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-The Welsh Princes.
-Who were they? What were they?
-Nationalists who wanted to unite
-Wales in the Middle Ages?
-Or leaders who craved power
-for personal gain, come what may?
-The history of many
-of the Princes...
-..Hywel Dda, Llywelyn the Great,
-Llywelyn the Last...
-..and Owain Glyndwr
-is shrouded in myth.
-This series offers a 21st century
-interpretation of medieval politics.
-We'll lift the mist off the past...
-..to place these leaders
-in the context of their time.
-New states were created throughout
-Europe in the Middle Ages.
-Wales was no exception.
-Not every Prince sought
-to create a Welsh state...
-..but several sought
-political unity in Wales.
-In the melting pot
-of medieval politics...
-..few Princes ruled
-the whole of Wales.
-Over a thousand years ago,
-a Royal traveller arrived in Rome.
-Centuries earlier, this was
-the capital of Rome's vast empire.
-It was a symbol
-of worldwide Roman domination.
-Roman ruins could be seen
-then as now.
-But that wasn't the reason
-why the King came here.
-Rome was the centre of the Christian
-faith in the Middle Ages.
-The traveller was Hywel ap Cadell,
-a South West Wales King.
-He's known today as Hywel Dda,
-Hywel the Good. Why Good Hywel?
-His journey to Rome might have
-contributed to his virtuous image...
-..as a good, Christian King.
-He went to Rome on a pilgrimage
-to see Christian Roman relics...
-..like the 5th century
-Santa Pudenziana tapestry.
-But one thing is certain.
-His journey to Rome demonstrates
-that Wales in the Middle Ages...
-..was a mainstream European country,
-part of the broader Christian world.
-Wales had undergone change
-since the days of the Roman Empire.
-It was a rural country, sparsely
-populated, without any towns.
-The country was ruled over
-by royal warriors...
-..who depended on slave labour
-to farm the land.
-The country was split
-into several kingdoms.
-One of them was Hywel's kingdom.
-It included Ceredigion, Dyfed,
-..Ystrad Tywi, or Deheubarth
-as it came to be known.
-Despite the divisions,
-by Hywel Dda's day...
-..the Welsh believed they were one
-people, and Wales was one country.
-They were often called Britons.
-Their Celtic forefathers
-ruled Britain after the Romans left.
-It was widely believed Wales
-was destined to rule Britain...
-..in the Middle Ages.
-In Hywel Dda's period...
-..the Welsh saw themselves
-as the Britons' descendants.
-These were the native people
-of Britain - the Celts.
-They'd survived the Roman Conquest.
-The Welsh saw themselves
-as their successors.
-The true inheritors
-of the British Isles.
-The Welsh kingdoms were
-the principal areas of Britain...
-in the hands of the Britons...
-..or the Welsh
-as they were eventually called.
-People began to view
-Wales and the Welsh...
-..as a separate country and people.
-They spoke their own language -
-the Welsh language.
-But this was
-a geographical and cultural idea.
-Another step had to be taken
-to believe that one King...
-..should rule the country, and turn
-it into a cohesive political unit.
-to venture as far as Rome...
-..suggests his rule and authority
-in South West Wales was secure.
-He reigned as King for a further
-20 years after his pilgrimage.
-His inheritance contributed
-to his success as King.
-Hywel's influential lineage...
-..had transformed the political map
-of Wales since the 9th century.
-Few facts are available today
-about Hywel's life.
-We don't even know where he lived.
-He was born circa 890,
-and married Elen ap Llywarch.
-We know he was an astute leader
-He ruled the vast majority of Wales
-until his death at the age of 60.
-Hywel came nearer
-than any previous Welsh King...
-..to stamp his authority
-on the whole of Wales.
-He created an empire of sorts
-over most of the Welsh regions.
-He removed, temporarily, at least...
-..the political divisions that were
-an integral part of Welsh history...
-..under the Welsh Kings and Princes.
-Hywel ruled over most of Wales.
