so Nash moved to Carmarthen.
-It was there that he rebuilt
-his career as an architect...
-..and developed his style.
-Nash designed a new roof
-for the town's church...
-..as well as prisons in Carmarthen,
-Cardigan and Haverfordwest.
-He designed many mansions in West
-Wales, including Llanerchaeron...
-..which now belongs
-to the National Trust.
-It's a unique building
-due to its exterior facade...
-..and the fact the central staircase
-can be seen from every room.
-It was a time of improvements.
-New roads and bridges were built...
-..along with new jails and ports.
-the wars against France...
-..meant that high prices were paid
-for produce from Welsh farms.
-Wales' landowners were doing very
-well in West Wales in the 1790s...
-..at the same time
-as Nash came to West Wales.
-It was a prime time
-for a young architect.
-Few architects were as good as him.
-After returning to London,
-Nash enjoyed sweeping success.
-He designed Buckingham Palace
-and Regent's Park.
-was part of a pioneering plan...
-..to connect Piccadilly Circus,
-a mile away...
-..and Regent's Park over there.
-But don't think
-that Nash's exemplary work...
-..won him endless praise.
-The architect's main patron
-was the Prince Regent.
-He was a very unpopular figure.
-As a result, people regarded Nash's
-work on behalf of the prince...
-..as a waste of public money.
-Nash retired to the Isle of Wight...
-..leaving debts of 15,000.
-His wife had to sell some of
-her possessions to pay the bills.
-However, years after his death...
-..to the city's development.
-It's hard to imagine London without
-Nash's buildings and stunning parks.
-Nash was sternly criticized...
-..during his lifetime...
-..for being a man of facades.
-He was fond
-of grand facades on buildings...
-..but often the walls behind them
-were quite flimsy...
-..in the servants' quarters
-and so on.
-I think people forgave him
-for his overspending.
-he was the only architect...
-..who had any idea
-of how to turn London...
-..into a grand city like Paris.
-Nash was one of the first people...
-..to create an architectural
-grand design for London.
-Another Welshman was responsible...
-..for many more improvements
-later in the 19th century...
-..including one famous project
-that possibly bears his name.
-This is very hard work,
-but then again, I should be fitter.
-I'm in one of the world's
-most iconic buildings...
-..and one of London's main symbols
-for millions of people.
-Believe it or not,
-there's a close link...
-..between Wales and this tower.
-We'll discover why
-when I reach the top.
-Off I go!
-I've reached the next level.
-This is the clue.
-We all know what's on
-the other side of this glass.
-most famous clock, Big Ben.
-But who is Big Ben?
-a prominent Welshman of his day.
-What's his association
-with this building?
-Some people think
-this is Big Ben's tower.
-That's a mistake...
-..because Big Ben
-refers to something else.
-I've reached the top,
-and within a few seconds...
-..I'll need earplugs.
-It's going to be very noisy here.
-Big Ben, of course, is this
-huge bell, not the tower itself.
-was the eminent Welshman...
-..who built this tower.
-He positioned these bells in 1859.
-I think the bells
-are about to chime.
-But, of course, for millions
-of people over the world...
-..Big Ben is the voice of London,
-and it's about to strike.
-Though he was raised in London...
-had strong ties with Wales.
-His grandfather was the Chancellor
-of Llandaff Cathedral...
-..and his mother was the daughter
-of ironmaster Richard Crawshay.
-The family also owned Abercarn
-and Hensol castles.
-As well as contributing to the
-improvement of London's amenities...
-..Hall also contributed to Welsh
-life as a member of parliament.
-He was instrumental in passing
-The Truck Act of 1831.
-A bill that prevented companies...
-..from paying workers
-with equipment instead of money.
-This was a step
-that improved the lives...
-..of many of Wales' lowly workers.
-However, it was his wife,
-Augusta Hall, or Lady Llanover...
-..who made the biggest contribution
-to Welsh culture.
