Huw Edwards sy'n teithio o ddiwedd y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg i'n cyfnod ni heddiw. Huw Edwards travels from the late 19th century to the present day as he looks at the Welsh...
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-That's it from us.
-A first look at the papers on the
-BBC News channel in a few minutes...
-..but now it's time
-for the news where you are.
-And that's the end
-of another broadcast...
-..here at the BBC's
-main news studio in London...
-..watched by around five million
-viewers in Wales, England...
-..Northern Ireland and Scotland.
-The location of the studio
-In the heart of London,
-the capital of the United Kingdom.
-However, the unity of that kingdom
-is a contentious issue nowadays.
-The heart of London is where
-the BBC's new news headquarters...
-..and the headquarters of Britain's
-influential companies are situated.
-It's been home to millions of people
-over the centuries...
-..including the Welsh, and the story
-of the London Welsh is intriguing.
-In the final episode, we focus
-on key individuals and institutions.
-From political giants...
-..to the fervour
-of the urban Welsh chapels.
-From the creativity of national
-figures to today's bustling city.
-It's a tale
-which sparks the imagination.
-In this series, we'll convey
-a little of that zeal...
-the influence of the Welsh...
-of the world's largest cities...
-..as well as London's influence
-The story of the London Welsh
-is relevant to everyone in Wales.
-It's here in London,
-in England's capital city...
-..that the foundations
-of the modern Wales were laid.
-In the 19th century,
-Wales was a country...
-..without national institutions,
-without a capital city...
-..and without official status.
-It was here that all those
-important foundations were laid...
-..to breathe new life into Wales.
-Many of the ideas...
-..and the zeal to create
-institutions for the modern Wales...
-the Society of Cymmrodorion...
-were in the mid-18th century.
-By 1873, it had been revived
-for the third time...
-..under the chairmanship
-of Sir Hugh Owen.
-One of the things
-which stems from...
-..all the zeal and enthusiasm
-of the Cymmrodorion...
-..in the last quarter of
-the 19th century, in my opinion...
-..is this drive
-to establish institutions.
-A national museum for Wales,
-a national library for Wales...
-..a royal commission to preserve
-Wales' historical buildings...
-..and that kind of thing.
-Their first attempt, during the
-1890s and 1890s, ended in failure.
-But by the beginning
-of the 20th century...
-..the ideas discussed in London
-and at the Eisteddfod bore fruit.
-took it upon themselves...
-..to put pressure on politicians.
-You must come to an isolated spot
-to find the grave...
-..of a very influential Welshman
-of the Victorian era.
-There are buildings,
-memorials and statues in Wales...
-..that bear this man's name.
-I'm in Abney Park cemetery
-in north London.
-It's a Welsh Independents' cemetery.
-Among the thousands of graves
-in this jungle...
-..is the grave of Sir Hugh Owen...
-..the man who did so much...
-..to establish the University
-College of Wales in Aberystwyth.
-The name isn't very clear.
-You must look carefully.
-Sir Hugh Owen, here in London.
-In a meeting in London in 1854...
-..Sir Hugh Owen
-first discussed the idea...
-..of having a University College
-of Wales in Aberystwyth.
-he spent much of his time...
-for the new institution.
-When he campaigned
-during the 1860s...
-..to establish a college in Wales
-for the first time...
-..he was keen to ensure
-that the Welsh language...
-..wouldn't have a prominent place
-within that college.
-When it was founded in 1872, there
-was no place for the Welsh language.
-He's a complex figure...
-..but one who represents
-the outlook of the Victorian era.
-He did Wales many favours...
-..but not in terms
-of safeguarding the Welsh language.
-worked at Somerset House...
-..as senior clerk for the
-Poor Law Amendment Act Commission.
-Like many Cymmrodorion of the time,
-he had strong ties...
-..with the London establishment.
-They had the means
-to use their influence...
-..to ensure these institutions
-saw the light of day.
-Another important aspect
-of their contribution...
-..was their sense of duty...
-..to the Wales
-from which they were exiled!
-In order to understand
-this important process...
-national institutions in Wales...
-..we must focus
-on the work of Westminster...
-one man in particular.
-His name was Tom Ellis,
-the MP for Merionethshire.
-He was one of the first students
-to attend Aberystwyth.
-He was a very influential politician
-and chief whip of the Liberal Party.
-He campaigned diligently
-for a parliament for Wales...