-Gwynedd, Powys and the South West.
-Only Glamorgan and Gwent
-in the south east...
-..remained outside his authority.
-He ruled over these regions
-throughout his reign...
-..until his death in 950.
-This statue of Hywel Dda
-is in Cardiff's City Hall.
-Penarth artist, Ifor Davies...
-..is familiar with
-the portrayal of Welsh history.
-He's creating images of eight
-medieval Welsh Princes.
-If you study a painting
-for long enough...
-..you begin to discover
-things about the person.
-to try to imagine...
-..what he looked like.
-He appears to have been quite slim.
-He had a lawyer's long fingers.
-He had a long nose.
-The surviving image we have
-is a single sketch in a manuscript.
-But I've been considering
-what paint to use.
-I don't want flat, acrylic paint.
-I want the paint to come alive,
-and have a thick consistency.
-It has to be interesting.
-On his deathbed...
-..Hywel Dda was hailed 'King of
-the Britons' - the Welsh.
-It's a clear sign
-of his power and authority.
-But establishing a new, united
-kingdom wasn't his main goal.
-was to promote his own lineage.
-He wanted to broaden
-his own power base.
-There's a danger to look back...
-..and view Hywel as
-the King of the whole of Wales...
-..and to celebrate his achievement.
-this wasn't his intention.
-He wanted more land under his rule.
-His ambition was to ensure his
-family kept control of these lands.
-To understand how Hywel Dda gained
-such extraordinary power in Wales...
-..we have to look at
-his relationship with England.
-There were two elements
-to the relationship.
-England's Anglo-Saxon Kings...
-..to maintain authority over him.
-In certain aspects,
-he wanted to imitate them too.
-The birth of the English kingdom
-in the 10th century...
-..had important repercussions
-for all the British Kings.
-Alfred, King of Wessex -
-Alfred the Great...
-..repelled the Viking conquest.
-They had conquered all
-the other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.
-One of the few surviving relics
-from Alfred and Hywel's age...
-..is Alfred's jewel.
-The remarkably intricate piece is
-made from gold, enamel and crystal.
-It was a part of a bookmark
-at one time.
-A wooden stick reached
-into the animal's mouth.
-An inscription informs us
-that it was commissioned by Alfred.
-Under Athelstan's leadership,
-..the Anglo-Saxons succeeded
-in getting rid of the Vikings...
-..from most of the land
-beyond Offa's Dyke.
-Athelstan was crowned
-England's first King.
-Ruling over the Anglo-Saxons wasn't
-enough for Athelstan's followers.
-They also wanted the Celtic peoples
-of Britain under their authority.
-of King Athelstan's ambition...
-..was the majestic titles
-he bestowed upon himself.
-'King of All Britain'.
-Hywel couldn't ignore
-He bowed to Athelstan,
-and accepted his authority.
-He went to Athelstan's court
-a number of times.
-Hywel's name appears as a witness
-to charters that were published...
-..during court sessions.
-But it's significant that Hywel
-isn't referred to as a King.
-He's a 'Deputy King',
-or 'Lesser King'.
-It demonstrated the nature
-of their relationship.
-From the Anglo-Saxon
-point of view...
-..Hywel was a 'lesser King'.
-According to a medieval historian...
-..Hywel paid exorbitant
-homage to Athelstan annually.
-This included 20lbs of gold,
-300lbs of silver...
-..and 25,000 cattle.
-Hywel was fully aware...
-..that King Athelstan's
-new Anglo-Saxon empire...
-..held the upper hand
-over the whole of Britain.
-at the English King's court...
-..was arguably a sign of weakness.
-He was there at the command
-of the stronger Anglo-Saxon King.
-But perhaps Hywel's obedience
-was a key factor in his success.
-Peace was the great prize
-that Hywel won.
-If he'd annoyed King Athelstan,
-he would have been punished.
-He would have faced a bloody war.
-Bowing to Athelstan
-was a price worth paying.
-There was a long tradition
-of Anglo-Saxon attacks on Wales...
