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-By the mid 12th century...
-..the Welsh Princes were still
-fighting the old enemy, the Normans.
-For 40 years, Gruffudd ap Cynan
-kept them out of the north.
-He also managed to maintain peace.
-By the end of Gruffudd's life,
-his son, Owain Gwynedd...
-..was ready to extend his kingdom
-at the expense of the Normans.
-A year before Gruffudd's death,
-..the Norman Lord of Ceredigion,
-Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare...
-..was murdered in a forest
-near Abergavenny by Welsh soldiers.
-The death of the powerful Norman...
-..was a turning point
-in 12th century Welsh history...
-..and marked the beginning
-of Owain Gwynedd's career.
-Richard de Clare's murder
-encouraged Owain Gwynedd...
-..and his brother, Cadwaladr -
-the sons of Gruffudd ap Cynan...
-..to attack and try to seize
-Ceredigion from the Normans.
-For the next twenty years...
-..Owain Gwynedd loosened
-the Normans' grip on Wales.
-As a direct result, the Welsh
-Princes' power grew substantially.
-The attack on Ceredigion was
-the brothers' first campaign.
-Killing Richard de Clare
-was a key event.
-His family were so powerful
-in south Wales.
-Owain Gwynedd was the greatest
-of the Gwynedd Princes.
-He was the main ruler in Gwynedd...
-..from 1130 to his death in 1170.
-During that 40-year period,
-Gwynedd's power base grew.
-It was undoubtedly the most powerful
-of the Welsh principalities.
-Owain Gwynedd was born in 1109.
-He fathered more than 20 children.
-According to popular legend,
-his son, Madog, discovered America.
-Owain's reign is remarkable
-for his battles with the Normans.
-They had established themselves
-in England since the 1066 conquest.
-Henry I was now the King.
-During Owain Gwynedd's initial
-campaigns against the Normans...
-..many of their castles were burnt.
-Aberystwyth and Caerwedros.
-The Normans were finally overcome
-by the Welsh...
-..in the fierce Crug Mawr battle
-According to Brut Y Tywysogion...
-..Owain and Cadwaladr
-returned to Gwynedd...
-having secured a noble victory.'
-This laid the foundations
-of Owain Gwynedd's successful reign.
-The Normans were unaccustomed
-to being challenged.
-Owain Gwynedd's early battles...
-..dealt a heavy blow
-to their authority in Wales.
-It was possibly the greatest blow
-to them throughout Britain...
-..since they arrived
-in Hastings in 1066.
-This revived the power
-of the Welsh Princes.
-Owain Gwynedd was also motivated...
-..by the ascension to the English
-throne of a new King.
-When Henry I died, his nephew,
-Stephen was crowned King.
-Their policies differed greatly.
-Henry tried hard
-to maintain control over the Welsh.
-his supporters and relatives.
-He penalized Welsh Princes
-and caused rifts amongst them.
-Henry I was determined...
-..that the Welsh Lords and Princes
-should acknowledge his superiority.
-This was his main aim.
-He made sure of this
-throughout his reign.
-This can be seen in numerous ways.
-his supporters and relatives...
-..to the status of Marcher Lords.
-He placed a Norman, Bishop Bernard,
-in St David's....
-..and founded the King's
-Administrative Centre in Carmarthen.
-This is how Carmarthen became...
-..the centre of Norman and English
-governance in south Wales.
-However many minor Welsh Lords...
-..were perfectly happy
-with Henry's regime.
-On the whole, they willingly
-accepted his superiority.
-in return for the cooperation...
-to leave them alone...
-..as long as there was
-no threat from Wales.
-When Henry I's nephew, Stephen,
-ascended to the throne...
-..he had a serious family problem -
-Matilda, the King's daughter.
-He had to defend his throne
-against Empress Matilda...
-..who believed she should have
-succeeded her father.
-Stephen was too preoccupied
-to worry about Wales.
-The English Crown
-loosened its grip on Wales.
-A new wave of Welsh Princes appeared
-by the end of Henry I's life...
-..notably Owain, Gruffudd ap Cynan's
-son, from Gwynedd.
-But although Owain
-was chosen to succeed his father...
-..his younger brother, Cadwaladr,
-was a very real threat to Owain.
