Pennod 3 Huw Edwards a Stori Cymry Llundain


Pennod 3

Huw Edwards sy'n teithio o ddiwedd y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg i'n cyfnod ni heddiw. Huw Edwards travels from the late 19th century to the present day as he looks at the Welsh...


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-That's it from us.

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-A first look at the papers on the

-BBC News channel in a few minutes...

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-..but now it's time

-for the news where you are.

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-And that's the end

-of another broadcast...

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-..here at the BBC's

-main news studio in London...

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-..watched by around five million

-viewers in Wales, England...

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-..Northern Ireland and Scotland.

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-The location of the studio

-speaks volumes.

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-In the heart of London,

-the capital of the United Kingdom.

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-However, the unity of that kingdom

-is a contentious issue nowadays.

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-The heart of London is where

-the BBC's new news headquarters...

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-..and the headquarters of Britain's

-influential companies are situated.

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-It's been home to millions of people

-over the centuries...

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-..including the Welsh, and the story

-of the London Welsh is intriguing.

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-In the final episode, we focus

-on key individuals and institutions.

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-From political giants...

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-..to the fervour

-of the urban Welsh chapels.

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-From the creativity of national

-figures to today's bustling city.

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-It's a tale

-which sparks the imagination.

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-In this series, we'll convey

-a little of that zeal...

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-..and explain

-the influence of the Welsh...

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-..on one

-of the world's largest cities...

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-..as well as London's influence

-on Wales.

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-The story of the London Welsh

-is relevant to everyone in Wales.

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-It's here in London,

-in England's capital city...

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-..that the foundations

-of the modern Wales were laid.

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-In the 19th century,

-Wales was a country...

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-..without national institutions,

-without a capital city...

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-..and without official status.

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-It was here that all those

-important foundations were laid...

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-..to breathe new life into Wales.

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-Many of the ideas...

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-..and the zeal to create

-institutions for the modern Wales...

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-..came from

-the Society of Cymmrodorion...

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-..whose origins

-were in the mid-18th century.

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-By 1873, it had been revived

-for the third time...

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-..under the chairmanship

-of Sir Hugh Owen.

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-One of the things

-which stems from...

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-..all the zeal and enthusiasm

-of the Cymmrodorion...

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-..in the last quarter of

-the 19th century, in my opinion...

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-..is this drive

-to establish institutions.

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-A national museum for Wales,

-a national library for Wales...

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-..a royal commission to preserve

-Wales' historical buildings...

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-..and that kind of thing.

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-Their first attempt, during the

-1890s and 1890s, ended in failure.

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-But by the beginning

-of the 20th century...

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-..the ideas discussed in London

-and at the Eisteddfod bore fruit.

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-The Cymmrodorion

-took it upon themselves...

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-..to put pressure on politicians.

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-You must come to an isolated spot

-to find the grave...

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-..of a very influential Welshman

-of the Victorian era.

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-There are buildings,

-memorials and statues in Wales...

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-..that bear this man's name.

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-I'm in Abney Park cemetery

-in north London.

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-It's a Welsh Independents' cemetery.

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-Among the thousands of graves

-in this jungle...

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-..is the grave of Sir Hugh Owen...

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-..the man who did so much...

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-..to establish the University

-College of Wales in Aberystwyth.

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-The name isn't very clear.

-You must look carefully.

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-Sir Hugh Owen, here in London.

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-In a meeting in London in 1854...

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-..Sir Hugh Owen

-first discussed the idea...

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-..of having a University College

-of Wales in Aberystwyth.

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-On retiring,

-he spent much of his time...

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-..fundraising

-for the new institution.

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-When he campaigned

-during the 1860s...

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-..to establish a college in Wales

-for the first time...

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-..he was keen to ensure

-that the Welsh language...

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-..wouldn't have a prominent place

-within that college.

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-When it was founded in 1872, there

-was no place for the Welsh language.

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-He's a complex figure...

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-..but one who represents

-the outlook of the Victorian era.

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-He did Wales many favours...

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-..but not in terms

-of safeguarding the Welsh language.

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-Hugh Owen

-worked at Somerset House...

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-..as senior clerk for the

-Poor Law Amendment Act Commission.

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-Like many Cymmrodorion of the time,

-he had strong ties...

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-..with the London establishment.

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-They had the means

-to use their influence...

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-..to ensure these institutions

-saw the light of day.

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-Another important aspect

-of their contribution...

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-..was their sense of duty...

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-..to the Wales

-from which they were exiled!

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-In order to understand

-this important process...

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-..of creating

-national institutions in Wales...

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-..we must focus

-on the work of Westminster...

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-..and acknowledge

-one man in particular.

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-His name was Tom Ellis,

-the MP for Merionethshire.

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-He was one of the first students

-to attend Aberystwyth.

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-He was a very influential politician

-and chief whip of the Liberal Party.

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-He campaigned diligently

-for a parliament for Wales...

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-..a Welsh university...

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-..a national museum

-and a national library.

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-He made a very important

-contribution to Welsh life.

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-TE Ellis was one of the main figures

-of the Cymru Fydd movement...

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-..which campaigned

-for self-government for Wales.

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-He backed the measure

-for national institutions...

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-..which was introduced

-to parliament in 1891.

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-The bill called for a Welsh office,

-a parliament for Wales...