-..especially from the
-Kingdom of Mercia, on the border.
-Hywel's grandfather - Rhodri the
-Great, was killed by the Mercians.
-During Hywel's reign, Queen
-Aethelflaed, Athelstan's aunt...
-the small kingdom of Brecon.
-She kidnapped the King's wife...
-..from a court that was located
-on that artificial island...
-..on Llangorse Lake.
-The attack took place in 916,
-when Hywel Dda was in his twenties.
-The Royal crannog on Syfaddan Lake
-was an administrative centre.
-It's possible that
-a similar site on the mainland...
-..was the court
-of Hywel Dda himself.
-Recently, the owners of the holiday
-camp where the crannog stands...
-..have built an information centre
-on the lake.
-It reflects the architecture
-of the original court.
-What exactly is a crannog?
-It's a word
-for an artificial island.
-It was created
-out of stone, sand and branches.
-Usually, it was a special site.
-Somewhere to build
-a sumptuous abode.
-Here, on Syfaddan Lake,
-..was the location
-of a Royal Family residence.
-It's the only one in Wales.
-It proves the importance
-of the site today.
-The crannog wasn't re-built
-after it was burnt down...
-..during an Anglo-Saxon attack.
-important relics in the early 1990s.
-Remains of the oak palisade
-that surrounded the island...
-just below the surface.
-It's the only archaeological proof
-we have of royal rule in Wales...
-..during this period.
-It provides invaluable evidence
-of the lives they led.
-Some of the objects tell us a story.
-There's domestic litter,
-and the remains of feasts.
-There are also special objects.
-Bronze brooches -
-and even parts of religious relics.
-What does it tell us about
-the way they lived in this court?
-There are certain clues.
-A very special object survived
-after falling into the water.
-It's a piece
-of a noblewoman's dress.
-It was made
-from intricate embroidery.
-It consists of silk, linen and wool.
-Patterns on the cloth...
-of the Mediterranean connection.
-It was a fashionable status symbol.
-Hywel probably decided
-it was wiser to avoid attacks...
-undermine his authority...
-..or even lead to his death.
-There's no evidence that English
-Kings attacked him during his reign.
-They were content
-to let him rule Wales...
-..as long as he
-didn't attack England.
-His attendances at court
-signified their authority over him.
-When he attended
-a perfect example of royal power.
-It could have influenced
-..of a King's role
-and his authority.
-That royal symbol was minting money.
-Hywel Dda is the only Welsh King
-or Prince from the Middle Ages...
-..who appears on a coin.
-The penny inscribed with the words
-'King Hywel' was minted in Chester.
-The houses where the penny
-was minted still stand...
-..in Lower Bridge St.
-It's something unique and special.
-We only have one example
-of Hywel Dda's currency.
-The silver penny is inscribed
-with 'Hywel Rex' - King Hywel.
-Some experts believe
-it was a gift from a King...
-as a mark of respect for Hywel...
-..for all he had accomplished
-Other experts are fairly certain...
-..that it is an example
-..that circulated in Wales
-during Hywel Dda's reign.
-we have only the one example.
-The use of money
-was a brand new phenomenon in Wales.
-..that royal authority was
-strengthened through legislation.
-He's named on six legal documents.
-Creating laws was a traditional
-element in royal legislation.
-Hywel Dda is remembered...
-..as a King who created
-a broad spectrum of laws for Wales.
-Was it Athelstan's example that
-inspired him to create his own laws?
-Influenced by the Wessex courts...
-..Hywel Dda attempted to unite Wales
-administratively and politically...
-..emulating what Athelstan
-achieved in England.
-There is no surviving evidence
-from Hywel Dda's day...
-..of his personal involvement
-in Welsh law making.
-But this isn't to say
-he wasn't interested in the Law.
-It was the norm for rules of law
-to be written by several persons.
-The Laws evolved.
-In one paragraph of Law...
-..it's possible to have clauses
-dating from different periods.
-to the 13th century Law Books...