-One of the most notable
-contributions to Welsh culture...
-..came from this street...
-..across this busy road
-from the royal park, Hyde Park.
-This street is called Stanhope Gate.
-This was the London residence
-of Lord and Lady Llanover.
-She's famous for developing
-the traditional Welsh costume.
-In fairness to her...
-was far more important than that.
-the creation of the Welsh costume...
-..was a way
-of promoting the wool industry.
-Lady Llanover was interested in
-all aspects of Wales' creative life.
-She was a key figure in ensuring
-the triple harp was maintained.
-She employed harpists
-at Llanover House near Abergavenny.
-All the estate's workers
-had to be able to speak Welsh.
-She was also a generous patron of
-all aspects of Wales' folk culture.
-She held ten eisteddfodau
-at Llanover during the 19th century.
-While Lady Llanover tried to promote
-the wool industry in Wales...
-..the skills honed in this field
-provided opportunities in London.
-Opportunities that paid
-great dividends for some.
-It's always a pleasure
-to come to Sloane Square...
-..and seeing the name
-of Welshman Peter Jones...
-..on one of London's
-most famous shops.
-He was in good company,
-with John Lewis...
-..DH Evans and Dickins & Jones.
-At one time, the drapers' business
-in London was a Welsh monopoly.
-The skills developed in Wales'
-wool trade and drapers' shops...
-..provided opportunities for those
-who wanted to make their fortune.
-Naturally, these businesses grew.
-They went from being
-small drapers' stores...
-..to enormous department stores.
-The story of the Jones brothers
-from North Wales...
-..is typical of this pattern.
-Jones Brothers was established in
-Islington as a small shop in 1862...
-..by William Pierce
-and John William Jones.
-Before long, businesses like
-Jones Bros and Dickins & Jones...
-..were thriving, selling thousands
-of different goods.
-The most important contribution...
-..made by these influential owners
-of department stores...
-..was the fact they employed
-a high number of London Welsh.
-Many Welsh communities
-were maintained as a result.
-Like many other shops
-established by the Welsh...
-..Jones Brothers advertised
-for workers back in Wales...
-..and drew thousands to London.
-The Jones brothers
-looked after their workers...
-..though they expected them
-to work 74 hours a week.
-Many employees lived above the shop.
-There was accommodation
-for 250 men over three floors...
-..as well as social rooms,
-a library and a staff restaurant.
-There were even stables
-for 50 horses...
-the store's goods within London.
-It's a varied story in terms
-of the drapers' working conditions.
-They worked long hours
-and the work was laborious.
-The conditions were merciless.
-There was no rest, no fresh air
-and little exercise for staff.
-Some historians claim there was
-a high rate of disease...
-..and ill health
-among the drapers' employees.
-It was comparable to those
-who worked in the heavy industries.
-It indicates how difficult
-the work was, in effect.
-Later, many of these stores
-were bought by large chains.
-Dickins & Jones
-was established in 1835.
-It became part of Harrods, and then
-House of Fraser in the late '50s.
-Peter Jones on Sloane Square is now
-part of the John Lewis Partnership.
-was established by Thomas Jones...
-..the son of a milliner
-..who came to London in 1871
-with 14 in his pocket.
-The 19th century
-was a century of commerce...
-..for the London Welsh.
-But at the beginning
-of a new century...
-..tens of thousands of Welsh people
-flocked to this urban community.
-Confident Welsh people,
-some of whom were wealthy...
-..using their influence in London...
-..to create important institutions
-That's the story next time.
-We'll look at the contribution...
-..of a leading
-20th century politician...
-..and popular figures from
-the entertainment and arts world...
-..to the London Welsh community.
-We'll also look at the institutions
-that still serve that community.
-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.
Byd masnach: o'r Porthmyn a Merched y Gerddi i'r llaethdai Cymreig. The 500 year history of the Welsh in London including their influence on trade and the growth in importance of the chapels