Episode 2 Trust Me, I'm a Doctor


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Episode 2

The team see whether coconut oil can cut cholesterol, discover how much fruit is too much and investigate a sleep disorder that causes up to 40,000 road accidents a year.


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Transcript


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When it comes to our health, it seems everyone has an opinion.

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But what's the health advice you can really trust?

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We're here to weigh up the evidence

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and use our expertise to guide you

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through the contradictions and confusions.

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We do research no-one else has done

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and put your health at the heart of what we do.

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We listen to the questions you want answered

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and ensure you get the information you need.

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We're here when you want to know the latest findings

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and not the latest fads.

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I am Michael Moseley, and in this series I'm joined by a team of doctors.

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Together, we'll cut through the hype, the headlines,

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and the health claims.

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This is Trust Me, I'm A Doctor.

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Hello and welcome to Trust Me.

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This time, we're coming from Cambridge

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where we're carrying out the largest study ever done in the UK

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looking at the impact of coconut oil on cholesterol levels.

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Could it really be healthier than butter

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and even cut our risk of heart disease?

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Absolutely wonderful.

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Also, what can genetic testing kits really tell you?

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What can you do about losing your hearing?

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It's not just learning a skill, it is brain training.

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And, how much fruit is too much?

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But first...

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Sales of coconut oil are absolutely rocketing because of health claims.

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We're spending £16 million a year on it,

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an astonishing 70 times more than just six years ago.

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Coconut oil is a so-called superfood.

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Its enthusiasts claim it will cure everything

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from bad breath to digestive disorders.

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You can even use it as a moisturiser.

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But perhaps the most surprising claim is that eating this stuff can

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cut your risk of heart disease by reducing your cholesterol levels.

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If true, could coconut oil be a healthier

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yet equally tasty substitute for butter?

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Some people claim the reason coconut oil is good for your heart

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is because it reduces levels of harmful cholesterol.

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Others say that's nonsense, it RAISES cholesterol.

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Claims based on the fact it's more than 80% saturated fat -

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more even than butter.

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So is coconut oil a cholesterol-busting wonder food?

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Or is this all simply dangerous hype?

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To find out, we've teamed up with the University of Cambridge

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to run a ground-breaking experiment.

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We've recruited nearly 100 volunteers, who are all over 50,

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to test what effect eating coconut oil compared to other fats

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will have on their cholesterol.

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We're splitting our volunteers into three groups.

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Every day for four weeks, group one will eat 50g of coconut oil.

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That's about two tablespoons.

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Group two will have 50g of olive oil,

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a fat that is known to lower harmful cholesterol.

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Group three will eat 50g of butter a day which,

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like coconut oil, is high in saturated fat.

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Helping us run the study are Professor Katie Koor and Professor Nita Forouhi.

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They're going to be looking closely at two different types of cholesterol.

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LDL cholesterol is the bad cholesterol

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and it's linked with increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

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So hold on to that, LDL is bad.

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There's also another type of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol.

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And that is supposed to be good

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because it takes away the bad LDL cholesterol.

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OK, so I was always taught saturated fat raises LDL levels.

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We know that coconut oil is rich in saturated fat,

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so presumably it's bad for your heart.

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Yes, that's why it's so surprising that there are so many health claims

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that coconut oil is good for your heart.

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Also, it's now marketed on a large scale and so we really need to know

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what the health effects are in the British population.

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Before our volunteers start their oily regime,

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we're taking baseline levels of both types of cholesterol -

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the bad LDL and the good HDL.

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We'll repeat these measurements at the end of our trial.

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Every day for four weeks,

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our volunteers have to incorporate their 50g of oil or butter

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into their diet in whatever way they choose.

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Shot!

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Mmm-mmm-mmm.

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Jacket potato, it's got some butter on it.

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A month later, and our volunteers are back.

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So, what happened?

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Hi everyone!

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-Hello!

-Hello, thank you very much for coming along.

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Want to knock back a pint of fat before we get going?

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-ALL:

-No!

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OK, results time.

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CHEERING

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Well for LDL cholesterol, which is the cholesterol

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that's associated with increased risk of heart disease,

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the people who were taking butter on average increased their

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LDL cholesterol by 0.3 millimoles per litre which is about 10%.

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Right, so the poor old butter group, their heart disease risk went up,

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but in a way that was kind of completely predictable, correct?

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-Yes.

-And when you stop having that butter, it reverts again.

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On the olive oil,

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there was a very small average reduction, not significant,

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so essentially, no difference in LDL cholesterol on the olive oil diet.