-..reveals how Hywel Dda organized
-a great assembly in Whitland, Dyfed.
-The purpose of the meeting
-was to review, reform...
-..and regulate Welsh Law.
-It would carry the King's authority,
-and be applied throughout Wales.
-Peter Lord designed this garden
-to commemorate that important event.
-Representatives from every Welsh
-settlement attended the meeting.
-It was a national forum.
-Books, and other sources
-from the 13th century...
-..refer to the laws as Hywel's Law.
-It's the most important symbol
-of Welsh unity in the Middle Ages.
-Hywel Dda's Laws were different
-from the laws of England and Rome.
-They were unique laws -
-created for the Welsh.
-They were possibly created
-to unite the country and the people.
-Hywel's Law belonged to the nation.
-It was congenital, with an emphasis
-on honour, family and so on.
-was based on the state.
-There was a greater emphasis
-on order, procedure and so on.
-In the early days of our Assembly,
-the Welsh Government Act 2006...
-a new interest in our laws.
-applied to society as a whole.
-The Royal Court, law and order.
-Welsh laws were considered fairer
-than their English counterparts.
-If a thief was caught and hanged...
-..in England his money would
-end up in the King's coffers.
-Under Hywel's Law, the money
-would be used to pay off his debts.
-What remained was distributed
-between his children and the Church.
-Also, under Hywel's Law,
-if you harmed your fellow man...
-..you had to pay compensation.
-If a man murdered another man...
-..the murderer's family
-..to the victim's family.
-Its purpose was to prevent
-the wronged from seeking revenge.
-Hywel Dda's Laws contained
-a whole section on women's rights.
-But this didn't necessarily
-enhance the status of women.
-That was wholly dependent on her
-father's status before she married.
-The status of women is an issue
-dating back centuries.
-The Church portrayed women...
-..as sinful creatures...
-..who led men into temptation.
-in the Old Testament, blamed Eve.
-There was a belief that women
-led innocent men to sin.
-Women, by their very nature,
-The idea of women as dirty...
-..was very strong
-in the Middle Ages, and later on.
-Hywel's Laws concentrate
-on a woman's property...
-she owned when she married.
-In the event of a divorce...
-could reclaim her property.
-The emphasis is on property,
-rather than women's rights.
-These reports were written more
-than 200 years after Hywel's death.
-They are therefore the
-interpretation of legal experts...
-..from a later period.
-No-one believes they accurately
-reflect the Laws of Hywel.
-But yet again, the law books could
-contain elements from Hywel's reign.
-In the Middle Ages...
-..people believed in the legend
-that these were truly 'Hywel's Law'.
-It helped form the Welsh identity.
-In Wales, perhaps more than one
-Prince ruled at a given time...
-..but everyone adhered
-to Hywel's Law.
-Wales was united by the Welsh
-language and by Hywel's Law.
-There's no doubt that the Kings
-of England influenced Hywel Dda.
-Perhaps he tried
-to emulate those Kings...
-..by ensuring that the laws
-of his own country carried his name.
-But it's a mistake to assume...
-..that Hywel was the author and
-creator of medieval Welsh laws.
-Hywel Dda was willing to cooperate
-with the Anglo-Saxons.
-That wasn't the attitude
-of the anonymous poet...
-..who wrote Armes Prydain,
-in the middle of the 10th century.
-This particular protest song
-was composed 1000 years...
-..before the protest songs
-of the 20th century.
-'Armes Prydain' prophesised
-the fall of the English.
-The Welsh should drive them
-from the island of Britain...
-..under St David's banner.
-It foresaw the Britons regaining
-their hold on Britain...
-of Anglo-Saxon oppression.
-It's a poem complaining
-about the English.
-The poet wants Wales to realize
-..and other nations that he names...
-and the Irish of Dublin...
-..'the Irish of the North' -
-..the Welsh in the Old North,
-and the Cornish...
-..were the native people of Britain,
-before the English arrived.
-The poet wanted them to unite,
-to drive the English to the sea.