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-..and many other

-national institutions.

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-Many Welsh people within Wales...

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-..were very interested

-in their religious denominations.

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-The London Welsh saw the need

-in Wales for secular institutions.

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-They had a broader outlook because

-they had a universal view of Wales.

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-They were able to make

-a valuable contribution.

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-London operated as

-the unofficial capital of Wales...

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-..at the end of the 19th century.

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-The pillars

-of modern Wales were built...

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-..on the ideas, energy

-and enthusiasm of the London Welsh.

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-Though the Cymru Fydd movement

-failed to inspire the nation...

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-..it's hard to imagine Wales

-without its universities...

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-..museum and national library.

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-One of Cymru Fydd's young leaders

-set his sights...

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-..on political power on a British

-and international level...

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-..in the early 20th century.

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-For tens of thousands of tourists

-around the world...

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-..Parliament Square

-is the centre of London...

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-..a stone's throw

-from the Palace of Westminster.

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-It has been a focal point

-for major protests.

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-Keeping a watchful eye...

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-..are some of the most influential

-leaders in the history of the world.

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-Nelson Mandela, Abraham Lincoln

-and Sir Winston Churchill.

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-Also here is the charismatic

-Welshman David Lloyd George.

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-There's no shortage of prominent

-Welshmen in Westminster's history.

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-Pacifist Henry Richard,

-devolutionist Tom Ellis...

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-..and health wizard Aneurin Bevan.

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-But it's only Lloyd George who earns

-a place here in Parliament Square.

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-That shouldn't come as a surprise.

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-Few politicians have influenced

-the history of the world as he did.

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-A statue of Lloyd George should

-have been erected 50 years earlier.

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-If we can't pay homage

-to such a prominent Welshman...

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-..there's something wrong.

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-He should have been

-commemorated sooner.

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-He made a great contribution

-to social issues.

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-Insurance, pensions,

-fighting injustice.

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-Aside from that, he was

-the prime minister during WWI.

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-He reached the House of Commons

-at the age of 27...

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-..making Lloyd George

-the youngest MP at the time.

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-In 1906,

-he was the first Welshman...

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-..to join the Cabinet

-in more than 50 years.

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-He was also

-one of the first in Britain...

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-..to reach that status

-as a commoner.

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-His success was a source

-of great pride for the Welsh.

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-The remarkable thing about him

-was his ordinary background.

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-He was raised by his uncle,

-Richard Lloyd...

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-..who was a cobbler in Llanystumdwy.

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-The family was by no means rich.

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-Lloyd George hadn't attended

-a grammar school or a public school.

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-He hadn't been to university

-and gained a degree.

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-He got there through his innate

-ability as a politician...

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-..his strong personality and his

-astounding ability as an orator.

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-When Lloyd George arrived in London

-for the first time...

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-..as a young solicitor...

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-..he took full advantage

-of the London Welsh network.

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-It was a formidable network.

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-It was a combination

-of the old and the new...

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-..consisting of affluent businessmen

-and their grandiose shops.

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-Lloyd George was solicitor for

-the drapers' chamber of commerce.

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-But it's important to remember

-that amid this urban jungle...

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-..the old Welsh traditions

-were still alive.

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-He attended chapel services

-at Castle Street in London.

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-He was faithful to the services

-and prayer meetings.

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-He attended the meetings of

-the Royal Society of Cymmrodorion.

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-After he moved

-to 11 Downing Street...

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-..as Chancellor of the Exchequer...

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-..Lloyd George and wife Margaret

-made a special effort...

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-..to employ maids

-who were fluent Welsh-speakers.

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-Welsh was the everyday language

-of 11 Downing Street...

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-..during Lloyd George's time

-as Chancellor.

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-Might, religion and wealth.

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-Those are the main characteristics

-of this wonderful building...

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-..in the heart of London.

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-Lloyd George's family

-has strong ties with this chapel.

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-This is the Welsh Baptist Chapel

-of Eastcastle Street...

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-..central London's Welsh church.

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-As you can see, it's busy here.

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-They're renovating

-the entire chapel.

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-A sign of faith

-in the future, if you will.

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-Imagine the scene back in 1917.

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-This chapel would have been full.

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-One of David Lloyd George's

-daughters was married here.

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-Olwen Lloyd George's marriage

-took place...

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-..in the middle of WWI

-when her father was prime minister.

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-The occasion was used

-as part of the war effort.

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-Munitions factory workers

-and wounded soldiers...

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-..played a part in the ceremony.

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-During his career,

-Lloyd George fought...

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-..for self-government for Wales...

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-..laid the foundations

-of the welfare state...

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-..and served as prime minister

-during WWI.

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-Sadly, it's his lively private life

-that still draws most attention.

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-It's a tragedy that Lloyd George's

-colourful life...

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-..has cast a dark shadow over

-his achievements as prime minister.

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-He changed the system of government.

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-It's as simple as that.

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-He created a War Cabinet...

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-..and a department

-for the prime minister himself.

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-When you combine

-his ability to govern...

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-..and his aptitude

-for public speaking...

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-..the result is simply spectacular.

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-.

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-Subtitles

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-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

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-Gray's Inn is one of the four

-Inns of Court in London.

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-Historically, it has attracted

-the most Welsh solicitors to London.

