24/01/2017 100 Days


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24/01/2017

As President Trump takes office, Katty Kay in Washington and Christian Fraser in London report on the events that are shaping the world.


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The winds of change continue to blow through Washington -

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key shifts to environmental policy and the car industry are on the way.

:00:16.:00:19.

President Donald Trump continues to unpick Barack Obama's legacy.

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Today, it's the environment - signing executive orders to speed

:00:22.:00:25.

construction of the Keystone and Dakota Access oil pipelines.

:00:26.:00:29.

The president comes face-to-face with the big car companies -

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he tells them to build cars for Americans in America.

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We're bringing manufacturing back to the United States bigly,

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we're reducing taxes substantially and we're reducing

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I'll speak to a senior Republican Senator about

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Also, in London, a ruling from the Supreme Court that

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goes to the very heart of the British constitution.

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But will this ruling complicate the timetable for Britain's

:00:56.:00:57.

The other big super power, China, asserting today its "irrefutable"

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sovereignty over parts of the South China Sea.

:01:05.:01:07.

Day two of week one, President Trump is stepping up

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The oil and car sectors were both in his sights today.

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Mr Trump is urging a new strategy for two very prominent

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The new administration is making big changes to America's stand on both

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This morning, the president signed two executive orders to move ahead

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on a pair of controversial oil pipelines, known as the Keystone

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Both had been stalled by the Obama administration

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Senator John Barrasso from Wyoming is part of the Republican leadership

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and he sits on the energy and the environment committees.

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I spoke to him a brief time ago about these new executive orders

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and President Trump's busy first couple of days.

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It looks like these signings this morning on the pipelines, that jobs

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are going to win. I believe it is not one or the other, I think we can

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have clean air, clean water, clean land and still a healthy economy.

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The Obama administration had so many expensive administrations, but I

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think Donald Trump will strike the right balance. He has done that with

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the right EPA administrator to join his Cabinet. Would you ever support

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environmental regulations? I think that the whole purpose of the EPA is

:03:01.:03:05.

important but they have lost their way in terms of the environmental

:03:06.:03:09.

protection and they cause to have the biggest problem is that we have

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had in the last number of years, so it is time for us to really

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modernise and improve the EPA so we can protect the land under water and

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the air, but at the same time make sure that we have as strong, healthy

:03:26.:03:31.

economy, which is what people want. Jobs are such a critical part of

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building an economy in a country and in terms of general well-being of

:03:36.:03:39.

the people and the quality-of-life. People in this country, it is

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clearly focused on having a good paying jobs. I also want to ask you

:03:44.:03:53.

about the TPP and the withdrawal of America from that. Other countries

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around the world said they are going to go ahead and do their own trade

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deals. We are looking at Mexico, Chile, China, Germany all weighing

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in on this. Is this really the moment for America to be pulling

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back from global alliances like this? Donald Trump campaigned on

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this so it should not be a surprise that he took this action. I am not

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surprised by this at all. He is a world-class trader, he has a great

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reputation for being able to get great deals. I am a free trader. For

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my homestead of Wyoming and it is important that we can export our

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products, our number one product is beef. When I head to the Pacific rim

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and visit with the President of Japan, he wants to import liquefied

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natural gas from the United States. You supported the temp two. Is this

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guy a position in which conservative doctrine of free trade is going to

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be thrown out of the window by republicans like yourself in order

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to satisfy the new president? The president gets to make these

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decisions as we all want fairer trade, but I think he will be able

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to put forward trade agreements that are going to be favourable to the

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United States, that are going to be good with the American taxpayers and

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he will continue to work on trade. My concern is in terms of China they

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will try to go into any void that exists. When I have been to that

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part of the world, what I know about China is that people in the country

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is related to the TPP want to be friends of the United States, but

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they don't want to be enemies to China. Would you have preferred it

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if America had not been withdrawn from the TPP? I think President

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Obama did not make the case. You had all three presidential candidates,

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Hillary Clinton, Bernie Saunders and Donald Trump all came out against

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the TPP so it should be no surprise to anyone that this is where we are

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now. I continue to be a free trader, believe in free markets and I want

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to be able to use overseas markets for Wyoming products. Senator John

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Barrasso, thank you for joining us. You start to get a feel of where the

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divisions might be between the administration and the republicans

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in Congress. He is very much in favour of the deregulation of

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business but not so at ease with the way the administration is going on

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trade deals. If I can show you a picture. We keep talking about these

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executive orders. Focus on the people behind. We will see a lot of

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these people over the next few years. Maybe you could point out one

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or two of them and wiping RM portent.