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OK, so now for the big one, coconut oil.

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Well, LDL cholesterol for coconut oil went down by .09 millimoles

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per litre, so no overall increase in LDL cholesterol...

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CHEERING

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..which was really a big surprise for us, and not in line

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with what we've come to believe from previous studies.

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So butter raised LDL and olive oil did not.

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Both as expected.

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But, surprisingly, neither did coconut oil,

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which is high in saturated fat.

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The fact that it didn't is really, really surprising.

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We also measured HDL cholesterol, which is the good cholesterol.

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And we found that coconut oil increased your good cholesterol,

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HDL cholesterol, more than olive oil and butter.

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Butter and olive oil both raised good cholesterol by about 5%,

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but coconut oil raised it by an impressive 14%.

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And because it helps remove the bad stuff,

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the more good cholesterol you have, compared to bad,

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broadly, the better.

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So in our study coconut oil did not raise bad cholesterol,

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despite being high in saturated fat,

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and it also seemed to increase good cholesterol.

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So I must admit, I found that surprising,

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the idea that you can eat something that's rich in saturated fat

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and your LDL levels don't go up. Why?

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One explanation is that coconut oil is rich in lauric acid,

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which may be processed in the body differently from

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other saturated fatty acids.

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So I guess the message from it is not all saturated fats are the same

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and it is possible that some saturated fats are actually beneficial.

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Within saturated fats there are actually probably good

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-and bad saturated fats.

-And the art is identifying the good ones.

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-That's the challenge.

-So, watch this space.

-Yes.

-Yes.

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Further studies are needed to find out the long-term effects

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of coconut oil on health,

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but our results were unexpectedly good.

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So I'm not going to be glugging it by the litre,

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but I'm certainly going to be using it more in my cooking.

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A staggering 40,000 road accidents a year are thought to be caused

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by people falling asleep at the wheel

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due to a medical condition they don't even know they have.

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GP Dr Zoe Williams has been finding out how to recognise it

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and what you can do about it.

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Around 1.5 million people in the UK

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are thought to have sleep apnoea, a condition that can seriously

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deprive you of sleep, sometimes without you even knowing.

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Sleep apnoea causes its sufferers to temporarily stop breathing whilst asleep.

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So people will fall asleep, stop breathing, wake up,

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and start breathing again.

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Over and over, sometimes hundreds of times each night.

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Surprisingly, all this can happen without the person being aware of it.

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But it can lead to you falling asleep during the day,

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sometimes with devastating consequences.

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Nearly 12 years ago, lorry driver Colin Wrighton had a tragic accident.

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I just looked out my window and saw this pile-up.

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Said to myself, "Oh, what happened here?"

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Not realising that it was, it was me that had caused it.

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Colin had fallen asleep at the wheel

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and his lorry ploughed into a line of stationary traffic.

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25-year-old Toby Tweddell lost his life in the collision.

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Initially they obviously thought, oh, had I been drinking?

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Had I been on drugs? Had I been using my telephone?

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You know, all these went through their mind,

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and that's what they were thinking.

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Going back three months before this accident happened,

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I'd gone to my doctor and asked him why do I keep feeling tired

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more than normal. It was, it was hard to explain cos

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I didn't feel tired, but I was sort of tired.

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And he said, "Oh, you might be diabetic,

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"we'll send you for blood tests or your cholesterol might be out."

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And they all came back, nothing wrong with me.

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If the doctor had known about sleep apnoea,

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if they had sent me to a sleep clinic,

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then that accident would never have happened.

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The condition is often missed or misdiagnosed.

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Sleep expert Dr David Jones

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began to suspect this might be what was wrong with Colin.

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First, Colin completed a simple questionnaire

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to assess his likelihood of nodding off during the day

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in certain situations, like reading a book,

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watching TV, or in a meeting.

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This gave Colin a score of 20 out of 24

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on what's known as the Epworth sleepiness scale.

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So David did a sleep study overnight at the hospital to observe Colin.

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David's repeating that test to demonstrate Colin's problem.

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Here we can see that Colin has stopped breathing.

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There's no air flow.

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We can see that he has started to try and get some air flow here,

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and here he's woken up and is recovering

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and this is the thing which causes him to be

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waking up during the night and coming through and being

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very, very tired when he wakes up in the morning.

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Colin has obstructive sleep apnoea.

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When he's sleeping, he can stop breathing up to 70 times an hour.

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When Colin's awake, his airways open and he can breathe normally.