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-In one quiet corner is a plaque...

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-..which testifies to another

-Welsh connection with this area.

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-One that was established

-during the First World War.

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-The military connection

-between Gray's Inn and Wales...

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-..was incredibly close.

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-The London Welsh Battalion of the

-Welch Fusiliers was recruited here.

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-It was also here

-that those soldiers were trained.

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-The battalion that was

-recruited on Gray's Inn square...

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-..would fight with the rest

-of the Welch Fusiliers...

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-..in battles such as Mametz Wood.

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-It was in this exact spot that the

-soldiers received their training.

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-Major social changes ensued

-as a consequence of WWI.

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-Though young Welsh women

-had come to London for many years...

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-..in search of work as maids,

-another wave followed...

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-..in the years

-between the two world wars.

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-On the one hand, work in the

-munitions factories had ceased...

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-..but on the other, a recession

-was biting in the industrial areas.

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-The effect of this migration

-was evident in west London.

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-The streets of Paddington

-at the turn of the 20th century...

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-..were home to thousands

-of Welsh people...

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-..most of whom were workers.

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-But among them

-were a few wealthy families.

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-A family from Aberystwyth

-lived here, in Formosa Street.

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-The husband was a tax inspector.

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-They had a maid

-called Elizabeth Pugh.

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-She was my grandmother's aunt.

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-No doubt she worked downstairs

-in the kitchen.

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-She met her husband here in London.

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-He worked in the dairy business.

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-She was one

-of the huge army of Welsh maids...

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-..who were in service

-in these large London residences.

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-Poverty in Wales was responsible

-for driving many women to London.

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-During the 1920s,

-training bases were set up...

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-..in towns like Aberdare,

-Pontypool and Merthyr...

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-..to train girls in domestic skills.

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-The vast majority of them

-went to work as maids.

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-When you look back

-on the 1930s Depression in Wales...

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-..many people moved to London

-from areas like the Rhondda.

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-It wasn't their choice to move...

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-..but they felt they had to move...

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-..in order to find employment.

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-For them, London

-was considered a long way from home.

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-Some people

-who had moved from Cardiganshire...

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-..had never been

-to Carmarthen or Aberystwyth before.

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-London was a long way away.

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-For many, working in service

-in London was a bad experience.

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-Sending money or food parcels back

-to family in Wales was a feat...

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-..for young women who earned

-as little as four shillings a week.

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-They were plagued by feelings of

-loneliness and a longing for home.

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-In 1925, in one extreme case...

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-..a girl from Trefforest

-took her own life...

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-..a mere ten days

-after reaching the big city.

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-There were painful experiences...

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-..but there were

-pleasant experiences too.

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-A Christian committee was formed

-to protect the Welsh women.

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-It was called

-the Fellowship of Reconciliation.

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-They helped women

-from Wales' poorer areas...

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-..to find work in service

-here in London.

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-Their priority was to make sure

-the girls settled down...

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-..and that the work was appropriate.

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-Women from the London Welsh's middle

-classes who attended the chapels...

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-..had established their own society.

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-The London Welsh Friendly Girls' Aid

-Society would visit the maids...

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-..and find

-appropriate work for them.

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-The establishment's stamp

-was on this society.

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-Lloyd George's wife, Margaret,

-was its president.

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-By the start of the 1930s...

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-..there were at least 10,000

-young women in service in London...

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-..but things were changing rapidly.

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-Domestic appliances and electrical

-gadgets were being invented.

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-The demand for maids dwindled.

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-On top of that,

-new jobs were available.

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-Clerical work and factory work...

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-..especially in munitions factories

-on the threshold of WWII.

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-As the number of maids fell...

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-..the number of teachers who came

-from Wales to London increased.

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-Most of the city's 10,000 schools

-had a Welsh member of staff.

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-In the case

-of author Hafina Clwyd...

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-..she was one of six Miss Joneses

-in the school where she worked.

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-It's not difficult to imagine

-the impact migration had on Wales...

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-..as thousands of young people,

-including teachers...

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-..flocked here to the city

-and enjoyed new experiences...

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-..especially in the theatre world.

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-They returned to Wales, taking

-those creative ideas with them.

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-The theatre world in Wales

-benefited greatly...

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-..from the experiences some of

-the young teachers had in London.

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-Influential playwright, lecturer and

-drama producer John Gwilym Jones...

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-..spent his early career

-teaching in London.

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-He spent four years there

-at the end of the 1920s.

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-The major advantage

-for John Gwilym Jones...

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-..and his fellow young Welshmen

-in London...

0:20:560:20:59

-..was that they were in contact with

-a prominent and wealthy network.

0:20:590:21:04

-And here we are, in one

-of that community's main centres.

0:21:040:21:08

-This is the former Welsh chapel

-in Charing Cross Road.

0:21:080:21:12

-It's a very striking building.

0:21:120:21:15

-The chapel closed in 1982.

0:21:150:21:18

-The building was sold in 1984

-and turned into a nightclub.

0:21:180:21:23

-Now, it's vacant once again.

0:21:240:21:26

-Bear in mind that this chapel

-is in the heart of the West End.

0:21:260:21:30

-The theatre world

-is on the doorstep.

0:21:300:21:33

-John Gwilym capitalized on that

-before returning to Wales...

0:21:330:21:37

-..to become

-a prominent literary figure.

