Pennod 2 Huw Edwards a Stori Cymry Llundain


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-That's it from us.

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-A first look at the papers on the

-BBC News channel in a few minutes...

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-..but now it's time

-for the news where you are.

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-And that's the end

-of another broadcast...

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-..here at the BBC's

-main news studio in London...

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-..watched by around five million

-viewers in Wales, England...

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-..Northern Ireland and Scotland.

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-The location of the studio

-speaks volumes.

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-In the heart of London,

-the capital of the United Kingdom.

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-However, the unity of that kingdom

-is a contentious issue nowadays.

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-The heart of London is where

-the BBC's new news headquarters...

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-..and the headquarters of Britain's

-influential companies are situated.

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-It's been home to millions of people

-over the centuries...

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-..including the Welsh, and the story

-of the London Welsh is intriguing.

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-In this episode, the influence of

-business and commerce on the Welsh.

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-From the age of the drovers...

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-..and the hard-working

-garden girls...

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-..to the army

-of industrious dairymen...

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-..and the fervour

-of the large urban chapels...

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-..to today's bustling city.

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-It's a tale which continues

-to spark the imagination.

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-In this series, we'll capture

-a little of that zeal...

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-..and explain

-the influence of the Welsh...

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-..on one

-of the world's largest cities...

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-..as well as London's influence

-on Wales.

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-The story of the London Welsh

-is relevant to everyone in Wales.

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-The 18th century was a century

-of commerce in London...

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-..as the British Empire expanded.

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-By this time, the Thames was one

-of the world's main trade routes...

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-..and its banks were a hive

-of activity and diversity.

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-During the early 1700s,

-a religious revolution took hold...

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-..which would inspire

-and excite the Welsh in London.

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-Here, on the south bank

-of the river...

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-..is the London residence

-of the Archbishop of Canterbury.

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-Lambeth Palace

-has stood here for centuries.

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-It's worth remembering

-that it was here in 1739...

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-..that revivalist Howell Harris

-came for the first time...

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-..to preach

-to Welsh-speaking exiles...

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-..on the Archbishop's doorstep,

-more or less.

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-It's remarkable to think...

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-..that the foundations

-of Nonconformist Welsh chapels...

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-..were laid here,

-in the shadow of Lambeth Palace.

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-The 18th century

-was a period of major change...

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-..in Britain's religious life.

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-Methodism began as a revival

-within the Church of England.

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-In time, however,

-it became a separate church.

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-To all intents, Howell Harris...

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-..founded the Calvinistic

-Methodist Church in Wales.

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-This man from Trefeca came to London

-to spread the Methodist message...

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-..and save the souls

-of its citizens.

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-He preached

-both in English and Welsh...

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-..in the open air,

-in homes and in churches.

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-Methodism was readily embraced

-by the London Welsh.

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-It greatly influenced

-what would happen next.

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-Early on in the revival,

-Harris visited London.

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-At the time, many people had been

-influenced by the revival...

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-..and belonged to different sects.

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-There was conflict

-among the Methodists in London.

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-Harris was regarded as a mediator.

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-Gradually, they divided

-into separate groups.

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-Calvinistic Methodists,

-Wesleyan Methodists and Moravians.

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-But in the early years,

-they were willing to co-operate.

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-Harris visited

-all these different sects in London.

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-Each time he went, predominantly

-to help the English Methodists...

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-..he also visited

-Welsh-medium groups.

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-A Welsh-speaking

-religious fellowship...

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-..regularly met at Lambeth.

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-There are entries in Harris' journal

-relating to those visits...

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-..and he states

-that he preached to them in Welsh.

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-During his visits to the city...

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-..Harris stayed

-with his brother Joseph...

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-..who was a Royal Mint supervisor

-at the Tower of London...

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-..overseeing

-the manufacture of currency.

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-Preaching publicly

-around the country...

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-..wasn't without its dangers.

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-On many occasions, Harris and his

-fellow Methodists were attacked...

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-..and left for dead.

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-They were threatened

-by the authorities...

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-..and brought before the magistrates

-accused of breaking the law.

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-It was quite risky.

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-In a way, they were asking for

-trouble, meeting openly in Lambeth.

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-They were in danger of being accused

-of worship outside the Church...

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-..which was against the law.

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-There are indications

-of Harris' influence on the Welsh...

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-..among the Methodists.

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-There were letters

-written by the Pugh family...

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-..who had settled in London.

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-A letter from Francis Pugh...

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-..imparts some information

-about the fellowship in Lambeth.

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-He mentions a dispute

-that had arisen.

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-Occasional references like this...

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-..indicate the active lives...

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-..of Welsh-speaking Methodists...

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-..and that Harris' visits

-were vital...

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-..to ensure they had

-some Welsh-medium preaching...

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-..which was very scarce

-at the time.

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-Many London Welsh

-who had heard Harris preach...

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-..were inspired to unite.

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-Cock Lane is a narrow,

-anonymous street nowadays.

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-But it was full of life

-at the end of the 18th century...

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-..with shops, taverns and tenants

-renting rooms above them...

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-..including a small group of Welsh

-who congregated here to worship.

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-London's first Welsh chapel

-had its origins here...

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-..and it was eventually built

-about half a mile away.

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-Thirty five years after Howell

-Harris' first visit to London...

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-..the Cock Lane worshippers

-founded a new chapel...

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-..in nearby Wilderness Row.