-..a Welsh university...
-..a national museum
-and a national library.
-He made a very important
-contribution to Welsh life.
-TE Ellis was one of the main figures
-of the Cymru Fydd movement...
-for self-government for Wales.
-He backed the measure
-for national institutions...
-..which was introduced
-to parliament in 1891.
-The bill called for a Welsh office,
-a parliament for Wales...
-..and many other
-Many Welsh people within Wales...
-..were very interested
-in their religious denominations.
-The London Welsh saw the need
-in Wales for secular institutions.
-They had a broader outlook because
-they had a universal view of Wales.
-They were able to make
-a valuable contribution.
-London operated as
-the unofficial capital of Wales...
-..at the end of the 19th century.
-of modern Wales were built...
-..on the ideas, energy
-and enthusiasm of the London Welsh.
-Though the Cymru Fydd movement
-failed to inspire the nation...
-..it's hard to imagine Wales
-without its universities...
-..museum and national library.
-One of Cymru Fydd's young leaders
-set his sights...
-..on political power on a British
-and international level...
-..in the early 20th century.
-For tens of thousands of tourists
-around the world...
-is the centre of London...
-..a stone's throw
-from the Palace of Westminster.
-It has been a focal point
-for major protests.
-Keeping a watchful eye...
-..are some of the most influential
-leaders in the history of the world.
-Nelson Mandela, Abraham Lincoln
-and Sir Winston Churchill.
-Also here is the charismatic
-Welshman David Lloyd George.
-There's no shortage of prominent
-Welshmen in Westminster's history.
-Pacifist Henry Richard,
-devolutionist Tom Ellis...
-..and health wizard Aneurin Bevan.
-But it's only Lloyd George who earns
-a place here in Parliament Square.
-That shouldn't come as a surprise.
-Few politicians have influenced
-the history of the world as he did.
-A statue of Lloyd George should
-have been erected 50 years earlier.
-If we can't pay homage
-to such a prominent Welshman...
-..there's something wrong.
-He should have been
-He made a great contribution
-to social issues.
-Aside from that, he was
-the prime minister during WWI.
-He reached the House of Commons
-at the age of 27...
-..making Lloyd George
-the youngest MP at the time.
-he was the first Welshman...
-..to join the Cabinet
-in more than 50 years.
-He was also
-one of the first in Britain...
-..to reach that status
-as a commoner.
-His success was a source
-of great pride for the Welsh.
-The remarkable thing about him
-was his ordinary background.
-He was raised by his uncle,
-..who was a cobbler in Llanystumdwy.
-The family was by no means rich.
-Lloyd George hadn't attended
-a grammar school or a public school.
-He hadn't been to university
-and gained a degree.
-He got there through his innate
-ability as a politician...
-..his strong personality and his
-astounding ability as an orator.
-When Lloyd George arrived in London
-for the first time...
-..as a young solicitor...
-..he took full advantage
-of the London Welsh network.
-It was a formidable network.
-It was a combination
-of the old and the new...
-..consisting of affluent businessmen
-and their grandiose shops.
-Lloyd George was solicitor for
-the drapers' chamber of commerce.
-But it's important to remember
-that amid this urban jungle...
-..the old Welsh traditions
-were still alive.
-He attended chapel services
-at Castle Street in London.
-He was faithful to the services
-and prayer meetings.
-He attended the meetings of
-the Royal Society of Cymmrodorion.
-After he moved
-to 11 Downing Street...
-..as Chancellor of the Exchequer...
-..Lloyd George and wife Margaret
-made a special effort...
-..to employ maids
-who were fluent Welsh-speakers.
-Welsh was the everyday language
-of 11 Downing Street...
-..during Lloyd George's time
-Might, religion and wealth.
-Those are the main characteristics
-of this wonderful building...
-..in the heart of London.
-Lloyd George's family
-has strong ties with this chapel.
-This is the Welsh Baptist Chapel
-of Eastcastle Street...
-..central London's Welsh church.
-As you can see, it's busy here.
-the entire chapel.
-A sign of faith
-in the future, if you will.
-Imagine the scene back in 1917.
-This chapel would have been full.
-One of David Lloyd George's
-daughters was married here.
-Olwen Lloyd George's marriage
-..in the middle of WWI
-when her father was prime minister.
-The occasion was used
-as part of the war effort.
-Munitions factory workers
-and wounded soldiers...