0:21:370:21:40

-But he wasn't the only giant

-of the Welsh literary world...

0:21:430:21:47

-..to be enticed to the city.

0:21:470:21:49

-Playwright Gwenlyn Parry

-spent four years in London too.

0:21:490:21:53

-The author of Y Twr and Grand Slam

-worked as a maths teacher.

0:21:530:21:58

-Like John Gwilym Jones, he spent

-much of his time in the West End.

0:21:580:22:03

-By getting involved with

-the London Welsh Dramatic Society...

0:22:070:22:11

-..he came into contact

-with Rhydderch Jones...

0:22:110:22:14

-..with whom he wrote

-the comedy series Fo A Fe.

0:22:140:22:18

-Rhydderch

-was an English teacher in London.

0:22:180:22:21

-He got to know the star

-of Fo A Fe, Ryan Davies...

0:22:210:22:25

-..who was a teacher in Croydon.

0:22:250:22:27

-Ryan had already studied at the

-Central School of Speech and Drama.

0:22:280:22:32

-He combined his love of performing

-with his work as a teacher.

0:22:320:22:38

-Ryan took a choir from the school

-to compete at the Eisteddfod.

0:22:380:22:43

-Many London Welsh stalwarts

-remember him.

0:22:440:22:47

-You said, "Shw mae?" and I felt...

0:22:470:22:50

-.."He can't be too bad,"

-I said to myself!

0:22:500:22:53

-In order to get a comprehensive

-view of London's contribution...

0:22:530:22:58

-..to the culture of Wales

-during the mid-20th century...

0:22:580:23:02

-..you must come here, to one of the

-most affluent areas of north London.

0:23:020:23:07

-St John's Wood.

0:23:070:23:09

-It was on this street,

-Carlton Hill...

0:23:090:23:12

-..that one of the nation's

-most talented writers lived.

0:23:120:23:16

-Caradog Prichard, a crowned bard...

0:23:160:23:19

-..and author

-of the famous Un Nos Ola Leuad.

0:23:190:23:22

-I was talking to someone from the

-Western Mail about it last night.

0:23:230:23:27

-Yes, if you got enough men

-with plenty of money...

0:23:270:23:31

-If you consult

-the closest census...

0:23:310:23:34

-..to the time Caradog and Mattie

-moved from Cardiff to London...

0:23:340:23:39

-..almost 60,000 Welsh people

-lived in London.

0:23:390:23:43

-The fact that they moved there

-wasn't unusual in the least.

0:23:430:23:47

-Caradog was looking for a change.

0:23:470:23:50

-He was tired of working

-for the Western Mail in Cardiff.

0:23:500:23:55

-Mattie had heard a lot

-about London from her family.

0:23:560:23:59

-Her parents had met in London

-when they were young.

0:23:590:24:03

-Mattie's father

-was a tailor at the time...

0:24:030:24:06

-..and had trained in Savile Row.

0:24:070:24:09

-In terms of earning a living,

-Caradog Prichard was a journalist.

0:24:120:24:16

-He initially worked

-for the News Chronicle...

0:24:170:24:20

-..and then the Daily Telegraph.

0:24:200:24:22

-He failed to find a job

-back in Wales.

0:24:220:24:25

-In his own words, he compromised.

0:24:260:24:29

-He was an Englishman at work

-and a Welshman at home.

0:24:290:24:33

-Hello. What do you want?

0:24:350:24:37

-Right. It's ready now.

0:24:370:24:39

-He held his work as a Welsh writer

-and poet in higher regard...

0:24:400:24:45

-..and sometimes considered

-being a journalist...

0:24:460:24:50

-..as something superficial,

-temporary and meaningless.

0:24:500:24:55

-The Welsh literary

-and poetic world...

0:24:550:24:58

-..had more substance and value.

0:24:580:25:03

-It caused him a lot of tension

-throughout his life.

0:25:030:25:07

-At the time, Caradog Prichard

-and his wife Mattie...

0:25:090:25:13

-..were the king and queen

-of the London Welsh.

0:25:130:25:17

-They held literary

-and musical soirees at their home...

0:25:170:25:21

-..that went on into the early hours.

0:25:210:25:24

-The guests included some

-of the biggest names of the day...

0:25:240:25:28

-..including Richard Burton

-and Stanley Baker.

0:25:280:25:31

-Wales' renowned singers

-have been here.

0:25:350:25:38

-I've been fortunate to meet them

-and help them, if I can.

0:25:380:25:42

-Even those who are starting

-their career have come here.

0:25:420:25:46

-People came and went all the time...

0:25:460:25:50

-..because Mattie

-liked organizing these soirees.

0:25:500:25:55

-They were regular occurrences.

0:25:550:25:57

-People like Ryan Davies

-and Rhydderch Jones dropped in.

0:25:570:26:01

-The playwright Gwenlyn Parry

-and Hafina Clwyd were others.

0:26:020:26:07

-We used to sing hymns all night.

0:26:080:26:10

-I remember one time...

0:26:100:26:13

-..when everybody had a hymn book...

0:26:130:26:17

-..someone was at the piano,

-and we sang hymns...

0:26:180:26:21

-..until four or five in the morning.

0:26:210:26:24

-Imagine that! How silly!