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-Among its founders were two men

-who had often heard Harris preach.

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-Griffith Jones from Pentre Uchaf...

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-..and Edward Jones,

-aka Ginshop Jones, from Llansannan.

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-It's remarkable being here,

-among this urban concrete jungle...

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-..and introducing

-a relatively modern structure...

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-..as London's oldest Welsh chapel.

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-This is the church

-whose origins lie in Cock Lane.

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-It relocated twice

-before reaching this site in 1879.

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-The original building

-was demolished...

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-..during the Blitz of World War II.

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-Jewin Chapel

-has a very turbulent past.

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-# A pure heart full of goodness

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-# Fairer than the lily white... #

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-One of Jewin's most noted preachers

-in the 20th century was D S Owen.

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-His grandson, Geraint Pritchard,

-is able to trace...

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-..how Jewin helped the rise

-of Welsh chapels across the city...

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-..in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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-They opened outposts

-in the heart of London.

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-Wilton Square was the first of them.

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-People would leave Jewin Chapel...

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-..and go there, to Sunday school.

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-It later became

-a Welsh Independents' chapel.

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-It began as a branch of Jewin.

-There were five or six of these.

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-They supported small causes...

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-..and this went on from 1774

-until the following century.

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-But it wasn't all sweetness and

-light for the Jewin congregation.

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-The first leader, Edward Jones,

-was a colourful soul who kept a pub.

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-He banned two members

-because they married people...

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-..who weren't Methodists.

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-He was so strict...

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-..that many members

-turned to the Welsh Independents.

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-However, the Nonconformist Welsh had

-established themselves in London...

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-..and Jewin has survived

-to this day, despite the turmoil.

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-.

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-Subtitles

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-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

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-During the 18th century...

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-..the permanent population

-of London Welsh was rising...

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-..along with the number of

-seasonal workers who came to trade.

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-Agricultural knowledge

-and expertise gained in Wales...

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-..could have financial benefits.

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-Cattle trading

-between Wales and England...

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-..has a very rich history.

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-Some claim that the story

-goes back more than 1,000 years.

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-By the 15th century

-and the arrival of Henry Tudor...

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-..the trade was thriving.

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-By the 18th century...

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-..drovers from Wales flocked here...

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-..to one of the world's

-most famous markets.

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-Smithfield.

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-Before the indoor market was built,

-Smithfield was buzzing.

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-Six days a week,

-up to 2,000 animals...

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-..would be herded to market by

-drovers through the city's streets.

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-Sometimes, there was

-considerable chaos along the way.

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-The drovers established

-a network of routes...

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-..that connected Wales

-to the fairs and markets in London.

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-It was by no means easy.

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-This is an ancient drovers' path.

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-Some of these paths

-would have been rocky and rugged.

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-That's why they would have needed

-to shoe the cattle.

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-They attached two iron clips

-to each hoof.

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-They would have needed

-eight of these for every animal.

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-A blacksmith would have accompanied

-the drovers on their journey...

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-..to shoe the cattle.

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-Special shoes were created

-to protect the cattle's hooves.

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-The drovers,

-or their men, certainly...

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-..threw the cattle on their backs

-and bound their hooves...

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-..in order to fit the shoes.

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-The trade began

-as a way of transferring money...

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-..between Welsh landowners' estates

-and their London residences.

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-Relevant permits were issued...

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-..so that drovers could herd

-their cattle from Wales...

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-..to London, to the aristocrats

-who needed the money there.

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-They brought the rent money

-to London on foot.

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-They sold the cattle there...

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-..only to discover they could

-command exceptionally high prices.

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-That's when the major trading began.

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-The drovers

-were very responsible men...

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-..and some shouldered

-substantial burdens.

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-David Jones, Sir Watkin

-Williams-Wynn's chief drover.

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-He was a formidable trader...

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-..taking huge sums of money

-back and forth to London.

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-He brought with him

-important messages too.

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-With large sums of money

-creating risks for the drovers...

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-..special banks were created

-as a way of safeguarding the trade.

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-David Jones established

-the Black Ox Bank in Llandovery...

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-..in 1799, to serve the drovers.

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-The business was later bought

-by Lloyds Bank.

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-This is one of the first banks

-established in Wales...

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-..by the son

-of a local farmer, David Jones.

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-He spent many years as a drover

-taking cattle to Smithfield...

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-..and bringing the money home,

-back to this area.

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-He realized there was a need

-for a banking system...

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-..from a safety point of view

-more than anything.

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-There was no other bank like it

-in the whole of Britain.

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-The Black Sheep Bank, established

-in Tregaron and Aberystwyth...

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-..and the Black Ox Bank

-in Llandovery.

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-They were established

-so that money could be transferred.

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-The drover would receive money

-for his animals...

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-..at a fair or in a city...

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-..and then he would take the money

-to a local bank...

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-..which had an arrangement

-with Aberystwyth or Llandovery.

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-The local bank would give

-these special notes to the drover.

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-The term used for them

-was promissory notes.

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-They were dated and numbered...

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-..and only the recognized customer

-in Llandovery or Aberystwyth...

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-..could cash them in for money.

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-If they fell into the hands

-of a thief...

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-..they'd be worthless...

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-..because the thief wouldn't be able

-to cash in the note.

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-The drover's work

-was laborious and dangerous.

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-Some travelled all the way

-from Anglesey to London...