-This was written at a time...
-..when Hywel Dda was getting along
-well with the English Kings.
-It's a protest against that policy.
-There was a powerful King in Wessex
-at this time, Athelstan.
-He is mentioned in the poem.
-The protest is aimed against him.
-He levied heavy taxes on the Welsh.
-The poem is meant to stir up
-anger against past oppression...
-..and against the harshness
-of the current taxes.
-This is the poet's protest.
-"Rise against this man
-who is taxing us.
-"Sweep him and his people
-into the sea."
-In the poem, 'Dublin Foreigners'...
-..that is - the Vikings, are
-named as supporters of the Welsh.
-The Vikings had settled in
-Dublin and elsewhere in Ireland...
-..by the 10th century.
-200 years earlier,
-the first Viking campaigns...
-and Ireland happened.
-In the beginning...
-..these adventurers wanted
-to capture treasure and slaves.
-They attacked without warning,
-and escaped quickly...
-..thanks to their swift boats.
-This boat is in the Viking
-Ship Museum, Roskilde, Denmark.
-The Dublin-built boat was probably
-used to attack Wales at the time.
-The boats sailing
-the Irish Sea were 60-70 feet long.
-There were oars on each side -
-perhaps 20 oars each side.
-There was one mast and one sail.
-They weren't very wide.
-A wide boat wasn't required
-if there were oars.
-For the same reason,
-they weren't very deep, either.
-They were rowed, and moved swiftly.
-If the wind was behind them,
-they could sail rapidly.
-If the wind was against them,
-In a battle, rowing was a way
-of manoeuvring quickly.
-By the mid-9th century...
-..there was an important change
-in the nature of the attacks.
-From pillaging - to conquering.
-Rather than launching
-..some Vikings decided to settle
-in Britain and Ireland.
-From here, they set sail to Wales.
-When they arrived in Anglesey in the
-latter part of the 9th century...
-they tried to settle here...
-But it's not that simple.
-Try to imagine
-the local population's reaction...
-..and the relationship between
-the Vikings and the native people.
-Were the Vikings
-attacking the local people...
-..or did the local people become
-a part of the Viking society?
-failed to establish in Wales...
-the Danelaw communities in England.
-were ruled by the Danes.
-But if there wasn't
-a Scandinavian conquest in Wales...
-..it's obvious the Vikings laid down
-roots all over the country.
-Scandinavian place names
-dot the Welsh coastline.
-Many names refer to places
-their ships should avoid.
-It was crucial information
-for any ship captain.
-For instance, Anglesey -
-from Onguls-ey. 'Ey' means island.
-the word 'holm', or small island.
-The Skerries includes
-the word 'sker' - solitary rock.
-Fishguard, from fiskigard,
-a place to store fish.
-Archaeology and Art offer
-the most important evidence...
-..that the Vikings settled in Wales
-in Hywel Dda's day.
-in the north-east and on Anglesey.
-Experts have studied
-the patterns on Dyserth Cross...
-..and the Achwyfan Stone
-that Vikings once lived there.
-There are non-Christian,
-Pagan figures on the cross.
-When the Vikings arrived in Britain,
-they were Pagans.
-But at the same time...
-..the Achwyfan Stone
-suggests they became Christians.
-They built crosses -
-a symbol of Christianity.
-But they included Pagan figures.
-The Bangor silver treasure
-in the National Museum...
-The Vikings hoped to return
-to collect their buried treasure.
-But the best evidence
-is found on Anglesey.
-In addition to treasure troves and
-a Viking burial site in Benllech...
-two 10th century crosses in Penmon.
-Above all, archaeological digging
-since 1992 in Llanbedrgoch...
-..has uncovered a fort-like camp.
-It was a Viking trading centre...
-..during the first half
-of the 10th century.
-It was a new centre, the like
-of which had never been seen before.
-A fort that was used for several
-purposes, built on low ground.
-These are the remains of the walls
-that surrounded the site.