0:26:240:26:26

-Caradog's wife Mattie

-was quite a character too.

0:26:260:26:30

-During the Second World War...

0:26:300:26:32

-..she worked for MI5...

0:26:330:26:35

-..censoring

-international phone calls.

0:26:350:26:38

-It's said that she stopped

-Churchill mid-sentence...

0:26:380:26:42

-..in case he revealed a secret.

0:26:420:26:44

-If you phoned someone in New York...

0:26:440:26:48

-..the enemy out in the Atlantic

-could pick up that conversation.

0:26:480:26:52

-You had to know

-when people were speaking.

0:26:530:26:55

-You had to be discreet.

0:26:560:26:58

-Who did you hear speaking?

0:26:580:27:00

-Mr Churchill.

-He sat here at the time.

0:27:000:27:03

-I'd listen to him

-and I'd listen to Mr Roosevelt.

0:27:030:27:07

-I'd listen to Mr Eisenhower

-talking to Churchill.

0:27:070:27:11

-Montgomery speaking to Eisenhower.

-I listened to them all.

0:27:110:27:15

-Mattie wrote a weekly column

-in Y Cymro newspaper...

0:27:150:27:20

-..Colofn Mati Wyn o Lundain.

0:27:200:27:24

-Caradog edited Y Ddinas,

-the London Welsh periodical.

0:27:240:27:28

-This is a building which embodies

-strength, power and influence.

0:27:310:27:35

-It's the former home of the

-Daily Telegraph on Fleet Street.

0:27:360:27:40

-A Conservative newspaper

-which still exudes Englishness.

0:27:400:27:44

-It's odd to think...

0:27:440:27:46

-..that one of Wales' brightest

-poets, Caradog Prichard...

0:27:460:27:51

-..worked here for many years...

0:27:510:27:53

-..as a night editor

-among colourful hacks.

0:27:530:27:56

-He was a respected journalist...

0:28:070:28:09

-..but none of his fellow workers...

0:28:100:28:14

-..had any idea of his achievements

-as a poet and author.

0:28:140:28:18

-The worlds of Fleet Street

-and the Eisteddfod...

0:28:180:28:21

-..did possibly come together

-on one occasion.

0:28:210:28:24

-After Caradog won the Chair

-at the 1962 Llanelli Eisteddfod...

0:28:250:28:30

-..a fake chairing ceremony was held

-in the Daily Telegraph office.

0:28:300:28:36

-Are you going to return to Wales?

-London's not that far away.

0:28:360:28:40

-So many people have asked me

-if I'm going to return to Wales...

0:28:400:28:45

-..and I've decided

-to come back this year.

0:28:450:28:49

-If not this year, then next year.

0:28:490:28:52

-"I can already smell

-the sweet aroma of Wales

0:28:520:28:58

-"Blowing in the gentle breeze

0:28:580:29:01

-"The homeland is undoubtedly near."

0:29:010:29:04

-.

0:29:090:29:09

-Subtitles

0:29:130:29:13

-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

0:29:130:29:15

-The history of the London Welsh

-and the city's chapels...

0:29:180:29:22

-..have been interlinked

-since the end of the 18th century...

0:29:220:29:26

-..but reached a lively climax

-during the 1930s.

0:29:260:29:31

-This was the golden age in

-the history of the London chapels.

0:29:310:29:35

-Charing Cross Road Chapel

-is a perfect example.

0:29:360:29:39

-Eight hundred members during WWI...

0:29:390:29:42

-..and 1,200 members

-during the 1930s.

0:29:420:29:45

-The same was true of Jewin, Castle

-Street and King's Cross chapels.

0:29:450:29:50

-There were 30 Welsh chapels

-and churches across the city.

0:29:500:29:55

-But everything changed

-with the outbreak of WWII.

0:29:560:30:00

-The chapels have been key in

-the history of London Welsh life...

0:30:060:30:11

-..in terms of Welsh religion,

-language and culture in the city.

0:30:120:30:16

-They were the focal point

-of Welsh life...

0:30:170:30:20

-..for the migrants from Wales.

0:30:210:30:23

-They felt at home there.

0:30:230:30:25

-It was one of the rare opportunities

-to speak Welsh...

0:30:250:30:29

-..and worship in Welsh.

0:30:290:30:31

-When London's chapels

-were at their busiest...

0:30:320:30:34

-..they were social centres

-as well as places of worship.

0:30:350:30:39

-Activities were held

-every day of the week.

0:30:390:30:42

-We'd have a service in the morning

-for a handful of people...

0:30:420:30:47

-..who were all

-in the dairy industry.

0:30:470:30:50

-For Sunday school in the afternoon,

-more than 100 would attend.

0:30:500:30:54

-At night, 300 would attend.

0:30:540:30:57

-A prayer meeting

-was held on Monday night.

0:30:570:31:00

-There was a literature society.

0:31:000:31:02

-Thursdays

-were half-days for the dairies.

0:31:030:31:05

-Annual concerts were always held

-on a Thursday night.

0:31:050:31:09

-On Friday nights,

-there were classes for young people.

0:31:100:31:15

-Welsh classes were also held.

0:31:150:31:17

-There was something

-every night of the week.

0:31:170:31:20

-Young people sang in a choir

-and played table tennis.

0:31:200:31:24

-There was a table tennis league

-in London...