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-..walking 20 miles a day whilst

-looking after around 400 animals.

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-They also faced

-the constant threat...

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-..of being targeted by thieves.

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-They also carried a staff...

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-..which concealed

-something like that.

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-A sword within the stick...

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-..to defend themselves.

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-There's a danger that our

-modern perception of the drover...

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-..might be too simplistic.

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-Opinions about them

-varied at the time.

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-Some regarded them as

-dishonest people with no morals...

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-..for buying goods on credit.

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-They were also regarded

-as deceivers...

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-..as Twm o'r Nant

-suggested in a poem.

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-"Here, an old drover lies dead

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-"He wasted his life, deceiving

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-"He went from his world

-to a cradle of earth

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-"Good riddance,

-he will deceive no more."

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-It was a temptation

-for some of them...

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-..to disappear with the money...

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-..and use it to cross to America

-or even Ireland...

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-..in order to buy land

-and set up home there.

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-It happened occasionally.

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-By 1855, the cattle market

-was moved from Smithfield...

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-..to Caledonian Road

-in Islington...

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-..to reduce the chaos it caused.

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-By the start of the 20th century,

-that market had disappeared too.

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-But Smithfield Market

-was still an important centre.

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-Cattle slaughtered

-on the outskirts of London...

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-..were transported here

-on an underground train.

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-That car park there

-used to be the station.

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-Men would carry tonnes of meat...

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-..up the ramp, across this street...

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-..into the market,

-where it would all be sold.

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-The drovers established

-very familiar routes...

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-..and those routes were followed

-by another group of people.

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-The garden girls, who carried

-produce to street markets like this.

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-They worked in gardens

-right across London.

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-It was very hard labour.

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-Due to its growth,

-London's population needed feeding.

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-Many gardens were being developed

-to the west of the city.

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-It indicates the extent of poverty

-in rural Wales at the time...

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-..that these girls

-were prepared to walk for a week...

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-..in order to reach London

-and work endless hours...

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-..under very difficult conditions

-to earn 10 over the summer months.

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-The garden girls

-led a dangerous life.

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-The story of Ruth Watkin

-typifies this.

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-She was attacked

-by a man who wanted her money.

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-She shouted in Welsh

-and he replied in Welsh.

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-He was a man from Rhandir-mwyn

-by the name of Black Wil.

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-Twenty years later, he was hanged

-for a lifetime of crime.

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-They spent hours weeding...

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-..and on top of that, they often

-had to walk five or six miles...

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-..with baskets laden with fruit

-on their heads.

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-They'd carry them

-into the city to be sold.

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-At the time,

-if they were carried in a cart...

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-..they'd probably be damaged...

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-..and the strawberries

-would be impossible to sell.

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-It was a very hard life.

-It took great effort.

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-It's surprising it lasted so long...

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-..from the mid-18th century

-until the end of the 19th century.

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-The garden girls

-belong to a long tradition...

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-..of economic migrants to London

-who met the demand for workers...

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-..and who were pursuing

-a better life.

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-It's a pattern

-that continues to this day.

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-.

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-Subtitles

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-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

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-Trade opportunities in London...

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-..have attracted thousands

-of Welsh people over the centuries.

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-But their accommodation was poor.

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-However, one famous family

-from Wales lived in a grand house...

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-..in one of London's

-most privileged areas.

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-They were among

-Britain's wealthiest families.

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-It's unusual to note

-that there's a clear connection...

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-..between the London Welsh

-and this square.

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-It's one of the most expensive

-and luxurious addresses in London.

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-St James's Square, a stone's throw

-from St James's Palace.

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-There's a rather corporate feel

-about the place nowadays...

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-..but 200 years ago, this is where

-the country's most affluent lived.

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-Our point of interest is number 20.

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-That was the London residence...

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-..of Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn

-and his family from North Wales.

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-At the time, it was customary

-for Britain's wealthy families...

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-..to spend some months of the year

-in London socializing...

0:20:280:20:33

-..and being politically active.

0:20:330:20:36

-The Wynn family owned an estate

-of over 100,000 acres...

0:20:360:20:39

-..in North Wales and Shropshire.

0:20:400:20:42

-They were regarded as the

-uncrowned monarchs of North Wales.

0:20:420:20:47

-Watkin Williams-Wynn,

-the fourth Baronet of Wynnstay...

0:20:470:20:51

-..commissioned

-architect Robert Adam...

0:20:520:20:54

-..to design the house

-and adorn it with masterpieces.

0:20:540:20:57

-Here's an interesting fact.

0:20:580:21:00

-Though the Wynn family's

-wealth and style...

0:21:000:21:03

-..fitted perfectly into the upper

-echelons of London society...

0:21:040:21:08

-..they certainly didn't disregard

-the importance of Welsh culture.

0:21:080:21:13

-In 1820, when the Society

-of Cymmrodorion was revived...

0:21:130:21:17

-..Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, the

-fifth Baronet, was named president.

0:21:170:21:22

-His father, the fourth baronet,

-was the former president...

0:21:220:21:26

-..who built this luxurious house

-on St James's Square.

0:21:260:21:31

-No-one had done more to patronize

-the arts in Wales than Wynn.

0:21:380:21:44

-He collected the artwork

-of the Old Masters...

0:21:440:21:47

-..and commissioned work by Welsh

-artists and European contemporaries.