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But when he goes to sleep, like many of the muscles in his body,

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those in his neck relax,

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and that means the weight of his neck can push down

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on the airway and obstruct it. That means he can breathe any more.

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Once the brain detects that he's not breathing,

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it forces him awake so that he starts breathing again.

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You're more likely to have sleep apnoea

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if you're overweight, male, and over 40.

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A large neck or recessed jaw also increases your risk.

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As well as constant tiredness,

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the telltale symptoms include waking up with a dry mouth,

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or headache, and snoring.

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Losing weight may reduce the severity of your sleep apnoea,

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but what else can you do?

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The gold standard treatment is a CPAP machine.

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This is a little machine, this one.

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And this sits on the bedside and it blows air through a tube,

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through a mask, which fits on the patient's face...

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-OK.

-..and enables them to keep breathing,

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nice and evenly and steadily throughout the whole night.

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People find huge positive benefits, completely life-changing.

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Being prescribed a CPAP machine transformed Colin's sleep patterns.

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And in the years since the accident, he's been campaigning

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to raise awareness of the condition that caused it.

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I want to make people realise it's a silent killer.

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It's all in memory of Toby

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and that's why I'm doing the campaigning.

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I think, I think what you do, Colin, from such a tragedy,

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if we make ten diagnoses for making this programme,

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-that will save lives.

-Yeah, it will.

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The DVLA recognises that with the proper treatment,

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sleep apnoea doesn't affect your ability to drive.

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So a diagnosis won't cost you your licence

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if you get the right medical care.

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GPs are improving at spotting the subtle signs of sleep apnoea,

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but we need to get even better at diagnosing this condition.

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The Epworth sleepiness scale is a simple questionnaire that you can do

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on your own or with your GP.

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So if you have any concerns about yours or your partner's

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daytime sleepiness, please, do go and see your GP.

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Still to come, what can genetic testing kits really tell you?

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And what can you do if you're losing your hearing?

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But first...

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Thousands of you have been sending in questions to the Trust Me website,

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and we've been finding answers to some of the more popular ones.

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Can eating a lot of fruit be bad for you?

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One for geneticist Giles Yeo.

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From an apple-a-day to the government's mantra of five-a-day,

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if there is one health message that's been drummed into us

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since we were kids, it's that eating fruit is good for us.

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But recently, the health headlines have been full of claims

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that challenge this long-held idea.

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That's because fruit has a high sugar content

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and, as we all know, too much sugar is bad for us.

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So is fruit nature's superfood or a sugary health hazard?

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A useful clue can be found at the zoo.

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In order to survive, animals, including us,

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have a rather pretty good sense about what is safe to eat.

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If it tastes bad, it generally means it's poisonous - avoid.

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If it tastes nice, however, like the fruit over here,

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it generally means it's good for you - eat loads.

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In fact, given the chance,

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most of the animal kingdom will happily gorge on fruit.

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That's because animals in the wild have to work hard for their food,

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and fruit packs a nutritional punch,

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giving them both sugar for energy and a dose of crucial vitamins.

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The trouble for us humans is,

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these days it's easy to get our hands on fruit,

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far more of it than our bodies need.

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But can it really do us any harm?

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Well, when it comes to overdosing on vitamins and minerals in fruit,

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the answer is generally "no".

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Our bodies can't store a lot of these nutrients from one day

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to the next, so if you have more than you need,

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you don't get any nutritional benefit from it,

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you simply wee it out.

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But what your body will hold on to is this stuff.

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Eat more of it than you need and you risk becoming overweight,

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which can lead to serious health problems.

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And fruit contains more than you might think.

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Let's compare an apple to a can of full-sugar fizzy drink.

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Typically, a regular-sized soft drink contains about

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seven to eight teaspoons of sugar.

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This apple contains four teaspoons of sugar.

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So have two apples,

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and you've taken in as much sugar as you've had in this can.

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That sugar comes mainly in two forms.

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One is glucose, your body's preferred source of energy,

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which goes straight into your bloodstream.

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The other is fructose, which is taken to your liver

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and if not needed, it's turned into fat.

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These are chemically identical to the sugars you get in junk food,

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so if you're not careful, they can cause you the same problems.

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Sugar is sugar and you're going to gain weight

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if you eat too much of it wherever it comes from.

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So how can you get all the health benefits of fruit

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without overdosing on sugar?

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Well, the first thing is to choose your fruits carefully.