-The Llanbedrgoch site is unique.
-It's the first to be discovered.
-A trading centre
-where goods were sold.
-Business was good because
-they cooperated with the locals.
-There's plenty of evidence.
-There are numerous relics...
-pieces of bronze and silver...
-..even the discs to weigh produce.
-But from an archaeological
-point of view...
-..there's an interesting,
-but quite alarming, story.
-As the archaeologists dug
-in the ditch...
-..they found human remains - bones.
-They found many skeletons.
-Manchester University has
-skilfully recreated in bronze...
-..the faces of the bodies that
-were buried over 1000 years ago.
-are a direct link...
-..with the residents of Anglesey
-during Hywel Dda's reign.
-According to forensic research...
-..into the positions
-of the buried bodies...
-..it's apparent that
-this was not a formal burial ground.
-at the location of the bodies...
-..we realize their hands were bound.
-The bodies were thrown
-into the ditch.
-These poor unfortunates
-weren't given a Christian burial.
-hundreds of skeletons...
-..were found in Tywyn y Capel,
-Trearddur Bay, Anglesey.
-Mystery surrounds these too.
-Were they Welsh, or Viking?
-They certainly walked on
-Trearddur Bay in Hywel Dda's day.
-The skeletons are being examined
-in Preston University.
-The evidence that's unfolding
-shows us how these people lived.
-didn't clean their teeth.
-This is medieval plaque.
-The tiny holes in the skull suggests
-a lack of iron in their diet.
-The people buried in Trearddur Bay
-could have been Welsh or Viking.
-But Vikings lived on Anglesey
-long after Hywel Dda's day.
-His success in securing
-so much authority over Wales...
-..was a great personal achievement.
-After Hywel's death,
-Wales wasn't ruled by one King...
-..for almost another century.
-Hywel Dda died circa 950.
-He's the only Welsh Prince
-to be called 'Da' - good.
-On his death, minor Welsh Princes
-fought each other again.
-Wales suffered further attacks by
-the Mercians, Saxons and Vikings.
-But a bloodthirsty King went
-a step further than Hywel Dda.
-He had the whole of Wales
-under his rule.
-A century after Hywel Dda's death...
-..Gruffudd ap Llywelyn became
-the most powerful leader in Wales.
-His remarkable career proves
-how much a determined...
-..and merciless leader
-By the end of his life,
-Gruffudd ruled the whole of Wales.
-Glamorgan and Gwent even -
-regions Hywel failed to conquer.
-Gruffudd even pushed
-the boundary beyond Offa's Dyke...
-..at the expense of the English.
-He carried out
-a series of violent attacks.
-I don't think there are images
-of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn.
-He was one of the earlier Princes,
-after Hywel Dda.
-He was obviously a reckless man.
-These are some of the flames...
-..which appear inverted
-behind the figure of the Prince.
-He was Hywel Dda's
-He was Rhodri the Great's
-He seized power
-in Gwynedd and Powys in 1039.
-He moved to the South-West in 1055.
-He seized Glamorgan in 1057.
-By 1057, he was the King of Wales.
-Furthermore, he was powerful enough
-to involve himself over the border.
-Gruffudd ap Llywelyn,
-more than anyone...
-..is responsible for a large part
-of Wales, east of Offa's Dyke...
-..now considered a part of Wales.
-Places like Wrexham Maelor, east
-Flintshire, east Radnorshire...
-..are lands that he seized back.
-a determined and brutal soldier.
-During his battles
-to conquer the whole of Wales...
-..he killed two Kings,
-and kidnapped one of their wives.
-After tiring of that,
-he looked towards England.
-But to attack England,
-he needed help.
-Gruffudd became friendly
-The Earl was
-King Edward the Confessor's enemy.
-He'd been exiled.
-They attacked and burnt Hereford.
-have uncovered evidence...
-..that most of the town was burnt.
-In the 21st century, Hereford
-is a prosperous market town.
-Remains of Gruffudd's destruction
-are barely visible today.