0:21:480:21:53

-Exhibiting paintings of Wales

-at Number 20...

0:21:540:21:58

-..was a way of conveying

-the family's Welshness...

0:21:580:22:02

-..to the intelligentsia

-who visited them.

0:22:020:22:05

-They felt it was their duty

-to patronize Welsh artists...

0:22:050:22:11

-..such as Richard Wilson

-and William Parry.

0:22:110:22:14

-They patronized music from Wales.

0:22:150:22:17

-William Parry's father

-was John Parry...

0:22:170:22:20

-..who helped establish the belief...

0:22:210:22:24

-..that there was

-such a thing as Welsh music...

0:22:240:22:28

-..in the 18th century.

0:22:280:22:30

-They were very eager to be

-presidents of the Cymmrodorion.

0:22:310:22:35

-For more than a century...

0:22:360:22:39

-..one Sir Watkin after another...

0:22:390:22:42

-..was ready to become

-Cymmrodorion president.

0:22:420:22:45

-Throughout the 19th century...

0:22:480:22:50

-..noble families like the Wynnstays

-made the most of London's good life.

0:22:500:22:55

-The number of ordinary Welsh folk

-was growing too...

0:22:550:22:59

-..partly due

-to poverty in rural Wales.

0:22:590:23:02

-By the mid-19th century...

0:23:030:23:06

-..almost 18,000 people born in Wales

-lived in London.

0:23:060:23:09

-It had an impact on the rise

-of chapels in the capital.

0:23:100:23:14

-Chapels in London

-had a pleasant problem...

0:23:170:23:20

-..during the mid-19th century.

0:23:200:23:22

-There wasn't enough room

-and there weren't enough chapels.

0:23:230:23:27

-So a fund was established

-to build new chapels.

0:23:270:23:30

-Thousands of Welsh migrants

-were coming to London every year...

0:23:310:23:35

-..to answer the demand,

-especially from the dairy industry.

0:23:350:23:40

-But in this chapel, it proved

-both a blessing and a curse.

0:23:400:23:44

-In Jewin, the first

-of London's Welsh chapels...

0:23:470:23:50

-..some complained that people

-were putting milk before chapel.

0:23:510:23:54

-It was a seven-day week

-in the dairy industry.

0:23:550:23:58

-Since that meant

-working on the Sabbath...

0:23:580:24:01

-..Jewin's leaders

-decided to take a firm stance.

0:24:020:24:06

-It's a stance that appears

-even more extreme these days.

0:24:060:24:11

-They refused to christen

-the children of those...

0:24:120:24:15

-..who worked in the dairy industry.

0:24:150:24:18

-Naturally, it caused a rift.

0:24:180:24:20

-The congregation was split.

0:24:200:24:22

-That was one of the main motives

-for establishing a new chapel...

0:24:230:24:27

-..in the heart of London.

0:24:270:24:29

-Charing Cross

-was a very famous chapel in its day.

0:24:290:24:33

-The link between the Welsh

-and London's dairy industry...

0:24:350:24:39

-..was made in the 19th century...

0:24:400:24:42

-..with young girls

-selling milk on the city's streets.

0:24:430:24:47

-They carried large milk cans

-that weighed up to 50kg when full.

0:24:470:24:51

-In 1840, the train was introduced...

0:24:520:24:55

-..to transport cattle

-from one place to another.

0:24:560:24:59

-Gradually, the drovers

-came to produce milk in London...

0:25:000:25:05

-..rather than bringing cattle

-to London.

0:25:050:25:08

-That heralded the beginning

-of the dairy industry in London.

0:25:080:25:12

-As the industry

-grew and stabilized...

0:25:130:25:16

-..the sellers

-moved to shops across the city.

0:25:170:25:20

-Before the end of the century...

0:25:200:25:23

-..half the corner shops

-in London were Welsh dairies...

0:25:230:25:27

-..that sold milk, cheese and butter.

0:25:270:25:29

-Many dairies kept a cow

-in a shed behind the shop.

0:25:300:25:33

-You'd find dairies

-on every street corner.

0:25:360:25:39

-Remnants of some of the dairies

-can still be seen today.

0:25:390:25:43

-Some of them are intact.

0:25:440:25:46

-You can walk into some

-that still operate as shops.

0:25:460:25:50

-The Jones dairy

-is situated off Columbia Road.

0:25:500:25:53

-These shops

-are spread across the city.

0:25:530:25:57

-The shop would be at the front...

0:25:570:25:59

-..and the shed would be at the rear.

0:26:000:26:02

-Often you can see

-where the cattle were kept.

0:26:020:26:08

-A generation of London Welsh

-still remember...

0:26:080:26:12

-..the days of keeping cattle

-at the back of the dairy.

0:26:120:26:16

-Bowen Williams followed his parents

-into the business.

0:26:170:26:21

-Where I was born...

0:26:210:26:23

-..my parents at the time

-kept 18 dairy cattle.

0:26:230:26:28

-Of course, they'd also have milk

-transported from Somerset too.

0:26:290:26:34

-In my husband's

-grandparents' case...

0:26:350:26:38

-..they kept cattle

-at the back of the shop.

0:26:380:26:42

-They opened the shop every day

-and sold the milk...

0:26:420:26:45

-..along with many other produce,

-like a grocer's shop nowadays.

0:26:460:26:51

-The milk was on tap, as they say!