-..played a part in the ceremony.
-During his career,
-Lloyd George fought...
-..for self-government for Wales...
-..laid the foundations
-of the welfare state...
-..and served as prime minister
-Sadly, it's his lively private life
-that still draws most attention.
-It's a tragedy that Lloyd George's
-..has cast a dark shadow over
-his achievements as prime minister.
-He changed the system of government.
-It's as simple as that.
-He created a War Cabinet...
-..and a department
-for the prime minister himself.
-When you combine
-his ability to govern...
-..and his aptitude
-for public speaking...
-..the result is simply spectacular.
-Gray's Inn is one of the four
-Inns of Court in London.
-Historically, it has attracted
-the most Welsh solicitors to London.
-In one quiet corner is a plaque...
-..which testifies to another
-Welsh connection with this area.
-One that was established
-during the First World War.
-The military connection
-between Gray's Inn and Wales...
-..was incredibly close.
-The London Welsh Battalion of the
-Welch Fusiliers was recruited here.
-It was also here
-that those soldiers were trained.
-The battalion that was
-recruited on Gray's Inn square...
-..would fight with the rest
-of the Welch Fusiliers...
-..in battles such as Mametz Wood.
-It was in this exact spot that the
-soldiers received their training.
-Major social changes ensued
-as a consequence of WWI.
-Though young Welsh women
-had come to London for many years...
-..in search of work as maids,
-another wave followed...
-..in the years
-between the two world wars.
-On the one hand, work in the
-munitions factories had ceased...
-..but on the other, a recession
-was biting in the industrial areas.
-The effect of this migration
-was evident in west London.
-The streets of Paddington
-at the turn of the 20th century...
-..were home to thousands
-of Welsh people...
-..most of whom were workers.
-But among them
-were a few wealthy families.
-A family from Aberystwyth
-lived here, in Formosa Street.
-The husband was a tax inspector.
-They had a maid
-called Elizabeth Pugh.
-She was my grandmother's aunt.
-No doubt she worked downstairs
-in the kitchen.
-She met her husband here in London.
-He worked in the dairy business.
-She was one
-of the huge army of Welsh maids...
-..who were in service
-in these large London residences.
-Poverty in Wales was responsible
-for driving many women to London.
-During the 1920s,
-training bases were set up...
-..in towns like Aberdare,
-Pontypool and Merthyr...
-..to train girls in domestic skills.
-The vast majority of them
-went to work as maids.
-When you look back
-on the 1930s Depression in Wales...
-..many people moved to London
-from areas like the Rhondda.
-It wasn't their choice to move...
-..but they felt they had to move...
-..in order to find employment.
-For them, London
-was considered a long way from home.
-who had moved from Cardiganshire...
-..had never been
-to Carmarthen or Aberystwyth before.
-London was a long way away.
-For many, working in service
-in London was a bad experience.
-Sending money or food parcels back
-to family in Wales was a feat...
-..for young women who earned
-as little as four shillings a week.
-They were plagued by feelings of
-loneliness and a longing for home.
-In 1925, in one extreme case...
-..a girl from Trefforest
-took her own life...
-..a mere ten days
-after reaching the big city.
-There were painful experiences...
-..but there were
-pleasant experiences too.
-A Christian committee was formed
-to protect the Welsh women.
-It was called
-the Fellowship of Reconciliation.
-They helped women
-from Wales' poorer areas...
-..to find work in service
-here in London.
-Their priority was to make sure
-the girls settled down...
-..and that the work was appropriate.
-Women from the London Welsh's middle
-classes who attended the chapels...
-..had established their own society.
-The London Welsh Friendly Girls' Aid
-Society would visit the maids...
-appropriate work for them.
-The establishment's stamp
-was on this society.
-Lloyd George's wife, Margaret,
-was its president.
-By the start of the 1930s...
-..there were at least 10,000
-young women in service in London...
-..but things were changing rapidly.
-Domestic appliances and electrical
-gadgets were being invented.
-The demand for maids dwindled.
-On top of that,
-new jobs were available.
-Clerical work and factory work...
-..especially in munitions factories
-on the threshold of WWII.
-As the number of maids fell...
-..the number of teachers who came
-from Wales to London increased.
-Most of the city's 10,000 schools
-had a Welsh member of staff.
-In the case
-of author Hafina Clwyd...
-..she was one of six Miss Joneses
-in the school where she worked.