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Get a new team Trump! Behind the president on the left, the man with

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the dark hair is rinsed pre-bursts. He is the conduit between the White

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House and the Republican Party. He will be a big liaison figure. Kelly

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and Conway was the campaign manager for Donald Trump, the first woman to

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run a presidential campaign. The tall gentleman with a green tie,

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that is Jarrod Kushner. He is the husband of Ivanka Trump and he is a

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special adviser to the president. There has been quite a lot of fuss

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about nepotism and whether it was OK for him to work in the White House.

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He is very close to the president and will be a key figure

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particularly on international affairs. The gentleman with a blue

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shirt and yellow tie, Steve Bannon, maybe the most controversial pose in

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that photograph, he ran Breitbart news, right Wing News site, very

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controversial and hard hitting. He is the person who was behind Donald

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Trump's inaugural address. A strong nationalist, vary in favour of

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Brexit and close, wanting to develop ties, with Marine Le Pen of the

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National front. He will be a figure in Europe as well as here in the

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states. Marine Le Pen was in Trump Tower is

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just the other week. We were saying in the headlines that he has been

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meeting the bosses of the car industry. He is very good at this

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good cop, bad cop relationship. He hits them with these tariffs, that

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they will have 35% tariffs, then he showers them with love and

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croissants. Let's have a listen to this conversation.

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We're going to make process much more simple for the auto companies

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and everybody else who wants to do business in the United States.

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You'll find us to be from very inhospitable

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I think we'll go down as one of the most friendly countried.

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I think we'll go down as one of the most friendly countries.

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I have friends who want to build in the United States.

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They go many many years and then they can't get their environmental

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permit, over something that nobody ever heard of before.

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I am to a large extent an environmentalist,

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I believe in it, but it's out of control and we're

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And we're going to either give you your permits or we're not

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going to give you your permits, but you're going to

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And generally speaking, we're going to be giving you your permits,

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Not for a lot of environmentalists, they will not agree with him that he

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is the environmentalist. This is another new thing that people will

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have bigger Tuesday in America, a different way of presidential

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intervention directly and American businesses. That wants it

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particularly well with republicans. It'll be interesting to see how

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those car executives feel about Donald Trump in a few years.

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What is this word bigly? The Trump administration says it is

:10:02.:10:08.

not bigly home and they say it is big league, but I am hearing ugly,

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too. We will have to get used to that as well.

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If you have these powers of executive order you can do with G1,

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bigly days. Just before we came on air,

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the White House Press Secretary, Sean Spicer, held a briefing

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for the media, his Let's have a listen

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to what was on the agenda today. Does the president believes that

:10:28.:10:42.

millions voted illegally in this election and what evidence do you

:10:43.:10:46.

have of widespread voter fraud in the selection, if that is the case?

:10:47.:10:50.

The president does believe that. He stated that before. He has stated

:10:51.:10:54.

his concerns over voter fraud people voting illegally in the campaign. He

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maintains that belief based on studies that people have presented

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to him. What evidence? Senator Ryan today said there was no evidence.

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Other groups have said that they don't agree with the assessment by

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the president. As I said, believe the president has believe that for a

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while based on studies and information that he has.

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Our North America editor, Jon Sopel, was listening.

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Why do this? Why get yourself into a position where you're doing a huge

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amount of business popular with the American public, then the thing that

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dominates the press conferences Donald Trump saying something that

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wasn't true? Because 90% of the time Donald Trump is driving the central

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message about jobs, what he was elected to do, and there is a bit of

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Donald Trump, whether it is the size of the crowd at his inauguration or

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the number of people that voted for him in the popular vote, he gets

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distracted. He is obsessed by those numbers. In the campaign he used to

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talk about hollow and many more people went to his rallies than

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Hillary Clinton's. He is doing it still. He hasn't let go of the fact

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that he lost the popular vote by nearly 3 million. What was telling

:12:11.:12:15.

about that clip from Sean Spicer was what evidence have you got? Where

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are these reports? What he went on to say afterwards was well there was

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a nonpartisan body who had a research paper in 2008. Hang on,

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thought we were talking about 2016! He seems to be extrapolating from an

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early report about what potentially could have happened before to

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explain why he did not win the popular vote in November, but with

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absolutely no evidence of voter fraud in that election. No one has

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reported anything like that in terms of what unfolded in November across

:12:53.:12:57.

the 50 states. We should cover the other and use because otherwise this

:12:58.:13:02.

becomes the big distraction, we spent our time talking about this.