-Cadwaladr's status was reflected
-in the many lands he owned.
-Half of Ceredigion,
-Merioneth and Anglesey.
-But in his quest for more land
-and his wish to oust his brother...
-..Cadwaladr was exiled
-from all of his lands...
-..by Owain Gwynedd's sons -
-Hywel and Cynan.
-Cadwaladr fled to England
-and was protected by the King.
-A Prince's family could be as much,
-if not more of a problem...
-..than an external enemy, another
-Prince, or the King of England.
-Keeping the peace within the family
-was very difficult.
-As a result of these
-family problems, Owain knew...
-..that the status of a medieval
-Welsh Prince was precarious.
-He was quite prepared
-to deal ruthlessly...
-who might undermine his status.
-He blinded and castrated his nephew,
-..before he became
-too much of a threat.
-A would-be Prince, without eyes or
-testicles, was no threat to anyone.
-Anyone who reads
-medieval Welsh history...
-..particularly in Norman times,
-will realize how bloody it was.
-There's a reason why so many
-were castrated and blinded.
-A disabled person had no right
-to rule or inherit land.
-The Princes deliberately maimed
-They blinded them.
-A blind brother
-couldn't inherit a kingdom.
-But according to Hywel's Law, the
-brother's children could inherit.
-So they took a further step.
-castrated their brothers...
-..as well as blinding them, ensuring
-that they'd never have children.
-Artist Ifor Davies portrays
-every Prince in the series.
-This is Owain Gwynedd.
-He fought against the Normans.
-I want to draw a line...
-..which represents the Prince's
-shadow as he stands there.
-The idea is to portray
-Owain Gwynedd as a distant memory.
-Someone who moves around...
-..waving a banner of the dragon
-in the air.
-There's one line there.
-Another line comes down,
-and the third comes across.
-In the meantime, Owain wanted
-to extend his kingdom eastwards...
-..towards Chester and Powys.
-In Powys, he had to battle
-against his brother-in-law...
-..Madog ap Maredudd.
-Owain seized Cwmwd Ial, the land
-between Ruthin and Wrexham.
-He built Tomen y Rhodwydd castle
-..to defend his new lands.
-The ruins are amongst the best motte
-and bailey castles in north Wales.
-It was built by Owain Gwynedd.
-Iorwerth Goch - Iorwerth the Red -
-set fire to it eight years later.
-But the earthwork
-was constructed so well...
-..that King John was still
-able to use it 50 years later.
-It's a great opportunity
-We can dig to see
-whether the historical story...
-..matches the archaeological story
-we get from the earth.
-The castle looks across
-Owain wanted to extend his kingdom
-to the outskirts of Chester.
-From his hilltop castle, he could
-observe people in the valley below.
-That's why he built it here.
-Unfortunately for him,
-the Powys Princes disapproved.
-They repelled him
-and burnt down his castle.
-There was a constant conflict
-between Gwynedd and Powys.
-Madog ap Maredudd,
-..and the last Prince
-of a united Powys...
-..wanted the King of England's
-support to protect his kingdom...
-..from Owain's ambition.
-But Owain defeated
-..in the ferocious battle
-of Coleshill, Flint.
-Madog proved to be
-a difficult leader to beat.
-It was only
-when Madog was in his grave...
-decided to attack Powys.
-He wanted to seize the remainder
-of that kingdom too.
-Stephen's marred reign
-as King of England...
-..had paved the way
-for Owain to seize more land.
-It was a different story
-when Henry II ascended the throne.
-He was a far more powerful King
-He was determined to restore
-the supremacy of the English Crown.
-Henry wasn't just
-the King of England.
-Before he came to the throne, he
-owned many lands on the continent...
-..including Anjou and Aquitaine
-When Henry II became King of England
-in 1154, his authority extended...
-..from the Cheviot Hills on the
-Scottish border, to the Pyrenees.
-He was Lord of half of France,
-as well as England.
-Compared with Henry's lands, Owain
-Gwynedd's kingdom seemed tiny...
-from the Dee to the Dovey rivers.
-But England's new King
-didn't dismiss Owain...
-..as an insignificant Prince
-whom he could ignore.
-Henry was determined to restore
-the rights of the English Crown...