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Gramme-for-gramme, bananas, cherries, pomegranates,

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mangoes, grapes, and figs all contain more than

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watermelon, raspberries, kiwi fruit, and fresh cranberries.

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The riper the fruit, the more sugar it contains,

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so try not to leave it lying around for too long.

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You should eat most of your fruit whole

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and no more than one glass of juice or smoothie,

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as digesting the fruit releases the sugar more slowly

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and avoids overloading your system with one big hit.

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Finally, don't neglect veg.

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There is no vitamin or mineral in fruit that you can't get from veg,

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in return for only a fraction of the sugar.

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While fruit is clearly healthy and natural,

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we need to resist the call of our genes

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and actually watch how much fruit, and therefore sugar, we eat.

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In this series of Trust Me,

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I've been investigating some of the most controversial health questions

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that have made the headlines in the decades

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that I've been a health journalist.

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To get to the bottom of them, I've lined up a series of experts

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with opposing views. This time, we're looking at genetic testing.

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There are plenty of DNA tests out there,

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which look into your genes and then offer you advice on

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what you should eat and how you should exercise, as well as

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telling you about your risks of developing things like cancer

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or Alzheimer's, but how reliable and useful are they?

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It's widely agreed that there are two important limitations

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to any form of genetic testing.

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First, most genetic conditions are not caused by changes

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in a single gene, but by several in combination.

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Secondly, the environment also has a huge influence on their effect.

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Given these constraints, are the testing kits

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consumers can buy really able to tell you anything useful?

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Craig Pickering is a sports scientist at one of the UK's

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biggest companies that sells home testing kits online,

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costing £100 to £250.

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He believes they can be a powerful tool for improving health.

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I've tried one that claims it can tell me all sorts

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of interesting things, like whether I'm lactose intolerant.

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I have the results of my DNA test here.

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So this says that I'm lactose tolerant.

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How confident are you in this result?

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So when we're talking about lactose intolerance,

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it's just one gene that we're looking at,

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so really, we're very, very confident, 100% confident,

0:19:390:19:41

that that version of that gene tells you

0:19:410:19:44

whether you can or can't digest lactose.

0:19:440:19:46

That is a single gene change, if you'd like, which you can detect,

0:19:460:19:49

but for most of this stuff, it isn't like that.

0:19:490:19:52

-It's much more complicated.

-We are certainly very confident

0:19:520:19:54

in the impact that we say it has,

0:19:540:19:56

but the context for the person will differ from situation to situation.

0:19:560:19:59

Why should I believe what's written down here?

0:19:590:20:02

Every gene that we test for,

0:20:020:20:04

we put that through a really rigorous scientific process, so

0:20:040:20:07

we look at all the research on it, it has to have a minimum of three

0:20:070:20:10

studies done on it, in humans, with a clear consensus of its effect.

0:20:100:20:14

Done on large numbers of people, so we can be as sure

0:20:140:20:17

and confident as we possibly can be that that gene has the effect

0:20:170:20:19

-that we say it does.

-Don't you think it should be done in proper

0:20:190:20:23

-professional hands, your GP for example?

-Yeah, I always agree,

0:20:230:20:26

I would love the NHS to offer genetic testing to everybody

0:20:260:20:29

to give them the ability to make lifestyle changes which will improve

0:20:290:20:32

their overall health, which then will have a knock-on effect of

0:20:320:20:35

reducing the burden on the National Health Service

0:20:350:20:37

-cos people will be much healthier.

-Thank you.

-Thanks.

0:20:370:20:40

Next, I'm meeting professor Frances Flinter, a clinical geneticist

0:20:400:20:44

at Guys & St Thomas Hospital. She's highly sceptical

0:20:440:20:48

of the benefits of consumer genetic testing kits.

0:20:480:20:51

So what do you think about these commercial DNA tests

0:20:520:20:56

you can buy which offer you advice on everything,

0:20:560:20:59

from how you should exercise to what you should eat?

0:20:590:21:02

I think we all know we should eat more fruit and vegetables

0:21:020:21:05

and most of the genetic tests that people have done to look at

0:21:050:21:08

what sort of diet they should eat generally come back with

0:21:080:21:10

a recommendation that they should eat more broccoli,

0:21:100:21:13

and you don't need to pay a lot of money to find out that good advice.

0:21:130:21:16

At some level, it seems like harmless fun.

0:21:160:21:18

And it's better to have a bit of information than no information,

0:21:180:21:21

-so, kind of, what's wrong with it?

-In general,

0:21:210:21:23

the technical sequencing of the DNA is fine.