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What are the other headlines? The defence of the Keystone XL pipeline,

:13:08.:13:13.

saying he was a champion of the environment but also that this would

:13:14.:13:17.

create thousands of jobs, the US is there to enable these things. The

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other things we will be looking out for in days to come and the leading

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up to who could be the Supreme Court choice for him.

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I have read through the week a lot of these comment pieces from some of

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the big writers in the American press who are concerned about the

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relationship they have at the White House. It seems to me that they will

:13:39.:13:42.

have to start packing up on the facts, calmly and deliberately

:13:43.:13:46.

deconstructing what this administration says. Is that the way

:13:47.:13:50.

they need to go about it rather than reacting in a panicked way? I think

:13:51.:13:55.

it is a really challenging environment. What we need to do is

:13:56.:13:59.

when something is paid and the factually incorrect, we are, in the

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media, our reputation, and the BBC in particular, and being objective

:14:06.:14:09.

and impartial and telling the truth, so if we see something that is not

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truthful we should point about. We should not be obsessed by just

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trying to trip up Donald Trump, looking peevish, looking entitled,

:14:19.:14:21.

like we don't like him or are angry or cross in any of our reporting. We

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have to be fair and balanced but just say, hang on, that can't be

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allowed to stand if it is not correct. It is our responsibility to

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do that and that is what our audience expects of us. Some of the

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people in the White House could not believe that they weren't being

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treated with all the dignity that they deserved. Well, I think they

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need to get over themselves because Donald Trump will do press

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communication in a very different way and about mean that some of my

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esteemed colleagues at the White House might have a slightly bruised

:14:55.:14:58.

ego, live with it. Something you would never have, of course.

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Any more news on the Supreme Court? All of these executive orders will

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change things temporarily in America. They can be reversed, the

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Supreme Court not so much. The Supreme Court appointment is going

:15:14.:15:18.

to be probably all things being equal, the most consequential

:15:19.:15:21.

decision that Donald Trump is going to make in his presidency because

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the person who gets appointed, and it is likely to be somebody quite

:15:27.:15:33.

conservative, someone who believes in toughening the laws on abortion.

:15:34.:15:39.

At the moment the Supreme Court is balanced, for liberals for

:15:40.:15:44.

conservatives. If it becomes five republicans, abortion law can

:15:45.:15:47.

change, which will be a big thing for social policy in this country.

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Not just for the term of Donald Trump, but for years going forward.

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Thank you for joining us, Jon Sopel. There are big changes coming up in

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this administration, Christian. Some of the other key developments

:15:59.:16:00.

in Washington today now. President Trump is planning to keep

:16:01.:16:03.

James Comey as head of the FBI, according to media reports

:16:04.:16:06.

here in the US. Mr Comey was strongly criticised

:16:07.:16:08.

by Democrats in the run up to November's election

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for re-turning to an investigation The bureau is still investigating

:16:12.:16:13.

potential ties between Russia A former American Defence Secretary

:16:14.:16:16.

says he's concerned the new leadership is giving

:16:17.:16:22.

an impression the US is retreating Robert Gates, who was also a former

:16:23.:16:25.

director of the CIA, told the BBC Mr Trump's policies

:16:26.:16:30.

could well be exploited Mr Gates, who served

:16:31.:16:33.

in the George W Bush and Barack Obama administrations,

:16:34.:16:37.

says China, Iran or Russia, will step into any vacuum

:16:38.:16:39.

that is left by the US. More now on Mr Trump's

:16:40.:16:50.

senior appointments. A Senate committee has

:16:51.:16:52.

approved Ben Carson as the new Housing Secretary,

:16:53.:16:53.

allowing the nomination But there are delays

:16:54.:16:55.

on the confirmation of Jeff Sessions, who Donald Trump

:16:56.:17:03.

wants as his Attorney General. The top Democrat on the Senate

:17:04.:17:07.