-..in Wales as well as England.
-He mounted major military campaigns
-against Wales to achieve his goal.
-As he assembled his army...
-..he turned to a number
-of Welsh Lords for support.
-They were Owain Gwynedd's enemies...
-..especially his exiled
-brother - Cadwaladr...
-..and brothers Madog ap Maredudd
-from Powys and Iorwerth Goch.
-There's a tendency to view
-the ruling family of Powys...
-to the national cause.
-They often sided
-with the King of England...
-..against the rulers of Gwynedd.
-But such an interpretation
-is rather anachronistic.
-Of course, Powys's weakness
-was its geographical vulnerability.
-The King of England
-or a Baron of the Marches...
-..could easily lead an army
-into the Powys heartland.
-Gwynedd had the geographical
-defences that Powys lacked.
-That was the reason why Powys
-tended to side with England.
-Madog ap Maredudd was a powerful
-figure in Powys at this time.
-He was buried
-in the ancient church of Meifod.
-This gravestone dates back
-to the 11th century.
-The Scandinavian-Celtic engravings
-represent sin being vanquished.
-Madog ap Maredudd
-was highly respected.
-He appears in Mabinogi stories.
-Poets pay tribute
-to his generosity and bravery.
-To say that he, from time to time...
-..and even more so, his followers...
-..preferred to turn to England
-for support against Gwynedd...
-..doesn't mean they were traitors.
-to retain stability in Powys.
-If you come from Powys,
-that's a reasonable standpoint.
-Aided by Powys Princes...
-..Henry attacked Gwynedd
-from two directions.
-The King's army
-marched into Flintshire.
-The English were overcome...
-..in a battle against Owain's sons -
-Dafydd and Cynan...
-..in Coleshill forest, near Flint.
-They suffered great losses.
-Henry managed to escape
-and he moved on to Rhuddlan.
-There was another battle
-with Owain's army in that area.
-It was a brave strategy.
-Owain defended his new lands in
-..instead of retreating
-..to seek solace in the mountains.
-But Henry attacked a second time.
-This time, in Anglesey.
-The naval campaign wasn't a success.
-Actually, it was a disaster.
-Many of the sailors were killed.
-Gerald of Wales later offered
-a reason for the disaster.
-Soldiers had desecrated
-churches in Anglesey.
-The Saints sought their revenge.
-Despite the failed naval attack...
-..and the King's failure
-to defeat Owain in battle...
-..Henry won the war.
-The Prince was forced to kneel
-before the King...
-..yield lands in north-east Wales...
-..and return parts of Gwynedd
-to his brother, Cadwaladr.
-The period of expansion was over,
-at least for the time being.
-But Owain didn't give up
-..of strengthening his lineage, and
-becoming the Ruler of north Wales.
-He took advantage
-of Powys's weakness...
-..after Madog ap Maredudd's death.
-That's when the days
-of a united Powys ended.
-Madog's sons and nephews fought
-amongst each other over the lands.
-Owain took advantage
-of the situation.
-He seized some of Madog's land.
-But Owain couldn't ignore
-Henry II's strength.
-Owain, Rhys ap Gruffudd
-from Deheubarth - Lord Rhys...
-..and Malcolm IV,
-King of Scotland...
-..were summoned to the King's Palace
-in Woodstock, Oxford.
-They were forced
-to swear allegiance to Henry.
-But by October,
-Owain began to rebel again.
-He challenged Henry...
-..by opening discussions
-with Louis VII of France...
-..Henry II's arch enemy.
-Owain intended to form an alliance
-to oppose the King of England.
-Louis, like Owain,
-was Henry II's enemy.
-They shared a common interest.
-Owain wanted the King of France's
-support against Henry.
-It didn't amount to much
-on a practical level.
-But it demonstrates Owain's vision.
-He took advantage
-of a broader political conflict...
-..in the hope of safeguarding
-his status in Wales.
-Owain confirmed his status
-during a major rebellion in Wales.
-Owain's nephew, Rhys ap Gruffudd
-or Lord Rhys, led the rebellion.
-But it's obvious that Owain too
-challenged the King's authority.
-Henry reacted with the greatest
-campaign ever against Wales.