0:31:240:31:27

-..in which every chapel competed.

0:31:270:31:30

-It was a way for all the chapel

-members to get to know each other.

0:31:300:31:34

-We all know each other these days

-because there are so few of us.

0:31:340:31:38

-During the Blitz, many Welsh chapels

-were bombed, including Jewin.

0:31:420:31:48

-The congregation had to meet...

0:31:490:31:51

-..at the London Welsh Club

-on Gray's Inn Road for 20 years...

0:31:510:31:55

-..but many weddings

-were held in the chapel's ruins.

0:31:550:31:59

-The chapel that stood here

-before this one was bombed in 1940.

0:31:590:32:05

-It was almost totally destroyed.

-Very little of it remained.

0:32:050:32:09

-After the bombing,

-my grandfather, Reverend DS Owen...

0:32:090:32:13

-..was determined

-that the chapel would be restored.

0:32:130:32:17

-Like a phoenix from the ashes.

0:32:170:32:19

-When the chapel reopened...

0:32:190:32:22

-..they built it for a congregation

-of 1,100 members.

0:32:220:32:28

-They placed the organ

-in the gallery above...

0:32:280:32:32

-..because they needed

-more pews on the floor.

0:32:320:32:35

-Over 1,000 London Welsh attended the

-dedication service at Jewin Chapel.

0:32:370:32:41

-The modern building stands

-on the site of the former chapel...

0:32:420:32:45

-..which was destroyed

-by the enemy in the last war.

0:32:460:32:49

-Following WWII, chapel membership

-gradually declined.

0:32:520:32:58

-At one time, there were 30

-Welsh chapels dotted around London.

0:32:580:33:03

-These days, only eight

-hold any kind of service in Welsh.

0:33:030:33:08

-During my early years...

0:33:110:33:14

-..I received many families

-who had moved from Wales.

0:33:140:33:19

-During Elfed's era...

0:33:190:33:21

-..it was very common for him...

0:33:210:33:24

-..to receive 100 or more

-membership letters a year.

0:33:250:33:29

-But during

-the past quarter of a century...

0:33:290:33:34

-..the migration to London

-has become less and less and less.

0:33:340:33:39

-As the chapel's importance

-to the London Welsh waned...

0:33:410:33:45

-..their fervour was transferred

-to a different institution.

0:33:460:33:51

-The rugby club, the most famous

-of which is London Welsh.

0:33:510:33:55

-The club enjoyed

-a golden era in the 1970s...

0:33:550:33:59

-..but the Old Deer Park institution

-has a long and prosperous history.

0:33:590:34:04

-When the club was founded,

-we didn't play at Old Deer Park.

0:34:040:34:08

-We played for a while

-at Herne Hill...

0:34:090:34:12

-..and other locations

-in London before that.

0:34:120:34:16

-We've been at Old Deer Park

-for more than half a century.

0:34:160:34:19

-Our first game

-was against London Scottish.

0:34:200:34:24

-During the early years,

-we played against London clubs...

0:34:240:34:28

-..like Blackheath and Rosslyn Park.

0:34:280:34:31

-That's how we started out

-more than a century ago.

0:34:310:34:35

-The club was established in 1885.

0:34:360:34:39

-The Wales team trains at the ground

-before games at Twickenham.

0:34:390:34:44

-The club was established

-through the efforts of Dr TJ Pryce.

0:34:450:34:49

-The Carmarthenshire rector's son...

0:34:490:34:51

-..ran a surgery

-behind the Palladium theatre.

0:34:520:34:55

-Pryce had already won two caps

-for Wales, playing on the wing.

0:34:550:35:00

-Another doctor

-was a key figure at the time.

0:35:000:35:03

-Dr RL Thomas,

-who'd won six caps for Wales...

0:35:030:35:06

-..and worked

-as Carmarthenshire's coroner.

0:35:060:35:09

-The team now plays many of its games

-in a modern stadium near Oxford.

0:35:090:35:15

-But they still return

-to their spiritual home...

0:35:160:35:19

-..of Old Deer Park for some games.

0:35:190:35:22

-The club's long history continues

-to attract young Welsh people...

0:35:220:35:28

-..to play for the men's

-and women's teams.

0:35:280:35:32

-One is Cai Griffiths

-from Bontnewydd.

0:35:320:35:35

-The club is steeped in history.

0:35:350:35:39

-144 players have played for Wales.

0:35:390:35:41

-Some 50 Lions players

-have played for London Welsh.

0:35:410:35:47

-The old greats have played for this

-club, which makes it really special.

0:35:470:35:52

-It's like a home from home here.

0:35:530:35:55

-If you want to speak Welsh,

-you've people to talk to.

0:35:550:35:59

-It's more than just a rugby club.

-It's shrouded in history.

0:35:590:36:03

-The club's most famous period

-was during the 1960s and 1970s...

0:36:040:36:08

-..when some of the giants

-of Welsh rugby played regularly.

0:36:080:36:13

-London Welsh

-has bred more Lions players...

0:36:130:36:17

-..than any other club,

-including the seven who played...

0:36:170:36:21

-..during the 1971 Wales tour

-to New Zealand.

0:36:210:36:24

-John Dawes, John Taylor,

-JPR Williams, Gerald Davies...

0:36:240:36:28

-..and Mervyn Davies

-played in every test.