Judiciary Committee has Senator Diane Feinstein said

:17:08.:17:10.

the women's march at the weekend The role of the Attorney General

:17:11.:17:14.

she said is to defend equal rights. One thing we want to do in this

:17:15.:17:22.

programme is connect the dots between the new political trends

:17:23.:17:25.

on both sides of the Atlantic. Britain made its decision last year,

:17:26.:17:28.

but supporters of leaving the European Union may well

:17:29.:17:34.

think their populist revolution is moving a lot

:17:35.:17:36.

slower than America's. Who gets to pull the

:17:37.:17:41.

trigger on divorce? Today, the Supreme Court

:17:42.:17:43.

decided the Prime Minister, She will need parliament's approval

:17:44.:17:45.

before handing in the formal notice to quit the European Union,

:17:46.:17:49.

known as Article 50 From the sidelines,

:17:50.:17:52.

I was there to watch. Democracy, said Abraham Lincoln, is

:17:53.:18:08.

the government of the people, by the people, for the people. In his

:18:09.:18:13.

statue outside the Sabine Court today, they were debating that very

:18:14.:18:18.

issue. The ruling, when it came, made clear that the court was not

:18:19.:18:22.

trying to frustrate the vote to leave the European Union. The

:18:23.:18:25.

judgment would only determine whether government could start the

:18:26.:18:28.

Brexit process without Parliamentary consent. Today, via majority of 8-3,

:18:29.:18:37.

the Supreme Court rules that the government cannot trigger article 50

:18:38.:18:40.

without an act of Parliament authorising it do so. The government

:18:41.:18:47.

then defeated. But the 11 judges also had to decide whether

:18:48.:18:50.

Westminster can take this decision alone or whether the devolved

:18:51.:18:54.

government of Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland should also have a

:18:55.:19:00.

say. On the devolution issue, the court unanimously rules that UK

:19:01.:19:05.

ministers are not legally compelled to consult the devolved legislatures

:19:06.:19:09.

before triggering article 50. The verdict was welcomed by the former

:19:10.:19:13.

Attorney General Dominic Grieve, he told me that irrespective of how

:19:14.:19:17.

people had voted last June, this was a good day for Parliamentary

:19:18.:19:21.

democracy. I always took the view that the idea that you could trigger

:19:22.:19:24.

article 50 without a vote of Parliament was an extraordinary

:19:25.:19:28.

thing to do because so much primary legislation has enacted. I wasn't

:19:29.:19:33.

apprised of the decision of the High Court and I wasn't surprised by the

:19:34.:19:38.

decision of the Supreme Court, that seems to rub us to stand up for our

:19:39.:19:42.

historic liberties. Having promised to trigger article 50 by the end of

:19:43.:19:46.

March, the ideal solution for the Prime Minister would be to purchase

:19:47.:19:50.

the single line of legislation before the Parliament for peers and

:19:51.:19:56.

MPs to rubber stamp. Short, simple, difficult for opposing MPs to amend,

:19:57.:19:59.

except government lawyers have been advising the Prime Minister that if

:20:00.:20:03.

use can somebody till now, she could be exposing herself to future legal

:20:04.:20:10.

challenges somewhere down the line. The Secretary of State...

:20:11.:20:12.

Nonetheless, the government will take that risk. Confident that night

:20:13.:20:16.

MPs will support the timetable they have set out. This will be a

:20:17.:20:20.

straightforward bill. It is not about whether or not the UK should

:20:21.:20:25.

leave the European Union. That decision has already been made by

:20:26.:20:31.

the people of the United Kingdom. In exchange for their support, the

:20:32.:20:35.

opposition will want guarantees of a meaningful -- meaningful vote at the

:20:36.:20:39.

end of the process. Scottish nationalists don't rule out a second

:20:40.:20:43.

referendum on Scottish independence. The decision is looming for

:20:44.:20:47.

Scotland. Are we prepared to allow her future to be dictated by a

:20:48.:20:51.