-Henry began preparing
-for war in November, 1164.
-By the following summer,
-he'd raised thousands of pounds...
-..to pay for hundreds of foot
-soldiers - many from the continent.
-He secured a fleet of ships
-..although they arrived
-too late for the campaign.
-He had weapons,
-tonnes of corn and other foods.
-The King intended to destroy
-the whole of Wales.
-Owain was waiting for him
-here in Corwen.
-His brother Cadwaladr was at his
-side. They were friends by now.
-The Princes of Powys and Deheubarth
-were here to support Owain.
-This broad support is significant.
-It proves Owain was more
-than the Prince of Gwynedd.
-He was a national leader.
-On one level, the history
-of the Welsh Princes at this time...
-..was a series of inner conflicts.
-An attempt of one
-to stamp his authority on another.
-But on more than one occasion...
-..Welsh leaders were prepared
-to unite behind one leader...
-..if they thought that he could
-win lands and privileges...
-..from the Crown
-and the Marcher Lords.
-The two armies converged
-on the Berwyn mountains...
-..from Oswestry and Corwen.
-The forest route
-taken by Henry II's army...
-..is known to this day
-as 'English Road.'
-Before Henry's army moved north...
-..he'd managed to seize
-a number of hostages...
-..including two of Owain Gwynedd's
-sons - Rhys and Cadwaladr.
-to the harsh Berwyn highlands...
-..almost 2,000 feet above sea level
-proved disastrous, even in August.
-Wales' geography favoured the Welsh.
-Much of the land
-was covered in forests.
-It was mountainous.
-Leading an army into Wales
-took some doing.
-Henry II faced a crisis
-in the Berwyn range.
-He was almost defeated here.
-Caught in a raging storm,
-the army's food rations ran out.
-They had no choice but to retreat
-and head for the English plains.
-To Owain and the Welsh,
-this was a miraculous deliverance.
-God had answered their prayers.
-But the King was furious.
-He blinded and castrated
-Rhys and Cadwaladr, Owain's sons...
-..and many other hostages.
-This was done, it's claimed,
-by Henry himself.
-A few months after his Berwyn
-defeat, Henry sailed to France...
-..where he remained for four years.
-Despite the preparations
-and the expense...
-..he failed to conquer Owain.
-As a result, Henry didn't stage
-another campaign against the Welsh.
-It's easy to view medieval society
-as uncivilized and cruel.
-But culture was also important -
-as it is today.
-The Court Poets
-flourished during this time.
-But it's important to remember that
-literature was a political weapon.
-One of the era's most popular and
-influential pieces of literature...
-..was a Latin book,
-'Historia Regum Britanniae'.
-The History of the British Kings.
-The author, Geoffrey of Monmouth...
-..recounted the heroic feats of the
-Brythonic forefathers of the Welsh.
-The book's hero was King Arthur.
-Perhaps it's no coincidence...
-located Arthur's court in Caerleon.
-The Welsh had recently seized
-the Roman town.
-The Britons' descendants.
-we can summarize the book's theme.
-On the one hand, Arthur displays
-all of the qualities of the Britons.
-On the other hand,
-he must concede...
-..that in Arthur's day, the fateful
-battle against the English was lost.
-Arthur was killed. But Arthur,
-too, symbolizes our rebirth.
-Geoffrey of Monmouth portrayed him
-as Arthur of the Britons.
-That's why it's such
-an important book to the Welsh.
-Geoffrey turned Arthur
-into a international hero.
-His book shows how the Norman
-conquerors in Owain Gwynedd's day...
-..stole Welsh traditions, and
-adapted them to their own purposes.
-for an Anglo-Norman audience.
-To a lesser degree,
-they can be called Cambro-Norman.
-..he wrote to gain the attention
-of these influential people.
-That was probably his intention.
-The idea of the Welsh
-being descendants of the Britons...
-..was a crucial element
-of their culture.
-The Britons once reigned
-over most of Britain.
-In Owain Gwynedd's day,
-people still believed Arthur...
-..King of the Britons,
-would rise again...
-..and oust the conquerors
-from the land.
-The poets perpetuated
-this powerful ideology.
-Many wrote verses
-about Owain Gwynedd.