0:36:280:36:31

-Edwards to John. The whole line out.

0:36:320:36:34

-Williams in again.

-Give it to Gerald Davies.

0:36:350:36:38

-These players' backgrounds reflected

-the composition of the London Welsh.

0:36:380:36:43

-Most were teachers, and JPR, like

-the club's founders, was a doctor.

0:36:430:36:49

-Tons of courage and guts.

0:36:490:36:51

-.

0:36:520:36:53

-Subtitles

0:36:550:36:55

-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

0:36:550:36:57

-During the 20th century...

0:37:010:37:03

-..one institution has regularly

-served the London Welsh community.

0:37:030:37:08

-It's on the threshold of a new era.

0:37:080:37:10

-Over the decades,

-thousands of London Welsh...

0:37:110:37:14

-..have climbed this staircase.

0:37:140:37:17

-Teachers, actors,

-singers, doctors...

0:37:170:37:22

-..solicitors

-and all kinds of workers.

0:37:220:37:24

-Everyone came here to socialize...

0:37:250:37:27

-..and enjoy the life

-of the London Welsh Club.

0:37:280:37:31

-This club opened in 1937...

0:37:310:37:34

-..thanks to the generosity

-of one man, Sir Howell Williams.

0:37:340:37:39

-He was a prominent builder

-and very wealthy.

0:37:390:37:42

-He was also a London politician.

0:37:430:37:45

-You'll notice that there's

-a large bar here nowadays.

0:37:450:37:49

-But when the club opened

-back in the 1930s...

0:37:490:37:52

-..the idea of having a bar here

-caused a scandal.

0:37:520:37:57

-One of Sir Howell Williams'

-stipulations...

0:37:580:38:02

-..was that no alcohol

-would be sold on the premises.

0:38:020:38:06

-By the 1960s, many people,

-including Dafydd Wigley...

0:38:060:38:10

-..campaigned to have a bar there.

0:38:100:38:12

-The centre

-isn't a club at the moment.

0:38:130:38:16

-People come here

-for various activities...

0:38:160:38:19

-..but don't sit down

-and socialize with one another.

0:38:190:38:23

-The situation is rather cliquey.

0:38:240:38:26

-People stick to certain groups.

0:38:260:38:28

-Usually, they disappear

-to one of the pubs across the road.

0:38:280:38:33

-Having a bar would mean

-that people could sit around...

0:38:330:38:37

-..and talk to each other, creating

-more of an atmosphere in the centre.

0:38:370:38:42

-It would go

-from being a centre to a club.

0:38:420:38:45

-We know that there's a demand...

0:38:470:38:49

-..for those facilities

-on these premises.

0:38:500:38:53

-We also know that many are opposed.

0:38:530:38:55

-These days, the bar

-is an integral part of the centre.

0:38:590:39:03

-The latest generation to take the

-reins want to develop the club too.

0:39:030:39:07

-They want to make sure

-that it meets the needs...

0:39:080:39:11

-..of the scattered London Welsh

-community in the 21st century.

0:39:110:39:16

-They're currently working

-on ambitious plans...

0:39:160:39:20

-..with the architect

-of the Millennium Centre.

0:39:200:39:23

-It fills me with pride that I'm

-the centre's first chief executive.

0:39:240:39:29

-The centre has greatly benefited

-from voluntary work over the years.

0:39:290:39:34

-People have given their time

-to ensure the centre's future.

0:39:340:39:39

-A young team came together

-as the centre's trustees...

0:39:400:39:44

-..and decided that someone

-needed to manage the centre daily...

0:39:440:39:48

-..to improve facilities

-and to widen its appeal.

0:39:480:39:53

-We're proud

-of the centre's heritage...

0:40:010:40:04

-..but it's an old building

-and improvements need to be made.

0:40:040:40:08

-We're planning

-to redevelop the centre...

0:40:080:40:11

-..but the challenge

-is to retain the balance...

0:40:120:40:15

-..of tradition and history...

0:40:160:40:18

-..whilst still

-looking to the future...

0:40:180:40:21

-..and accommodating

-the modern-day London Welsh.

0:40:210:40:24

-# For the sake of your Son

0:40:250:40:29

-# Who died upon the cross

0:40:290:40:35

-# Create a land

0:40:350:40:39

-# In His name #

0:40:400:40:45

-For those who claim that

-the London Welsh need more energy...

0:40:570:41:01

-..then come here,

-to another 20th century institution.

0:41:010:41:05

-This is the London Welsh School,

-which opened in 1958.

0:41:060:41:10

-It's an island of Welshness

-in northwest London.

0:41:100:41:13

-Sustaining this school

-financially and practically...

0:41:130:41:17

-..has been an enormous challenge

-over the years.

0:41:180:41:21

-It was a speech

-by the patriotic Meredydd Evans...

0:41:240:41:28

-..that inspired a group of fathers

-to establish the school.

0:41:280:41:33

-They used to meet

-on Saturdays during the 1950s.

0:41:330:41:37

-They heard Mered giving a speech

-about Welsh education.

0:41:380:41:42

-By 1958, they came together...

0:41:420:41:47

-..and founded the school

-in that year.

0:41:480:41:51

-The school was initially situated

-on Hungerford Road...

0:41:520:41:56

-..but most of the time...