-It's not difficult to imagine
-the impact migration had on Wales...
-..as thousands of young people,
-..flocked here to the city
-and enjoyed new experiences...
-..especially in the theatre world.
-They returned to Wales, taking
-those creative ideas with them.
-The theatre world in Wales
-..from the experiences some of
-the young teachers had in London.
-Influential playwright, lecturer and
-drama producer John Gwilym Jones...
-..spent his early career
-teaching in London.
-He spent four years there
-at the end of the 1920s.
-The major advantage
-for John Gwilym Jones...
-..and his fellow young Welshmen
-..was that they were in contact with
-a prominent and wealthy network.
-And here we are, in one
-of that community's main centres.
-This is the former Welsh chapel
-in Charing Cross Road.
-It's a very striking building.
-The chapel closed in 1982.
-The building was sold in 1984
-and turned into a nightclub.
-Now, it's vacant once again.
-Bear in mind that this chapel
-is in the heart of the West End.
-The theatre world
-is on the doorstep.
-John Gwilym capitalized on that
-before returning to Wales...
-a prominent literary figure.
-But he wasn't the only giant
-of the Welsh literary world...
-..to be enticed to the city.
-Playwright Gwenlyn Parry
-spent four years in London too.
-The author of Y Twr and Grand Slam
-worked as a maths teacher.
-Like John Gwilym Jones, he spent
-much of his time in the West End.
-By getting involved with
-the London Welsh Dramatic Society...
-..he came into contact
-with Rhydderch Jones...
-..with whom he wrote
-the comedy series Fo A Fe.
-was an English teacher in London.
-He got to know the star
-of Fo A Fe, Ryan Davies...
-..who was a teacher in Croydon.
-Ryan had already studied at the
-Central School of Speech and Drama.
-He combined his love of performing
-with his work as a teacher.
-Ryan took a choir from the school
-to compete at the Eisteddfod.
-Many London Welsh stalwarts
-You said, "Shw mae?" and I felt...
-.."He can't be too bad,"
-I said to myself!
-In order to get a comprehensive
-view of London's contribution...
-..to the culture of Wales
-during the mid-20th century...
-..you must come here, to one of the
-most affluent areas of north London.
-St John's Wood.
-It was on this street,
-..that one of the nation's
-most talented writers lived.
-Caradog Prichard, a crowned bard...
-of the famous Un Nos Ola Leuad.
-I was talking to someone from the
-Western Mail about it last night.
-Yes, if you got enough men
-with plenty of money...
-If you consult
-the closest census...
-..to the time Caradog and Mattie
-moved from Cardiff to London...
-..almost 60,000 Welsh people
-lived in London.
-The fact that they moved there
-wasn't unusual in the least.
-Caradog was looking for a change.
-He was tired of working
-for the Western Mail in Cardiff.
-Mattie had heard a lot
-about London from her family.
-Her parents had met in London
-when they were young.
-was a tailor at the time...
-..and had trained in Savile Row.
-In terms of earning a living,
-Caradog Prichard was a journalist.
-He initially worked
-for the News Chronicle...
-..and then the Daily Telegraph.
-He failed to find a job
-back in Wales.
-In his own words, he compromised.
-He was an Englishman at work
-and a Welshman at home.
-Hello. What do you want?
-Right. It's ready now.
-He held his work as a Welsh writer
-and poet in higher regard...
-..and sometimes considered
-being a journalist...
-..as something superficial,
-temporary and meaningless.
-The Welsh literary
-and poetic world...
-..had more substance and value.
-It caused him a lot of tension
-throughout his life.
-At the time, Caradog Prichard
-and his wife Mattie...
-..were the king and queen
-of the London Welsh.
-They held literary
-and musical soirees at their home...
-..that went on into the early hours.
-The guests included some
-of the biggest names of the day...
-..including Richard Burton
-and Stanley Baker.
-Wales' renowned singers
-have been here.
-I've been fortunate to meet them
-and help them, if I can.
-Even those who are starting
-their career have come here.
-People came and went all the time...
-liked organizing these soirees.
-They were regular occurrences.
-People like Ryan Davies
-and Rhydderch Jones dropped in.
-The playwright Gwenlyn Parry
-and Hafina Clwyd were others.
-We used to sing hymns all night.
-I remember one time...
-..when everybody had a hymn book...
-..someone was at the piano,
-and we sang hymns...
-..until four or five in the morning.