Westminster government that is going down a path that I think the

:20:52.:20:54.

majority of people in Scotland don't want to go down, or are we going to

:20:55.:20:59.

take our future into your own hands? The Westminster Parliament is

:21:00.:21:02.

sovereign, says the court, and only Parliament can change the law.

:21:03.:21:07.

Ultimately, they have underscored the very foundation of Britain's

:21:08.:21:11.

unwritten constitution and as Abraham would say, these important

:21:12.:21:12.

principles, are inflexible. Our chief political correspondent

:21:13.:21:16.

Vicki Young is in Westminster. I am always conscious with my former

:21:17.:21:27.

as a Paris and Rome correspondent that we are guilty of a bit of

:21:28.:21:32.

navel-gazing in London. Let's think about the Europeans. Will they be

:21:33.:21:37.

worried that what has happened might affect the Brexit timetable? Well, I

:21:38.:21:41.

don't think it will, is the truth. I think there are many people, many

:21:42.:21:46.

voters in this country who voted for Remain who are looking at this

:21:47.:21:50.

judgment today thinking this is the big moment, this would give

:21:51.:21:52.

Parliament the chance to block except and I think they will be

:21:53.:21:57.

disappointed. I have been speaking to MPs and peers and there just

:21:58.:22:01.

isn't the appetite for a fight. It is quite difficult to explain to

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people who look think most Labour MPs are ardent Remainers, why

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wouldn't the -- why wouldn't they take this opportunity? But they

:22:12.:22:13.

don't want to be seen to be standing in the wake of the British people.

:22:14.:22:18.

Equally, in the House of Lords today, we have senior figure

:22:19.:22:22.

standing up to say it would be foolish, unwise and completely wrong

:22:23.:22:26.

for an unelected House of Lords to block a referendum, to block what

:22:27.:22:31.

the government wants and what the House of Commons is going to vote

:22:32.:22:36.

for. So the government is adamant that they will stick to that

:22:37.:22:40.

self-imposed timetable of triggering article 50 by the end of March, so I

:22:41.:22:47.

think that is going to happen. People here have been asking me

:22:48.:22:52.

about this, the state of the union. We heard Nicola Sturgeon they're

:22:53.:22:57.

clearly not happy with this. We know that Donald Trump has supported

:22:58.:23:00.

Brexit and Brexit hazard supporters here, but people are and confused

:23:01.:23:06.

about what will happen to the United Kingdom. Are we looking at a

:23:07.:23:09.

shrunken United Kingdom after this? Nicola Sturgeon predicted that this

:23:10.:23:15.

would bring a second independent referendum for Scotland a step

:23:16.:23:20.

closer. Scotland voted to stay in the United Kingdom, just a year ago

:23:21.:23:27.

or so, she can't call another referendum. It has to come from

:23:28.:23:31.

Westminster. Her argument is that the type of Brexit that Theresa May

:23:32.:23:36.

is aiming for, taking the UK out of the single market for example, that

:23:37.:23:41.

is not what Scotland voted for. She would like Scotland to become

:23:42.:23:45.

independent and be a part of the European Union. The court today

:23:46.:23:49.

ruled that Scotland will not get a say on all of this at this point. Of

:23:50.:23:54.

course, Nicola Sturgeon doesn't want to have a referendum unless she is

:23:55.:23:58.

convinced she will win. At the moment the polls suggest that

:23:59.:24:01.

wouldn't happen. I think she will bide your time. Certainly, she is

:24:02.:24:06.

issuing these warnings regularly. Obviously it was a defeat for the

:24:07.:24:10.

government, but that clarified an awful lot of them, particularly on

:24:11.:24:14.

Scotland and whether they had a veto. But also the issue of Northern

:24:15.:24:19.

Ireland. The Assembly collapsed the recently. That problem also taken

:24:20.:24:23.

out of the picture. Lots of people were very concerned about this, but

:24:24.:24:28.

if the Supreme Court today had ruled that not just Scotland but the Welsh

:24:29.:24:32.

Assembly and also in Northern Ireland, if they were given the say,

:24:33.:24:36.

how would they do that? Northern Ireland is having a general

:24:37.:24:40.

election. Who would feedback the views of the people of Northern

:24:41.:24:44.