0:21:230:21:26

People are very good at doing that now,

0:21:260:21:28

but the commercial companies tend to only look at certain parts

0:21:280:21:31

of the DNA, so they will miss some significant mutations

0:21:310:21:34

simply because they're not testing for them.

0:21:340:21:37

The other concern is that it may reveal information that

0:21:370:21:41

once you've got it, you decide you really would rather

0:21:410:21:44

not have known about, and it may reveal information that has

0:21:440:21:46

implications for other members of your family,

0:21:460:21:48

such as your children, which you might not have thought about

0:21:480:21:51

-before you had the test done.

-Would you encourage or discourage

0:21:510:21:54

someone like me, who's reasonably healthy,

0:21:540:21:57

from doing one of these genetic tests?

0:21:570:22:00

Yes, I would discourage it because

0:22:000:22:02

the chance of it giving you any useful information is very small.

0:22:020:22:05

-Thank you.

-Thank you.

0:22:050:22:06

So, are genetic tests useful?

0:22:090:22:11

Well, if all you want to get out of it is some advice on

0:22:110:22:15

what you should eat and what form of exercise you should do,

0:22:150:22:18

then it's entirely up to you how you spend your money.

0:22:180:22:21

If however, you really do want an answer to a serious

0:22:210:22:24

genetic question, you would clearly be better off going to your GP

0:22:240:22:28

and getting a referral to see a geneticist.

0:22:280:22:31

10 million people in the UK, one in six of us,

0:22:380:22:41

has some degree of hearing loss.

0:22:410:22:43

Now, that's seen as an almost inevitable part of ageing,

0:22:430:22:46

but there is emerging evidence it's linked to wider health problems.

0:22:460:22:50

So, what can we do about it?

0:22:500:22:52

Dr Alain Gregoire has been finding out.

0:22:520:22:54

I'd like a cappuccino with chocolate on top, please.

0:22:570:23:00

I suspect my hearing isn't as good as it used to be,

0:23:010:23:06

so I've been looking into some surprising ways to help us cope

0:23:060:23:09

with age-related hearing loss.

0:23:090:23:11

Gradual hearing loss is far more than an inconvenience.

0:23:110:23:15

It can lead to social isolation which, in turn,

0:23:150:23:17

can contribute to mental health problems such as depression.

0:23:170:23:21

And there is research suggesting that it may be linked to

0:23:210:23:24

your risk of developing dementia,

0:23:240:23:26

so it's really important that we don't ignore it.

0:23:260:23:28

Yet on average, people suffer for a staggering ten years

0:23:290:23:33

before they seek treatment.

0:23:330:23:35

Many are worried about being given a large, obtrusive hearing aid.

0:23:350:23:39

But these are far more discreet and effective than they used to be.

0:23:390:23:43

Another reason many people don't get the treatment they need

0:23:430:23:47

is they simply don't notice that their hearing is declining.

0:23:470:23:50

One reason that it's tricky to spot gradual hearing loss,

0:23:510:23:54

is our brains have a surprising way to compensate,

0:23:540:23:57

and we're not even aware of it.

0:23:570:24:00

I can demonstrate this effect on myself, with a little help.

0:24:000:24:04

My friend Michael has sent me a couple of video clips

0:24:040:24:07

and I've got to listen, and watch, and decide what he's saying.

0:24:070:24:12

Bar, bar,

0:24:120:24:15

bar, bar.

0:24:150:24:17

Well it's pretty easy really. He's just saying "bar" repeatedly to me.

0:24:170:24:22

Bar, bar.

0:24:220:24:23

Sounds a bit like a sheep really.

0:24:230:24:25

Let's see what the next clip shows.

0:24:250:24:27

Far, far,

0:24:290:24:31

far, far...

0:24:310:24:33

Straightforward really.

0:24:330:24:35

Far, as in over there in the distance.

0:24:350:24:37

So what was Michael trying to prove with those two clips?

0:24:370:24:40

Alan, you might be surprised to learn that it was exactly

0:24:400:24:44

the same sound in each of the clips.

0:24:440:24:46

The only thing that changed was the pictures.

0:24:460:24:49

HE LAUGHS

0:24:490:24:51

Far, far.

0:24:510:24:53

That's really amazing.

0:24:530:24:55

In the second clip, although the sound is "bar",

0:24:550:24:59

Michael is actually mouthing "far"

0:24:590:25:02

and that's what my brain tells me I'm hearing.