-Imagine that! How silly!
-Caradog's wife Mattie
-was quite a character too.
-During the Second World War...
-..she worked for MI5...
-international phone calls.
-It's said that she stopped
-..in case he revealed a secret.
-If you phoned someone in New York...
-..the enemy out in the Atlantic
-could pick up that conversation.
-You had to know
-when people were speaking.
-You had to be discreet.
-Who did you hear speaking?
-He sat here at the time.
-I'd listen to him
-and I'd listen to Mr Roosevelt.
-I'd listen to Mr Eisenhower
-talking to Churchill.
-Montgomery speaking to Eisenhower.
-I listened to them all.
-Mattie wrote a weekly column
-in Y Cymro newspaper...
-..Colofn Mati Wyn o Lundain.
-Caradog edited Y Ddinas,
-the London Welsh periodical.
-This is a building which embodies
-strength, power and influence.
-It's the former home of the
-Daily Telegraph on Fleet Street.
-A Conservative newspaper
-which still exudes Englishness.
-It's odd to think...
-..that one of Wales' brightest
-poets, Caradog Prichard...
-..worked here for many years...
-..as a night editor
-among colourful hacks.
-He was a respected journalist...
-..but none of his fellow workers...
-..had any idea of his achievements
-as a poet and author.
-The worlds of Fleet Street
-and the Eisteddfod...
-..did possibly come together
-on one occasion.
-After Caradog won the Chair
-at the 1962 Llanelli Eisteddfod...
-..a fake chairing ceremony was held
-in the Daily Telegraph office.
-Are you going to return to Wales?
-London's not that far away.
-So many people have asked me
-if I'm going to return to Wales...
-..and I've decided
-to come back this year.
-If not this year, then next year.
-"I can already smell
-the sweet aroma of Wales
-"Blowing in the gentle breeze
-"The homeland is undoubtedly near."
-The history of the London Welsh
-and the city's chapels...
-..have been interlinked
-since the end of the 18th century...
-..but reached a lively climax
-during the 1930s.
-This was the golden age in
-the history of the London chapels.
-Charing Cross Road Chapel
-is a perfect example.
-Eight hundred members during WWI...
-..and 1,200 members
-during the 1930s.
-The same was true of Jewin, Castle
-Street and King's Cross chapels.
-There were 30 Welsh chapels
-and churches across the city.
-But everything changed
-with the outbreak of WWII.
-The chapels have been key in
-the history of London Welsh life...
-..in terms of Welsh religion,
-language and culture in the city.
-They were the focal point
-of Welsh life...
-..for the migrants from Wales.
-They felt at home there.
-It was one of the rare opportunities
-to speak Welsh...
-..and worship in Welsh.
-When London's chapels
-were at their busiest...
-..they were social centres
-as well as places of worship.
-Activities were held
-every day of the week.
-We'd have a service in the morning
-for a handful of people...
-..who were all
-in the dairy industry.
-For Sunday school in the afternoon,
-more than 100 would attend.
-At night, 300 would attend.
-A prayer meeting
-was held on Monday night.
-There was a literature society.
-were half-days for the dairies.
-Annual concerts were always held
-on a Thursday night.
-On Friday nights,
-there were classes for young people.
-Welsh classes were also held.
-There was something
-every night of the week.
-Young people sang in a choir
-and played table tennis.
-There was a table tennis league
-..in which every chapel competed.
-It was a way for all the chapel
-members to get to know each other.
-We all know each other these days
-because there are so few of us.
-During the Blitz, many Welsh chapels
-were bombed, including Jewin.
-The congregation had to meet...
-..at the London Welsh Club
-on Gray's Inn Road for 20 years...
-..but many weddings
-were held in the chapel's ruins.
-The chapel that stood here
-before this one was bombed in 1940.
-It was almost totally destroyed.
-Very little of it remained.
-After the bombing,
-my grandfather, Reverend DS Owen...
-that the chapel would be restored.
-Like a phoenix from the ashes.
-When the chapel reopened...
-..they built it for a congregation
-of 1,100 members.
-They placed the organ
-in the gallery above...
-..because they needed
-more pews on the floor.
-Over 1,000 London Welsh attended the
-dedication service at Jewin Chapel.
-The modern building stands
-on the site of the former chapel...
-..which was destroyed
-by the enemy in the last war.
-Following WWII, chapel membership
-At one time, there were 30
-Welsh chapels dotted around London.