Ireland? They were extremely concerned about all of that. The

:24:45.:24:48.

headline is that the government did not get its way today, they were

:24:49.:24:53.

defeated. If you go below that, it could've been a lot worse for the

:24:54.:24:57.

government today and I think they are sighing with relief that they

:24:58.:25:01.

probably can stick to the timetable. Vicki Young in Westminster, there is

:25:02.:25:06.

certainly an awful lot going on on both sides of the Atlantic, which is

:25:07.:25:09.

exactly why we are doing this programme.

:25:10.:25:10.

Just a reminder that every evening after this show we hand

:25:11.:25:13.

One of us will spend 10 or 15 minutes on Facebook Live each night

:25:14.:25:17.

talking about the issues we have covered.

:25:18.:25:19.

If you want to get involved, then, of course, do

:25:20.:25:21.

You are watching 100 Days on BBC News.

:25:22.:25:33.

Coming up: We'll have a report from China looking at barriers that

:25:34.:25:36.

already exists between Beijing and Washington, and new ones that

:25:37.:25:39.

The president meets with the Big Three CEOs

:25:40.:25:45.

from the car industry, telling them it's time to start

:25:46.:25:47.

We'll be live at the New York Stock Exchange with reaction.

:25:48.:26:09.

Some of us had a lovely day today, for others it stayed grey and for a

:26:10.:26:17.

few we have fog all day. That dog will become more widespread again

:26:18.:26:23.

tonight, crossing into the Midlands. Some icy surfaces, too. Further west

:26:24.:26:27.

it will be more wild, they're a bit of light and breezy for Northern

:26:28.:26:31.

Ireland and Scotland. The fog will cause disruption in some places,

:26:32.:26:34.

tomorrow morning in particular. Some of the airports could be affected

:26:35.:26:40.

again. Icy surfaces, too, where you have that fog. For the north and

:26:41.:26:44.

West the fog will be less of a hazard. Some early sunshine and

:26:45.:26:49.

parts of South West England running into East Wales. Across Northern

:26:50.:26:52.

Ireland it should be above freezing in most places by eight o'clock.

:26:53.:26:56.

Northern Ireland and Scotland, much milder here, above freezing. A bit

:26:57.:27:02.

of drizzly rain coming in on the breeze. Still a lot of dry weather,

:27:03.:27:07.

albeit cloudy. Further east, the four bulletin to look cloud. Graham

:27:08.:27:13.

quite chilly in eastern England. Some Southwest and on into Northern

:27:14.:27:20.

counties. Distinctly chilly underneath the clouds in East Anglia

:27:21.:27:24.

and the south-east. That is a sign of things to come. From Wednesday

:27:25.:27:29.

into Thursday we will tap into a reservoir of particularly cold air

:27:30.:27:32.

which has been sitting across the heart of Europe for some time. The

:27:33.:27:37.

breeze will bring that cold air in our direction. Quite a shock to the

:27:38.:27:41.

system on Thursday, I think. A brisk south-easterly wind, the bit of

:27:42.:27:46.

cloud and maybe the odd bit of snow. You will need a few layers,

:27:47.:27:53.

particularly in central Andes to parts of the UK. Some places will

:27:54.:27:56.

struggle to get above freezing, if you had on the wind that will feel

:27:57.:27:59.

even colder. Not quite as cold on Friday, turning a bit milder from

:28:00.:28:03.

the south-west, but that cold the holding on and on the east. Most

:28:04.:28:08.

places dry, but patchy rain beginning to turn up as weather

:28:09.:28:13.

fronts dry to pushing of the Atlantic. How quickly they make

:28:14.:28:17.

inroads is still open to some died, but certainly some weather fronts

:28:18.:28:20.

there or thereabouts. There will be some rain around this weekend. On a

:28:21.:28:25.

positive note will be less cold for some than recently. Still a lot of

:28:26.:28:29.

dry weather, but watch out for areas of fog.

:28:30.:30:09.

Welcome back to 100 Days from BBC News.

:30:10.:30:12.

President Donald Trump has signed executive orders advancing

:30:13.:30:19.

the construction of two controversial oil pipelines -

:30:20.:30:21.

which President Obama had previously blocked.

:30:22.:30:25.

In meetings with car industry leaders the president told them

:30:26.:30:27.

to increase American production and jobs.