0:25:020:25:06

What's happening here is my brain is prioritising

0:25:060:25:09

what I'm seeing over what I'm hearing.

0:25:090:25:12

Bar.

0:25:120:25:13

And this is something we can all use to our advantage

0:25:150:25:18

to help us cope with hearing loss -

0:25:180:25:20

an area that's being researched by auditory neuroscientist

0:25:200:25:23

Dr Jennifer Bizley.

0:25:230:25:26

We used to think that dedicated bits of the brain did hearing

0:25:260:25:29

and a separate bit did vision

0:25:290:25:31

and only later was that information put together.

0:25:310:25:34

Now we know that actually there's crosstalk between the senses

0:25:340:25:36

at a really early stage.

0:25:360:25:38

And one of the things that we think the information could be doing

0:25:380:25:41

is helping you in situations that are difficult,

0:25:410:25:44

like listening in a noisy restaurant.

0:25:440:25:46

Being able to see a mouth movement or see gestures might

0:25:460:25:49

allow you to pull that person's voice out of a sound mixture,

0:25:490:25:52

out of the noise, more effectively.

0:25:520:25:54

So the effectiveness of your hearing is dependent on your sight

0:25:540:25:58

and your processing as well?

0:25:580:26:01

Yes, so we know that as people age, their processing speeds slow down.

0:26:010:26:05

-Yes.

-And that can really impact upon not just your ability to listen

0:26:050:26:08

to someone in a noisy situation,

0:26:080:26:10

but actually how much effort it takes to do that.

0:26:100:26:13

So it might be that you CAN hear people, but it's exhausting.

0:26:130:26:16

And so any little extra piece of information that you can get,

0:26:160:26:19

for example through vision, will really help you to

0:26:190:26:22

both communicate more effectively

0:26:220:26:24

but also to find that process less effortful.

0:26:240:26:27

So to help you hear better in a noisy situation,

0:26:280:26:31

it helps if you can see better too.

0:26:310:26:33

If you're with other people, place yourself in the middle of the group.

0:26:330:26:37

Have the light behind you to help you see the other person clearly.

0:26:380:26:42

Ask people to face you when they're talking to you

0:26:430:26:46

and not cover their mouths.

0:26:460:26:48

And there's something else you can try.

0:26:490:26:51

I've got a little exercise for you to do.

0:26:530:26:56

Have a look in your mirrors and say the word "fast".

0:26:560:27:01

Lip reading.

0:27:020:27:04

Many of the people in this class suffer from age-related hearing loss.

0:27:040:27:08

I find it very difficult at dinner parties and other noisy environments

0:27:080:27:12

to hear, because everything is just competing for my attention.

0:27:120:27:16

You don't feel like you're with everybody in the same room.

0:27:160:27:19

Molly Berry runs the lip-reading class

0:27:190:27:22

and is chair of the Association Of Teachers Of Lip-reading To Adults.

0:27:220:27:27

It's not just that you are learning a skill that's going to help you,

0:27:270:27:31

it is giving you brain training,

0:27:310:27:34

training your brain to look and listen at the same time

0:27:340:27:38

and get the gist of everything that's happening,

0:27:380:27:42

which helps you not to get the cognitive decline

0:27:420:27:46

that can be associated with hearing loss.

0:27:460:27:50

Now, I feel confident in talking to someone and focusing on their face.

0:27:500:27:54

I was in depression for a little while,

0:27:540:27:57

but went to a lip-reading class and

0:27:570:28:00

just realised there was another way of coping.

0:28:000:28:03

So although there's no cure for age-related hearing loss,

0:28:030:28:07

there's plenty you can do to help improve things.

0:28:070:28:10

The important message here is

0:28:100:28:12

if you think you're hearing's deteriorating, don't delay.

0:28:120:28:15

Get help from your GP who'll be able to rule out any

0:28:150:28:18

temporary causes and refer you for a hearing test if you need it.

0:28:180:28:22

That's it from us.

0:28:290:28:31

Next time we're in Guildford,

0:28:310:28:33

where we will find out which is healthier -

0:28:330:28:36

carbs for dinner or carbs for breakfast.

0:28:360:28:39

Michael Mosley runs an experiment to test the claim that coconut oil can cut cholesterol. Giles Yeo investigates how much fruit is too much. Zoe Williams investigates a sleep disorder that causes up to 40,000 road accidents a year. Michael quizzes two experts on whether genetic-testing kits are worth the money. And Alain Gregoire finds out how you can use your eyes to help cope with age-related hearing loss.