-He was portrayed
-as Arthur's rightful successor...
-..and the old Brythonic
-and Welsh Kings.
-Owain Gwynedd is the first
-of the Gwynedd Princes...
-in poetry and epic poems.
-Gwalchmai ap Meilir wrote about him.
-Gwalchmai's father, Meilir...
-..paid homage to Owain's father,
-Gruffudd ap Cynan.
-The greatest Poet of the Princes
-wrote a poem about him.
-Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr.
-"I praise a generous man,
-who leads glorious campaigns
-who leads his warriors
-"A wolf, who rises to the challenge"
-From reading these poems,
-comparing and contrasting them...
-..it's obvious that Owain's prowess
-and ability as a soldier...
-..impressed his contemporaries.
-That's the principal element
-in the poems.
-To a degree,
-Owain Gwynedd is seen as a hero...
-..just like the leaders
-of the Old North settlements.
-The heroic element
-matches the sixth century eulogies.
-It runs through
-the poems to Owain Gwynedd too.
-This period is considered the
-Golden Age of our early literature.
-The Gogynfeirdd, the court poets,
-reflect a growing confidence...
-..as the Welsh Princes
-succeeded against the Normans.
-The poets were important members
-of the Princes' courts.
-They praised the Princes.
-They confirmed their status
-as leaders of Wales.
-We can see how important they were
-by the gifts the Princes gave them.
-Cynddelw boasts about receiving
-a purple and red costume...
-..royal colours at that time...
-..which set the wearer apart
-from the rest.
-as we look back on these poets...
-because they received payment...
-..that the praise poems
-were a form of false flattery.
-We tend to see them
-as medieval arse lickers...
-..spouting what the Prince
-expected them to say.
-But it's important to remember that
-poets had a certain authority...
-..that allowed them to go as far
-as to criticize the Prince.
-They were important men...
-..who were aware of their influence
-and constantly emphasized this.
-Cynddelw often said to Owain
-Gwynedd or Madog ap Maredudd...
-"..You're no-one without me,
-and I'm no-one without you."
-It was a mutually dependent
-"Let my world be enhanced through
-you, defender of your soldiers
-"I hope that I enhance your world"
-This is when the legends,
-known today as The Mabinogi...
-..were first recorded.
-They were recorded
-in the 14th century...
-..in The White Book of Rhydderch
-and The Red Book of Hergest.
-When we consider
-Owain Gwynedd's era...
-..we must remember
-it was a very productive period...
-..for the composition
-of poetry and prose.
-Our medieval prose was preserved
-in later manuscripts.
-They include The Mabinogion...
-..the best known
-of our medieval legends.
-There were also translations
-But even though
-the tales of The Mabinogion...
-..appear in manuscript form
-..it's obvious they belong
-to a much earlier period.
-The original scripts were written
-in the late 11th century.
-There are historical figures -
-for instance Caswallon.
-But Rhiannon and Bendigeidfran
-derive from Celtic mythology.
-The eleven legends are a strange
-mixture of history, mythology...
-..and traditional legends.
-Elements of legends
-found all over Europe.
-in Europe at this time...
-..was the growth of towns
-as social units.
-Today, Trelleck, not far
-from Monmouth, is a quiet village.
-But this was one of Wales's
-largest towns in the Middle Ages.
-The development began during
-Owain Gwynedd's reign.
-Newport University archaeologists
-have been digging here.
-Archaeological work has been
-carried out here for years.
-They've concluded that an ironworks
-was founded here.
-That's why the town
-became one of the largest in Wales.
-This is the key to it all.
-The ironworks was founded when
-Trelleck fell into the hands...
-..of the de Clare family.
-This was an important family.
-They had land in Glamorgan,
-in England and Ireland.
-They were the Lords of Glamorgan.
-It was very important.
-I think the ironworks in Trelleck
-..to support the war in Glamorgan.
-That's how it worked.
-We're looking for a road
-that led in and out of Trelleck.
-We want to discover
-how often the road was rebuilt...
-..and what the road surface
-was made of.
-Nearby, there are ironworks.
-They used slack from the ironworks
-to surface the road...
-..so that carts
-could travel along it.
-People have been digging here
-for 18 years.
-They've found houses
-and the lay-out of the town.