:30:28.:30:30.

We'll be live at the New York Stock Exchange with more reaction.

:30:31.:30:43.

China says it has "indisputable sovereignty" over parts

:30:44.:30:46.

The Chinese foreign ministry said today Beijing would "remain firm

:30:47.:30:51.

to defend its rights in the region," that's after the White House said

:30:52.:30:54.

on Monday the US would "make sure it protect it's own interests

:30:55.:30:57.

President Trump has already upset on China over the status of Taiwan.

:30:58.:31:03.

And during his campaign he threatened to impose some pretty

:31:04.:31:06.

punishing tariffs on Chinese imports - which could lead

:31:07.:31:08.

So how might China respond to the new US administration?

:31:09.:31:14.

Here's our Beijing Correspondent John Sudworth.

:31:15.:31:19.

China was once isolated behind its Great Wall

:31:20.:31:24.

but it was here too that its emergence onto

:31:25.:31:26.

In 1972 another competitive and controversial US Republican

:31:27.:31:34.

president stood on this wall and used it as a metaphor.

:31:35.:31:42.

Richard Nixon's speech that day looked to future

:31:43.:31:44.

in which there are no walls between people, laying

:31:45.:31:46.

the foundations of course for one of the most important collateral

:31:47.:31:50.

trading relationships the world has ever seen.

:31:51.:31:59.

The benefits of that relationship has been celebrated

:32:00.:32:02.

America threatens China with 45% import duties

:32:03.:32:06.

The Chinese are not just going to take it, they're

:32:07.:32:12.

going to respond more or less in-kind probably.

:32:13.:32:14.

What are the potential dangers in Donald Trump's strategy?

:32:15.:32:17.

This is very disturbing and the consequences

:32:18.:32:18.

for the international system and for the health of the global

:32:19.:32:21.

But at a briefing by senior Chinese diplomats, I put it to them that

:32:22.:32:33.

Mr Trump is not so much attacking free trade, as unfair trade.

:32:34.:32:39.

Should China not do more to put its money where its mouth is,

:32:40.:32:42.

removing the big subsidies to state-owned enterprises,

:32:43.:32:45.

removing some of the restrictions and denial of market access that

:32:46.:32:48.

still hinders so many foreign companies trying

:32:49.:32:49.

I understand what you mean, but in general the direction

:32:50.:32:59.

is there, the effort is there, and I have very strong belief

:33:00.:33:06.

and confidence in improved environments for foreign companies.

:33:07.:33:18.

These days tourists can gaze into a period in China's history

:33:19.:33:21.

when its reluctant rulers were forced to trade

:33:22.:33:23.

Few US companies that do business in China today would dispute that

:33:24.:33:34.

significant barriers to trade remain.

:33:35.:33:37.

The question though, is whether to cajole or to coerce

:33:38.:33:41.

and Mr Trump it seems may be about to embark

:33:42.:33:43.

on upon his own version of gunboat diplomacy.

:33:44.:33:50.

Over that much traded commodity, tea, I asked about Mr Trump's threat

:33:51.:33:54.

to challenge China's territorial claims unless it makes

:33:55.:33:56.

TRANSLATION: He plays with fire, Mr Trump plays with fire.

:33:57.:34:07.

But China also has fire and it is going to burn him.

:34:08.:34:15.

It is trade of course that has made China a wealthy superpower

:34:16.:34:18.

To talk more about China we are joined by Professor Ann Lee,

:34:19.:34:32.

she is an Independent Economic Advisor to the Chinese Government.

:34:33.:34:35.

And here in London, Diane Wei Liang, she's an author, and she was one

:34:36.:34:39.

of the students involved in the 1989 Tiannamen Square protest.

:34:40.:34:49.

Diane, you are looking back towards China and looking I'm sure at social

:34:50.:34:56.

media, what do people there make of Donald Trump and some of these

:34:57.:35:01.

threats? At the beginning when Donald Trump was campaigning to

:35:02.:35:05.

become president his rhetoric had been very much against China. Some

:35:06.:35:10.