0:26:520:26:55

-The milk

-was delivered to us in churns...

0:26:550:26:58

-..at two o'clock in the morning.

0:26:590:27:01

-I'd start work

-at half past three every morning.

0:27:010:27:06

-I made sure the cream was broken up.

0:27:060:27:10

-The first thing the men did...

0:27:100:27:12

-..was fill the milk bottles.

0:27:130:27:16

-Then they'd load the push barrows...

0:27:160:27:21

-..and deliver the milk

-to people's doors.

0:27:210:27:26

-They'd open the shop

-at six in the morning...

0:27:270:27:31

-..because they were so close

-to Smithfield Market.

0:27:310:27:36

-The porters started work early

-and came into the shop.

0:27:360:27:40

-They sold sandwiches

-and tea and coffee too.

0:27:400:27:43

-The Welsh were adapting...

0:27:440:27:46

-..by selling milk to different

-ethnic communities in London.

0:27:470:27:51

-I remember my mother

-telling me about the Jews...

0:27:520:27:58

-..who brought in jugs to fill

-with milk straight from the cow.

0:27:580:28:03

-The rabbi

-would have to bless the milk...

0:28:040:28:07

-..before they could sell it

-to the Jews, of course.

0:28:070:28:10

-That happened regularly.

0:28:110:28:13

-They had to do it

-otherwise the Jews wouldn't buy it.

0:28:130:28:18

-There were over 2,500 dairies

-in London at one time.

0:28:180:28:24

-You could liken them

-to today's corner shop, I suppose.

0:28:240:28:29

-Many owners were Welsh speakers.

0:28:290:28:33

-Lots of Welsh people learnt the

-languages of the local community.

0:28:330:28:38

-By the 1980s,

-the last of the Welsh dairymen...

0:28:410:28:44

-..like Richard Pugh in Soho...

0:28:440:28:46

-..and DR Daniel in Pimlico,

-started to consider selling up.

0:28:470:28:52

-They reminisced about the golden age

-of the industry.

0:28:520:28:56

-There were Welsh people

-in almost every street.

0:28:570:29:00

-In every street, in actual fact.

0:29:000:29:03

-They had businesses like mine.

0:29:040:29:07

-They all had dairies.

0:29:070:29:09

-They've gone now, of course.

0:29:100:29:12

-After the last war,

-they've almost all gone.

0:29:120:29:16

-We feel as if we should retire.

0:29:160:29:21

-But I don't think we'll return

-to Wales. We're happy in London.

0:29:210:29:27

-It's always been a village to us.

0:29:270:29:30

-I don't know

-how my sister feels about that.

0:29:300:29:33

-No, I don't want to return home.

0:29:330:29:35

-I'm too comfortable in London!

0:29:360:29:38

-Eirlys Bebb was raised

-in a dairy in the East End...

0:29:450:29:48

-..and remembers worshipping

-at a chapel with numerous dairymen.

0:29:480:29:53

-We're here in the heart

-of the East End here, in Mile End.

0:29:540:29:59

-Where were you born?

0:29:590:30:01

-I was born not far from here,

-in Bethnal Green.

0:30:010:30:06

-Very close then.

0:30:060:30:07

-There were lots of Welsh people

-in the vicinity.

0:30:070:30:10

-Yes. There were

-lots of dairies, you see.

0:30:110:30:13

-The dairy business was everything.

0:30:140:30:16

-Everyone had a milk business.

0:30:160:30:18

-We're approaching

-a very special building.

0:30:190:30:23

-I know you have a strong connection

-with this building.

0:30:240:30:27

-It should have a blue plaque...

0:30:280:30:31

-..saying that it was here

-that I was christened...

0:30:310:30:35

-..when it was a chapel.

0:30:350:30:37

-I'm willing to tell you

-that it was 80 years ago.

0:30:370:30:41

-Have you been back since?

0:30:420:30:43

-Have you been back since?

-

-No.

0:30:430:30:44

-Let's go inside.

0:30:450:30:47

-It's hard to imagine it as a chapel.

0:30:520:30:55

-But there are one or two

-indications, aren't there?

0:30:550:30:58

-Like the gallery.

0:30:590:31:01

-And the ceiling, of course.

0:31:010:31:03

-It's a thrill to be here.

0:31:030:31:05

-It sends a shiver down my spine

-when I think I was christened here.

0:31:050:31:10

-What kind of life

-did the dairymen lead?

0:31:110:31:14

-I doubt they had

-any spare time at all.

0:31:140:31:18

-It was a very early start

-in the morning.

0:31:180:31:21

-Not for me,

-but it was an early start.

0:31:210:31:24

-They had to fill the bottles

-before delivering them.

0:31:240:31:28

-Did people come to the shop

-late into the night?

0:31:280:31:32

-Oh, yes!

0:31:320:31:34

-You say that impatiently!

0:31:340:31:36

-I remember them

-knocking on the front door.

0:31:360:31:40

-I opened the door

-and a woman wanted washing powder!

0:31:400:31:44

-She was never going to start washing

-clothes at 10 o'clock at night.

0:31:440:31:48

-She was on her way home

-from the pictures.

0:31:490:31:51

-I suppose she wanted it

-for the following morning.

0:31:510:31:54

-Any spare time during the week?

0:31:550:31:57

-The only free time we had

-was Thursday afternoon...

0:31:570:32:01

-..because all the dairies closed...