-This year, they've worked on
-specific research questions.
-The road in and out of the village.
-There's a building at the far end
-that is similar to a brewery.
-It has a well nearby.
-We're looking for anything
-that was close to the water.
-We've found glass,
-medieval pottery and lots of stone.
-We think the rocks will form
-a semi-circle here.
-People tell us a stone staircase
-will lead up there.
-We haven't had a chance to look yet.
-OK, one piece coming out.
-Oh, it's marked, too. That's really
-nice. That's very nice indeed.
-As Trelleck grew...
-..Wales came under the influence
-of new European cultures...
-..especially in architecture.
-We know Gruffudd ap Cynan
-built churches in Gwynedd.
-There are more than twenty
-12th century churches on Anglesey...
-..in the Romanesque style.
-St Seiriol Church, Penmon, was built
-in Gruffudd ap Cynan's era.
-But it was completed
-during Owain Gwynedd's reign.
-They added the tower and transepts.
-Owain Gwynedd was prepared
-to broaden his horizons...
-continental Romanesque architecture.
-He created a new visual culture
-Romanesque is the word we use
-to describe a Roman-style building.
-It's as simple as that.
-We don't use the word
-to describe classical work.
-They recreated the Roman style
-in the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries.
-The main feature
-is the semi-circular arches.
-There's one on the south side
-here in Penmon.
-Usually, the arches rest on heavy,
-round, solid columns.
-It's a dignified style.
-But what I find rather strange,
-as you can see here...
-..there's a decorative element
-on the arches and columns.
-They're very lively -
-almost disorderly sometimes.
-It's like a combination of elements.
-The decorative arch in Aberffraw
-is also in the Romanesque style.
-It was built around the same time.
-It's important to remember...
-..that Aberffraw was part of the
-main court of the Gwynedd Princes.
-Owain Gwynedd's brother, Idwal,
-was an abbot in Penmon.
-It shows a connection between
-royalty and the Church in Penmon...
-..in the 12th century.
-There are smaller, less important
-churches on Anglesey...
-..that are influenced
-by the Romanesque style.
-The tiny Llanbabo Church
-is an example.
-It's quite possible that English
-or French stonemasons...
-..worked in Gwynedd in Owain's day.
-Either that, or new churches
-were built and decorated...
-..by Welsh people who had learnt
-their trade beyond Offa's Dyke.
-The continental connection proves...
-wasn't the only element...
-..in the Welsh-Anglo-Norman
-In addition to fiercely
-opposing the conquerors...
-..Owain Gwynedd willingly borrowed
-from them culturally.
-Following the disastrous failure
-of Henry II's campaigns...
-..on Anglesey and Berwyn...
-..Owain Gwynedd was undoubtedly
-the most powerful Welsh leader...
-..in the 12th century.
-His status was a foretaste
-of his descendants' power.
-Llywelyn the Great and Llywelyn
-the Last a century later.
-Owain was fully aware
-of his special status in later life.
-He's the first known leader
-to use the title, Prince of Wales...
-..or Prince of the Welsh.
-He used the title in correspondence
-with the King of France...
-..the Archbishop of Canterbury
-and the Pope.
-This may seem a backward step.
-Why relinquish the title King - Rex?
-The title 'King'
-had been devalued in Wales.
-Leaders of minor territories
-called themselves Kings.
-The title 'King'
-disappears from Wales.
-Chroniclers, charter writers
-chose an alternative title...
-..Princeps - Prince.
-The main leader.
-But curiously, although there were
-four or five kingdoms in Wales...
-..it's only in two
-that the title 'Princeps' was used.
-Mainly in Gwynedd, where Owain
-Gwynedd occasionally used it...
-..Princeps Nord Walia...
-..or even Princeps Walarium,
-Prince of the Welsh...
-..rather than the territorial,
-and more defiant, 'Prince of Wales'.
-But the term means
-he is the leader of the Welsh.
-The fact Gwynedd kept for itself
-the title, 'Prince'...
-..sets out Gwynedd as the exception
-by Llywelyn the Great's day...
-..in the early 13th century.
-That's part of the process
-of turning the Prince of Gwynedd...
-..into the Prince of Wales.