-But it wasn't only Princes and Kings
-that Gruffudd murdered.
-He even killed Leofgar,
-Hereford's new bishop...
-..to avenge an attack on Wales
-by the bishop's soldiers.
-The bloodshed led to Edward
-the Confessor's representatives...
-..agreeing peace terms
-They allowed him to keep the land
-that he'd seized along the border.
-A section east of Offa's Dyke was
-called a wasteland by the English.
-yielded that land to Gruffudd.
-It was of no use to the English.
-It didn't provide income
-from land tax.
-Towards the middle
-of the 11th century...
-..Gruffudd was described as
-'The King of the whole of Wales.'
-But he was betrayed and killed
-by his own men.
-The basic reason for this
-was that he made too many enemies.
-He seized power through violence.
-He killed everyone
-who was a threat to him.
-He was the Amin or Saddam
-of his period.
-Gwallter Map wrote
-that he didn't kill people...
-"..he broke the sons' horns
-so they didn't injure their mother."
-But in actual fact -
-he was an assassin.
-Gruffudd's enemies seized the chance
-to get rid of him, in 1063.
-Edward the Confessor, who was buried
-in Westminster Abbey...
-..was furious at Gruffudd's
-many violent campaigns in England.
-He ordered Harold Godwineson...
-..who was killed in
-the Battle of Hastings in 1066...
-..to attack Gruffudd.
-was a lightning attack on Rhuddlan.
-A fleet of Gruffudd's ships
-The ships were an important part
-of his military strategy.
-Harold sent the figurehead, which
-adorned one of Gruffudd's ships...
-..to the King as a gift.
-Gruffudd managed to escape.
-But his followers decided...
-..the constant warfare
-was too high a price to pay.
-he was chased from place to place.
-According to 'Brut y Tywysogion'
-he was killed in Snowdonia...
-..by one of his own men.
-JE Lloyd claims he was betrayed
-But in the Ulster Chronicle, it is
-claimed Cynan ap Iago killed him.
-We know Gruffudd ap Llywelyn
-killed Cynan ap Iago's father.
-It's possible that Cynan ap Iago...
-..who was related
-to Gruffudd ap Llywelyn...
-..had been waiting
-for his chance to strike.
-It's happened throughout the ages.
-Consider the attempts made on
-Hitler's life by people he trusted.
-1000 years ago, Hywel Dda
-and Gruffudd ap Llywelyn...
-..were the two Kings who came
-closest to ruling all of Wales.
-But they also promoted
-their own interests...
-..and their families' interests
-as their power advanced.
-In Gruffudd's case, violence
-was a key factor in his success.
-It's obvious Gruffudd ap Llywelyn
-was a talented soldier.
-He had an element of strategy.
-There's no doubt that the Welsh
-wanted to unite under one King.
-This wasn't nationalism, in
-the contemporary sense of the word.
-But they were aware of Wales as
-a nation. This certainly existed.
-The idea of loyalty to one
-ruler wasn't such a ridiculous idea.
-Gruffudd ap Llywelyn,
-like the later Princes of Gwynedd...
-..could benefit from
-this feeling of national unity...
-..to create some kind of state.
-Gruffudd ap Llywelyn used violence
-to create a Welsh state of sorts.
-It can be argued that Hywel Dda
-was more than willing...
-..to use power when it was required.
-We shouldn't be fooled by the name
-Hywel Dda - Hywel the Good...
-he never used violence.
-There must have been
-a violent side to his rule.
-He used force to seize new lands.
-Here was a combination
-of soldier and leader.
-He had vision.
-Instead of seeking
-..he confirmed his authority,
-and that of his family, in Wales.
-But who made the wiser choice?
-Hywel Dda, who was prepared
-to bow to the English crown...
-..avoiding a destructive campaign
-by the English...
-..or Gruffudd ap Llywelyn -
-an unusually ambitious man...
-..who not only killed
-his Welsh enemies...
-conquered parts of England.
-S4C Subtitles by GWEAD