-These days, only eight
-hold any kind of service in Welsh.
-During my early years...
-..I received many families
-who had moved from Wales.
-During Elfed's era...
-..it was very common for him...
-..to receive 100 or more
-membership letters a year.
-the past quarter of a century...
-..the migration to London
-has become less and less and less.
-As the chapel's importance
-to the London Welsh waned...
-..their fervour was transferred
-to a different institution.
-The rugby club, the most famous
-of which is London Welsh.
-The club enjoyed
-a golden era in the 1970s...
-..but the Old Deer Park institution
-has a long and prosperous history.
-When the club was founded,
-we didn't play at Old Deer Park.
-We played for a while
-at Herne Hill...
-..and other locations
-in London before that.
-We've been at Old Deer Park
-for more than half a century.
-Our first game
-was against London Scottish.
-During the early years,
-we played against London clubs...
-..like Blackheath and Rosslyn Park.
-That's how we started out
-more than a century ago.
-The club was established in 1885.
-The Wales team trains at the ground
-before games at Twickenham.
-The club was established
-through the efforts of Dr TJ Pryce.
-The Carmarthenshire rector's son...
-..ran a surgery
-behind the Palladium theatre.
-Pryce had already won two caps
-for Wales, playing on the wing.
-was a key figure at the time.
-Dr RL Thomas,
-who'd won six caps for Wales...
-as Carmarthenshire's coroner.
-The team now plays many of its games
-in a modern stadium near Oxford.
-But they still return
-to their spiritual home...
-..of Old Deer Park for some games.
-The club's long history continues
-to attract young Welsh people...
-..to play for the men's
-and women's teams.
-One is Cai Griffiths
-The club is steeped in history.
-144 players have played for Wales.
-Some 50 Lions players
-have played for London Welsh.
-The old greats have played for this
-club, which makes it really special.
-It's like a home from home here.
-If you want to speak Welsh,
-you've people to talk to.
-It's more than just a rugby club.
-It's shrouded in history.
-The club's most famous period
-was during the 1960s and 1970s...
-..when some of the giants
-of Welsh rugby played regularly.
-has bred more Lions players...
-..than any other club,
-including the seven who played...
-..during the 1971 Wales tour
-to New Zealand.
-John Dawes, John Taylor,
-JPR Williams, Gerald Davies...
-..and Mervyn Davies
-played in every test.
-Edwards to John. The whole line out.
-Williams in again.
-Give it to Gerald Davies.
-These players' backgrounds reflected
-the composition of the London Welsh.
-Most were teachers, and JPR, like
-the club's founders, was a doctor.
-Tons of courage and guts.
-During the 20th century...
-..one institution has regularly
-served the London Welsh community.
-It's on the threshold of a new era.
-Over the decades,
-thousands of London Welsh...
-..have climbed this staircase.
-and all kinds of workers.
-Everyone came here to socialize...
-..and enjoy the life
-of the London Welsh Club.
-This club opened in 1937...
-..thanks to the generosity
-of one man, Sir Howell Williams.
-He was a prominent builder
-and very wealthy.
-He was also a London politician.
-You'll notice that there's
-a large bar here nowadays.
-But when the club opened
-back in the 1930s...
-..the idea of having a bar here
-caused a scandal.
-One of Sir Howell Williams'
-..was that no alcohol
-would be sold on the premises.
-By the 1960s, many people,
-including Dafydd Wigley...
-..campaigned to have a bar there.
-isn't a club at the moment.
-People come here
-for various activities...
-..but don't sit down
-and socialize with one another.
-The situation is rather cliquey.
-People stick to certain groups.
-Usually, they disappear
-to one of the pubs across the road.
-Having a bar would mean
-that people could sit around...
-..and talk to each other, creating
-more of an atmosphere in the centre.
-It would go
-from being a centre to a club.
-We know that there's a demand...
-..for those facilities
-on these premises.
-We also know that many are opposed.
-These days, the bar
-is an integral part of the centre.
-The latest generation to take the
-reins want to develop the club too.
-They want to make sure
-that it meets the needs...
-..of the scattered London Welsh
-community in the 21st century.
-They're currently working
-on ambitious plans...
-..with the architect
-of the Millennium Centre.
-It fills me with pride that I'm
-the centre's first chief executive.
-The centre has greatly benefited
-from voluntary work over the years.