0:41:560:41:58

-..it operated from a Welsh

-chapel vestry in Willesden Green.

0:41:580:42:02

-It stayed there

-from the 1960s to 2000.

0:42:020:42:05

-The Welsh School is held here,

-in Willesden Green Chapel.

0:42:060:42:10

-It is testament to the perseverance

-of a handful of parents.

0:42:100:42:15

-They don't receive a penny from

-public coffers to run the school...

0:42:150:42:19

-..and pay its two teachers.

0:42:200:42:22

-When Willesden Green was sold...

0:42:230:42:25

-..it was difficult

-finding a new home for the school.

0:42:250:42:28

-Weeks before the school opened

-in September 2000...

0:42:290:42:32

-..we found this site

-in Stonebridge.

0:42:330:42:36

-We've been here for almost 15 years.

0:42:360:42:39

-There are currently

-37 children on the register.

0:42:510:42:54

-It's more like a rural Welsh school

-than an inner-city school.

0:42:540:42:59

-Sometimes, we worry

-about pupil numbers...

0:43:000:43:03

-..but when you consider there were

-once only five, we're doing well.

0:43:030:43:08

-Sadly, pupil numbers

-will always be up and down.

0:43:090:43:12

-But I'm confident we'll be here

-for a good few years yet.

0:43:130:43:18

-The school is growing and evolving.

0:43:220:43:25

-But the London Welsh community

-is scattered all over London.

0:43:250:43:30

-Every family can't send

-their children to a school...

0:43:300:43:34

-..that's situated in the northwest.

0:43:340:43:36

-There's also a financial challenge.

0:43:360:43:39

-Parents must pay fees

-of 800 a term.

0:43:390:43:43

-However, the Welsh Government offers

-the school financial assistance.

0:43:430:43:48

-More recently, the Assembly

-has been very generous...

0:43:500:43:55

-..and raised its contribution.

0:43:550:43:58

-Without that,

-the school would have had to close.

0:43:580:44:01

-Financing the school

-is a constant challenge.

0:44:010:44:05

-We rely on parents paying fees...

0:44:050:44:09

-..and there are always

-fundraising campaigns going on.

0:44:090:44:13

-Without the parents,

-the school wouldn't survive.

0:44:130:44:17

-They do lunch duties and help

-with maintenance and upkeep.

0:44:170:44:21

-The parents are very important.

0:44:220:44:25

-In the 21st century,

-the relationship...

0:44:340:44:37

-..between Wales and London

-has fundamentally changed.

0:44:370:44:41

-But thousands of young Welsh people

-still flock to the city...

0:44:410:44:46

-..to capitalize on opportunities

-that aren't available in Wales.

0:44:460:44:51

-New movements are emerging...

0:44:510:44:53

-..which promote Wales' interests

-across the world.

0:44:530:44:57

-One of the latest

-is Wales In London...

0:45:030:45:06

-..a forum that promotes Wales

-in Europe's business capital...

0:45:070:45:11

-..providing a chance to network...

0:45:120:45:14

-..and a platform to discuss

-issues important to Wales.

0:45:150:45:20

-It's an institution

-that was founded in the 1990s...

0:45:200:45:23

-..and has gone

-from strength to strength.

0:45:240:45:27

-We meet once a month,

-where possible.

0:45:270:45:30

-There's a close link

-with the business world.

0:45:300:45:36

-Many London Welsh hold prominent

-positions in business and banking.

0:45:360:45:42

-We promote

-our associations with them...

0:45:420:45:45

-..and ask them to explain their

-success in the business world...

0:45:450:45:50

-..or the world of commerce.

0:45:500:45:52

-As directors,

-we try to encourage Welsh people...

0:45:530:45:56

-..to use the capital as a platform

-for business and institutions.

0:45:560:46:02

-Recently, it's happening

-more and more with charities too.

0:46:020:46:08

-The good thing about the members...

0:46:080:46:11

-..is that they're

-from different backgrounds.

0:46:110:46:14

-There are solicitors,

-doctors, politicians...

0:46:140:46:18

-..civil servants and people

-from the wider business community.

0:46:180:46:23

-The events vary

-from social and creative ventures...

0:46:240:46:29

-..to economic, business...

0:46:290:46:32

-..and the ever-popular

-sports-orientated events.

0:46:320:46:35

-But we get down

-to some serious business...

0:46:360:46:39

-..when these events take place.

0:46:390:46:44

-Many of the members...

0:46:440:46:47

-..use the events to network...

0:46:470:46:52

-..and develop relationships

-in various fields...

0:46:530:46:56

-..that the members represent.

0:46:560:46:59

-The London Welsh

-have a very rich history.

0:47:090:47:14

-There have been five centuries of

-coming and going, of ebb and flow.

0:47:140:47:19

-They are Welsh exiles,

-to some extent...

0:47:190:47:22

-..but they are Welsh people...

0:47:220:47:24

-..who have always made

-a generous contribution...

0:47:250:47:28

-..to their nation's culture.

0:47:280:47:30

-And their story continues.

0:47:310:47:33

-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.

0:48:020:48:04

-.

0:48:040:48:04

Huw Edwards sy'n teithio o ddiwedd y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg i'n cyfnod ni heddiw. Huw Edwards travels from the late 19th century to the present day as he looks at the Welsh in London.


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