-It was the main theme of Welsh
-politics in the 13th century.
-In calling himself 'Prince'...
-..it's possible Owain
-wanted to defy the principle...
-..that every Welsh ruler should
-be loyal to the King of England.
-Owain, not Henry II,
-was now the ruler of the Welsh.
-Owain's decision to use a new title
-displays his willingness...
-..to use creative devices
-to strengthen his status.
-The same defiance was shown when
-he sought an alliance with France.
-Owain was the first Welsh Prince to
-turn to the continent for support.
-In his letters to Louis VII...
-..Owain said that divine
-intervention delivered Wales...
-..from Henry's oppression after
-his failures in Anglesey and Berwyn.
-Owain feared that Henry planned to
-lead another campaign against him.
-He pleaded with Louis
-to attack Henry.
-During this time,
-Owain had problems with the Pope...
-..and Thomas Beckett -
-the Archbishop of Canterbury.
-He ends one letter asking Louis to
-plead his case with the Churchmen.
-Owain had annoyed Beckett
-and the Pope for two reasons.
-Firstly, Owain refused to accept
-the Archbishop should decide...
-..who would be
-the new Bishop in Bangor.
-Bishop Meurig died in 1162.
-Owain was determined to appoint
-someone he found acceptable.
-But Beckett didn't accept that.
-As Archbishop of Canterbury,
-he felt he had authority over Wales.
-He believed he should have
-the last word.
-Beckett and the Pope were
-displeased by Owain's marriage...
-..to his cousin, Cristin,
-his mother's niece.
-The relationship was far too close,
-according to the Law of the Church.
-But Beckett raised the matter again.
-He insisted Owain
-had to separate from Cristin...
-..because the marriage
-was contrary to Church rule.
-The Pope supported Beckett.
-It's remarkable that Owain refused.
-Although Owain had fathered children
-by several wives...
-..his marriage was important to him.
-Unlike Beckett, the Pope,
-and Bishop Meurig earlier...
-..it's unlikely Owain considered
-marrying his cousin to be illegal.
-The Normans were harshly critical
-of Welsh marriage rules...
-..based on the Wives' Law,
-in Hywel Dda's Laws.
-Gerald of Wales criticized the Welsh
-for marrying their cousins.
-He based his argument on Norman Law,
-..which stated people
-couldn't marry close relatives.
-They couldn't even marry
-a distant relative.
-The fact the Welsh married
-their cousins was an outrage.
-The Welsh were accused of incest.
-Owain refused to divorce Cristin...
-..contrary to the Pope and
-Archbishop of Canterbury's wishes.
-He was excommunicated shortly
-before his death, in November, 1170.
-was given an honourable burial...
-..near the altar
-at Bangor Cathedral.
-The Bangor clerics were loyal
-to their Prince to the very end.
-introduced some innovations...
-..primarily he was a warrior seeking
-to protect his family and lineage.
-In one sense, he failed.
-He couldn't ensure that only one
-successor would be acknowledged...
-..as a Prince who could secure
-the unity of Gwynedd.
-Owain chose his son Hywel ab Owain
-as his successor.
-He was a famous poet too.
-He was the son of an Irish woman,
-not Cristin, Owain's wife.
-But Cristin's sons, nor Cristin
-herself, weren't happy with this.
-Hywel was killed in a battle
-in Pentraeth, Anglesey...
-..soon after his father died
-at the end of 1170.
-There was a problem.
-There was no acknowledged
-method of choosing a successor.
-Many sons of Princes felt they had
-the right to succeed the father.
-A 30-year civil war
-or internal conflict...
-..broke out between Owain's sons
-and then the grandsons.
-They fought to be
-his successor in Gwynedd.
-It's only through the ascension
-of his grandson...
-..Llywelyn ap Iorwerth that
-this turbulent time came to an end.
-Owain laid down the firm foundation
-of Gwynedd as a principality.
-It led to the supremacy of Llywelyn
-the Great and Llywelyn the Last.
-But in the short-term...
-..the unity he and his father,
-Gruffudd ap Cynan, established...
-In the meantime...
-..there was only one united
-and powerful principality in Wales.
-Lord Rhys's Deheubarth.
-S4/C Subtitles by GWEAD