-People have given their time
-to ensure the centre's future.
-A young team came together
-as the centre's trustees...
-..and decided that someone
-needed to manage the centre daily...
-..to improve facilities
-and to widen its appeal.
-of the centre's heritage...
-..but it's an old building
-and improvements need to be made.
-to redevelop the centre...
-..but the challenge
-is to retain the balance...
-..of tradition and history...
-looking to the future...
-the modern-day London Welsh.
-# For the sake of your Son
-# Who died upon the cross
-# Create a land
-# In His name #
-For those who claim that
-the London Welsh need more energy...
-..then come here,
-to another 20th century institution.
-This is the London Welsh School,
-which opened in 1958.
-It's an island of Welshness
-in northwest London.
-Sustaining this school
-financially and practically...
-..has been an enormous challenge
-over the years.
-It was a speech
-by the patriotic Meredydd Evans...
-..that inspired a group of fathers
-to establish the school.
-They used to meet
-on Saturdays during the 1950s.
-They heard Mered giving a speech
-about Welsh education.
-By 1958, they came together...
-..and founded the school
-in that year.
-The school was initially situated
-on Hungerford Road...
-..but most of the time...
-..it operated from a Welsh
-chapel vestry in Willesden Green.
-It stayed there
-from the 1960s to 2000.
-The Welsh School is held here,
-in Willesden Green Chapel.
-It is testament to the perseverance
-of a handful of parents.
-They don't receive a penny from
-public coffers to run the school...
-..and pay its two teachers.
-When Willesden Green was sold...
-..it was difficult
-finding a new home for the school.
-Weeks before the school opened
-in September 2000...
-..we found this site
-We've been here for almost 15 years.
-There are currently
-37 children on the register.
-It's more like a rural Welsh school
-than an inner-city school.
-Sometimes, we worry
-about pupil numbers...
-..but when you consider there were
-once only five, we're doing well.
-Sadly, pupil numbers
-will always be up and down.
-But I'm confident we'll be here
-for a good few years yet.
-The school is growing and evolving.
-But the London Welsh community
-is scattered all over London.
-Every family can't send
-their children to a school...
-..that's situated in the northwest.
-There's also a financial challenge.
-Parents must pay fees
-of 800 a term.
-However, the Welsh Government offers
-the school financial assistance.
-More recently, the Assembly
-has been very generous...
-..and raised its contribution.
-the school would have had to close.
-Financing the school
-is a constant challenge.
-We rely on parents paying fees...
-..and there are always
-fundraising campaigns going on.
-Without the parents,
-the school wouldn't survive.
-They do lunch duties and help
-with maintenance and upkeep.
-The parents are very important.
-In the 21st century,
-..between Wales and London
-has fundamentally changed.
-But thousands of young Welsh people
-still flock to the city...
-..to capitalize on opportunities
-that aren't available in Wales.
-New movements are emerging...
-..which promote Wales' interests
-across the world.
-One of the latest
-is Wales In London...
-..a forum that promotes Wales
-in Europe's business capital...
-..providing a chance to network...
-..and a platform to discuss
-issues important to Wales.
-It's an institution
-that was founded in the 1990s...
-..and has gone
-from strength to strength.
-We meet once a month,
-There's a close link
-with the business world.
-Many London Welsh hold prominent
-positions in business and banking.
-our associations with them...
-..and ask them to explain their
-success in the business world...
-..or the world of commerce.
-we try to encourage Welsh people...
-..to use the capital as a platform
-for business and institutions.
-Recently, it's happening
-more and more with charities too.
-The good thing about the members...
-..is that they're
-from different backgrounds.
-There are solicitors,
-..civil servants and people
-from the wider business community.
-The events vary
-from social and creative ventures...
-..to economic, business...
-..and the ever-popular
-But we get down
-to some serious business...
-..when these events take place.
-Many of the members...
-..use the events to network...
-..and develop relationships
-in various fields...
-..that the members represent.
-The London Welsh
-have a very rich history.
-There have been five centuries of
-coming and going, of ebb and flow.
-They are Welsh exiles,
-to some extent...
-..but they are Welsh people...
-..who have always made
-a generous contribution...
-..to their nation's culture.
-And their story continues.
-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.
Huw Edwards sy'n teithio o ddiwedd y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg i'n cyfnod ni heddiw. Huw Edwards travels from the late 19th century to the present day as he looks at the Welsh in London.