0:32:010:32:06

-..right across London.

0:32:060:32:08

-If you wanted to get married,

-you did so on a Thursday afternoon!

0:32:090:32:13

-Did you marry on a Thursday?

0:32:130:32:14

-Did you marry on a Thursday?

-

-Yes.

0:32:140:32:16

-Those who died were buried

-on a Thursday afternoon.

0:32:160:32:20

-It was the only time

-you could be sure...

0:32:210:32:23

-..that all the London Welsh

-were free.

0:32:230:32:26

-Someone else

-who worshipped at Mile End Chapel...

0:32:280:32:32

-..and who worked in the dairy

-industry was a Cardiganshire man...

0:32:320:32:36

-..by the name of Jenkin Edwards.

0:32:360:32:38

-A familiar surname, you might think!

0:32:390:32:41

-Jenkin Edwards

-was my grandfather's uncle.

0:32:410:32:45

-At the start of the 20th century,

-he and brother Daniel...

0:32:460:32:50

-..came to London

-to work in the dairy industry.

0:32:500:32:53

-He settled in the East End.

0:32:540:32:56

-This was the chapel

-in which they worshipped.

0:32:560:32:59

-When Jenkin died in the 1930s...

0:32:590:33:02

-..they paid tribute to him

-in the London Welsh paper.

0:33:020:33:05

-They talked of his generosity

-to Mile End Chapel.

0:33:050:33:08

-As the status and ambition

-of the Welsh grew in London...

0:33:090:33:12

-..during the 18th century,

-it was reflected in the chapels...

0:33:130:33:17

-..which were being built

-across the city.

0:33:170:33:20

-The Charing Cross Road

-congregation...

0:33:200:33:23

-..commissioned

-eminent architect James Cubitt...

0:33:230:33:27

-..to design their chapel.

0:33:270:33:29

-It's a striking building

-which is now an arts centre.

0:33:300:33:34

-The growth of the dairy industry

-and that of the chapels...

0:33:350:33:38

-..went hand in hand.

0:33:390:33:40

-.

0:33:420:33:42

-Subtitles

0:33:450:33:45

-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

0:33:450:33:47

-This is one of the most prominent

-and popular landmarks in London.

0:33:490:33:54

-Marble Arch, near Park Lane.

0:33:540:33:57

-But this isn't

-its original location.

0:33:570:34:00

-It was designed as the main entrance

-to Buckingham Palace.

0:34:000:34:03

-However, the entrance was too narrow

-for the state carriage...

0:34:040:34:08

-..so it was moved here.

0:34:080:34:10

-There's a strong connection

-between Marble Arch and West Wales.

0:34:110:34:16

-The architecture is Regency style...

0:34:190:34:22

-..which many associate

-with London's city centre streets.

0:34:220:34:27

-Familiar addresses

-such as Regent Street...

0:34:290:34:32

-..Oxford Circus and Piccadilly

-Circus were designed by John Nash.

0:34:320:34:38

-Nash's influence and design

-is prominent in London today.

0:34:380:34:43

-Park Crescent is a special example.

0:34:430:34:47

-It was widely believed that Nash

-was a typically English architect...

0:34:470:34:52

-..though his mother

-hailed from Carmarthenshire...

0:34:520:34:55

-..and his father from Neath.

0:34:550:34:57

-West Wales

-played an important part...

0:34:580:35:00

-..in Nash's development

-into an eminent architect.

0:35:000:35:03

-Nash inherited 1,000

-from his uncle...

0:35:040:35:07

-..and he spent it all

-on building a grand residence...

0:35:080:35:11

-..on Great Russell Street

-and Bloomsbury Square.

0:35:110:35:15

-Failure to rent led to bankruptcy,

-so Nash moved to Carmarthen.

0:35:160:35:20

-It was there that he rebuilt

-his career as an architect...

0:35:210:35:24

-..and developed his style.

0:35:240:35:26

-Nash designed a new roof

-for the town's church...

0:35:260:35:29

-..as well as prisons in Carmarthen,

-Cardigan and Haverfordwest.

0:35:290:35:34

-He designed many mansions in West

-Wales, including Llanerchaeron...

0:35:350:35:39

-..which now belongs

-to the National Trust.

0:35:390:35:43

-It's a unique building

-due to its exterior facade...

0:35:430:35:47

-..and the fact the central staircase

-can be seen from every room.

0:35:470:35:51

-It was a time of improvements.

0:35:510:35:54

-New roads and bridges were built...

0:35:540:35:57

-..along with new jails and ports.

0:35:570:36:00

-In addition,

-the wars against France...

0:36:000:36:05

-..meant that high prices were paid

-for produce from Welsh farms.

0:36:050:36:10

-Wales' landowners were doing very

-well in West Wales in the 1790s...

0:36:110:36:16

-..at the same time

-as Nash came to West Wales.

0:36:170:36:22

-It was a prime time

-for a young architect.

0:36:220:36:25

-Few architects were as good as him.

0:36:250:36:28

-After returning to London,

-Nash enjoyed sweeping success.

0:36:300:36:34

-He designed Buckingham Palace

-and Regent's Park.

0:36:340:36:37

-Park Crescent

-was part of a pioneering plan...

0:36:380:36:41

-..to connect Piccadilly Circus,

-a mile away...

0:36:410:36:44

-..and Regent's Park over there.

0:36:440:36:47

-But don't think

-that Nash's exemplary work...

0:37:010:37:04

-..won him endless praise.

0:37:040:37:06

-The architect's main patron

-was the Prince Regent.

0:37:070:37:11

-He was a very unpopular figure.

0:37:110:37:14

-As a result, people regarded Nash's

-work on behalf of the prince...

0:37:140:37:19

-..as a waste of public money.

0:37:190:37:21

-Nash retired to the Isle of Wight...

0:37:220:37:25

-..leaving debts of 15,000.

0:37:250:37:29

-His wife had to sell some of

-her possessions to pay the bills.

0:37:290:37:33

-However, years after his death...

0:37:330:37:36

-..people reconsidered

-his contribution...

0:37:360:37:39

-..to the city's development.

0:37:400:37:42

-It's hard to imagine London without

-Nash's buildings and stunning parks.

0:37:420:37:47

-Nash was sternly criticized...

0:37:470:37:50

-..during his lifetime...

0:37:500:37:52

-..for being a man of facades.

0:37:530:37:55

-He was fond

-of grand facades on buildings...

0:37:550:37:58

-..but often the walls behind them

-were quite flimsy...

0:37:590:38:04

-..in the servants' quarters

-and so on.

0:38:040:38:07

-I think people forgave him

-for his overspending.

0:38:070:38:10

-They believed

-he was the only architect...

0:38:110:38:13

-..who had any idea

-of how to turn London...

0:38:140:38:17

-..into a grand city like Paris.

0:38:170:38:21

-Nash was one of the first people...

0:38:210:38:24

-..to create an architectural

-grand design for London.

0:38:240:38:28

-Another Welshman was responsible...

0:38:280:38:31

-..for many more improvements

-later in the 19th century...

0:38:310:38:36

-..including one famous project

-that possibly bears his name.

0:38:360:38:41

-This is very hard work,

-but then again, I should be fitter.

0:38:440:38:50

-I'm in one of the world's

-most iconic buildings...

0:38:500:38:54

-..and one of London's main symbols

-for millions of people.

0:38:550:38:59

-Believe it or not,

-there's a close link...

0:38:590:39:03

-..between Wales and this tower.

0:39:030:39:06

-We'll discover why

-when I reach the top.

0:39:060:39:10

-Off I go!

0:39:100:39:11

-I've reached the next level.

0:39:270:39:29

-This is the clue.

0:39:300:39:32

-We all know what's on

-the other side of this glass.

0:39:320:39:35

-The world's

-most famous clock, Big Ben.

0:39:350:39:40

-But who is Big Ben?

0:39:400:39:42

-Benjamin Hall,

-a prominent Welshman of his day.

0:39:420:39:46

-What's his association

-with this building?

0:39:470:39:50

-Some people think

-this is Big Ben's tower.

0:39:500:39:53

-That's a mistake...

0:39:540:39:56

-..because Big Ben

-refers to something else.

0:39:560:39:59

-I've reached the top,

-and within a few seconds...

0:40:100:40:13

-..I'll need earplugs.

0:40:130:40:15

-It's going to be very noisy here.

0:40:150:40:18

-Big Ben, of course, is this

-huge bell, not the tower itself.

0:40:180:40:22

-Benjamin Hall

-was the eminent Welshman...

0:40:230:40:26

-..who built this tower.

0:40:270:40:29

-He positioned these bells in 1859.

0:40:290:40:32

-I think the bells

-are about to chime.

0:40:320:40:35

-But, of course, for millions

-of people over the world...

0:40:520:40:56

-..Big Ben is the voice of London,

-and it's about to strike.

0:40:560:41:00

-Though he was raised in London...

0:41:120:41:14

-..Benjamin Hall

-had strong ties with Wales.

0:41:150:41:18

-His grandfather was the Chancellor

-of Llandaff Cathedral...

0:41:190:41:23

-..and his mother was the daughter

-of ironmaster Richard Crawshay.

0:41:230:41:27

-The family also owned Abercarn

-and Hensol castles.

0:41:270:41:31

-As well as contributing to the

-improvement of London's amenities...

0:41:310:41:35

-..Hall also contributed to Welsh

-life as a member of parliament.

0:41:360:41:40

-He was instrumental in passing

-The Truck Act of 1831.

0:41:400:41:44

-A bill that prevented companies...

0:41:440:41:46

-..from paying workers

-with equipment instead of money.

0:41:470:41:51

-This was a step

-that improved the lives...

0:41:510:41:54

-..of many of Wales' lowly workers.

0:41:540:41:57

-However, it was his wife,

-Augusta Hall, or Lady Llanover...

0:41:570:42:02

-..who made the biggest contribution

-to Welsh culture.

0:42:020:42:05

-One of the most notable

-contributions to Welsh culture...

0:42:060:42:11

-..came from this street...

0:42:110:42:13

-..across this busy road

-from the royal park, Hyde Park.

0:42:140:42:18

-It's wonderful.

0:42:180:42:20

-This street is called Stanhope Gate.

0:42:200:42:23

-This was the London residence

-of Lord and Lady Llanover.

0:42:230:42:28

-She's famous for developing

-the traditional Welsh costume.

0:42:280:42:33

-In fairness to her...

0:42:330:42:35

-..her contribution

-was far more important than that.

0:42:350:42:38

-Some claim

-the creation of the Welsh costume...

0:42:410:42:44

-..was a way

-of promoting the wool industry.

0:42:440:42:47

-Lady Llanover was interested in

-all aspects of Wales' creative life.

0:42:480:42:53

-She was a key figure in ensuring

-the triple harp was maintained.

0:42:530:42:58

-She employed harpists

-at Llanover House near Abergavenny.

0:42:590:43:02

-All the estate's workers

-had to be able to speak Welsh.

0:43:030:43:07

-She was also a generous patron of

-all aspects of Wales' folk culture.

0:43:070:43:12

-She held ten eisteddfodau

-at Llanover during the 19th century.

0:43:120:43:18

-While Lady Llanover tried to promote

-the wool industry in Wales...

0:43:270:43:33

-..the skills honed in this field

-provided opportunities in London.

0:43:330:43:38

-Opportunities that paid

-great dividends for some.

0:43:390:43:42

-It's always a pleasure

-to come to Sloane Square...

0:43:450:43:48

-..and seeing the name

-of Welshman Peter Jones...

0:43:490:43:52

-..on one of London's

-most famous shops.

0:43:520:43:55

-He was in good company,

-with John Lewis...

0:43:550:43:58

-..DH Evans and Dickins & Jones.

0:43:580:44:00

-At one time, the drapers' business

-in London was a Welsh monopoly.

0:44:000:44:06

-The skills developed in Wales'

-wool trade and drapers' shops...

0:44:070:44:13

-..provided opportunities for those

-who wanted to make their fortune.

0:44:130:44:18

-Naturally, these businesses grew.

0:44:180:44:20

-They went from being

-small drapers' stores...

0:44:200:44:24

-..to enormous department stores.

0:44:240:44:27

-The story of the Jones brothers

-from North Wales...

0:44:280:44:31

-..is typical of this pattern.

0:44:310:44:34

-Jones Brothers was established in

-Islington as a small shop in 1862...

0:44:340:44:38

-..by William Pierce

-and John William Jones.

0:44:390:44:42

-Before long, businesses like

-Jones Bros and Dickins & Jones...

0:44:420:44:46

-..were thriving, selling thousands

-of different goods.

0:44:470:44:51

-The most important contribution...

0:44:510:44:55

-..made by these influential owners

-of department stores...

0:44:560:44:59

-..was the fact they employed

-a high number of London Welsh.

0:45:000:45:03

-Many Welsh communities

-were maintained as a result.

0:45:040:45:08

-Like many other shops

-established by the Welsh...

0:45:110:45:14

-..Jones Brothers advertised

-for workers back in Wales...

0:45:140:45:18

-..and drew thousands to London.

0:45:180:45:20

-The Jones brothers

-looked after their workers...

0:45:200:45:24

-..though they expected them

-to work 74 hours a week.

0:45:240:45:29

-Many employees lived above the shop.

0:45:290:45:32

-There was accommodation

-for 250 men over three floors...

0:45:320:45:36

-..as well as social rooms,

-a library and a staff restaurant.

0:45:370:45:41

-There were even stables

-for 50 horses...

0:45:410:45:45

-..that delivered

-the store's goods within London.

0:45:450:45:48

-It's a varied story in terms

-of the drapers' working conditions.

0:45:510:45:57

-They worked long hours

-and the work was laborious.

0:45:570:46:00

-The conditions were merciless.

0:46:000:46:03

-There was no rest, no fresh air

-and little exercise for staff.

0:46:040:46:09

-Some historians claim there was

-a high rate of disease...

0:46:090:46:14

-..and ill health

-among the drapers' employees.

0:46:140:46:18

-It was comparable to those

-who worked in the heavy industries.

0:46:180:46:24

-It indicates how difficult

-the work was, in effect.

0:46:240:46:28

-Later, many of these stores

-were bought by large chains.

0:46:330:46:38

-Dickins & Jones

-was established in 1835.

0:46:390:46:42

-It became part of Harrods, and then

-House of Fraser in the late '50s.

0:46:420:46:46

-Peter Jones on Sloane Square is now

-part of the John Lewis Partnership.

0:46:470:46:51

-The business

-was established by Thomas Jones...

0:46:520:46:55

-..the son of a milliner

-from Carmarthenshire...

0:46:550:46:58

-..who came to London in 1871

-with 14 in his pocket.

0:46:590:47:02

-The 19th century

-was a century of commerce...

0:47:040:47:09

-..for the London Welsh.

0:47:090:47:11

-But at the beginning

-of a new century...

0:47:110:47:14

-..tens of thousands of Welsh people

-flocked to this urban community.

0:47:140:47:19

-Confident Welsh people,

-some of whom were wealthy...

0:47:190:47:23

-..using their influence in London...

0:47:230:47:25

-..to create important institutions

-in Wales.

0:47:260:47:29

-That's the story next time.

0:47:290:47:31

-We'll look at the contribution...

0:47:360:47:38

-..of a leading

-20th century politician...

0:47:390:47:43

-..and popular figures from

-the entertainment and arts world...

0:47:430:47:47

-..to the London Welsh community.

0:47:470:47:50

-We'll also look at the institutions

-that still serve that community.

0:47:500:47:55

-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.

0:48:210:48:23

-.

0:48:230:48:23

Byd masnach: o'r Porthmyn a Merched y Gerddi i'r llaethdai Cymreig. The 500 year history of the Welsh in London including their influence on trade and the growth in importance of the chapels


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