Chinese including people in the government had believed it was just

:35:11.:35:17.

rhetoric, but Donald Trump is a businessman and someone China could

:35:18.:35:20.

do business with. But as the rhetoric becomes more and more

:35:21.:35:26.

severe, now he is taking actions, taking calls from Taiwan and nothing

:35:27.:35:32.

has let up and the Chinese are very cautious and very vigilant and stop

:35:33.:35:37.

if I look at the media response within China, the response is

:35:38.:35:43.

becoming tougher as well. China is bracing itself for a trade war and

:35:44.:35:51.

perhaps even military confrontation with America. And that is it, we

:35:52.:35:56.

heard from one of the people interviewed in that film but he is

:35:57.:35:59.

playing with fire, Donald Trump. If it comes to a trade war Howwood

:36:00.:36:09.

China respond? -- how will China respond? I think they're coming up

:36:10.:36:16.

with a list of ways to respond in terms of boycotts, and slapping

:36:17.:36:20.

tariffs on American goods as well. Neither country is going to come out

:36:21.:36:26.

ahead if this happens. I will say that with China the stakes are not

:36:27.:36:30.

as severe as the years to be because exports used to be 50% of Chinese

:36:31.:36:41.

GDP and today more like 20%. And of that 20% the US makes up just about

:36:42.:36:47.

18% of exports. Solar talk about 4% of the GDP that will be affected if

:36:48.:36:54.

all exports to the US ceased to exist. Of course that will hurt the

:36:55.:37:00.

economy but it is not going to hit kill it. And I think the Chinese

:37:01.:37:09.

prefer to have stability with the US in the whole global economic system,

:37:10.:37:14.

and that was made clear by the Chinese president. And this is

:37:15.:37:21.

election year in China and so it behoves them to try to get along

:37:22.:37:24.

with Donald Trump and try to strike some kind of trade deal. You will

:37:25.:37:31.

hear in America during the course of the election campaign and you know

:37:32.:37:35.

American voters, many of them think that the relationship between

:37:36.:37:37.

America and China has benefited China more than America. They say we

:37:38.:37:45.

did not get a good deal on North Korea, on trade, and they're quite

:37:46.:37:48.

happy to see Donald Trump standing up to Beijing, they do not buy the

:37:49.:37:52.

argument that America could lose out. Certainly there is rhetoric and

:37:53.:38:02.

risk reality. The rhetoric in the US has been largely one-sided, it has

:38:03.:38:07.

largely targeted China as the convenient whipping boy in every

:38:08.:38:12.

presidential election, that China is a currency manipulator, it is unfair

:38:13.:38:16.

in all these areas. Whereas Americans actually have benefited a

:38:17.:38:21.

great deal by working with China. China has provided a lot of very

:38:22.:38:27.

cheap goods to the US so that inflation has remained relatively

:38:28.:38:33.

low for decades now. And this has also delivered record profits to

:38:34.:38:38.

lots of US corporations which has taken the US stock market to record

:38:39.:38:46.

highs. And so a lot of these politicians that like to criticise

:38:47.:38:50.

what a bad deal they have had they fail to acknowledge that all the

:38:51.:38:53.

benefits have also accrued as a result. So again we have got to look

:38:54.:38:59.

at both sides and look at it holistically to understand the

:39:00.:39:04.

relationship. China is such a different country to when you were

:39:05.:39:08.

in Tiananmen Square as part of the protest and it is ironic that we

:39:09.:39:11.

have the country led by the Communist Party which says we can

:39:12.:39:15.

trade freely with the rest of the world. And the country is supposed

:39:16.:39:19.

to be the leader of the free market economy pulling up the drawbridge.

:39:20.:39:24.

China is taking the lead and because China has seen the benefits in the

:39:25.:39:29.

past 40 years, in its own experience, how global trade can

:39:30.:39:33.

bring people out of poverty and improve living standards. Especially

:39:34.:39:40.

with the Asian infrastructure bank in China and China is putting $100

:39:41.:39:47.

billion into lending, to trade with the world, and this year alone they

:39:48.:39:56.

had gained 25 new members including Ireland and Canada. China is taking

:39:57.:39:59.

up the role of the leader in global trade. In fact if you look at the

:40:00.:40:07.

China US relationship, from the Chinese perspective, China did not

:40:08.:40:12.

have a growing relationship with the Obama administration either. And his

:40:13.:40:21.

two big initiatives, it was very much a military constraining

:40:22.:40:23.

exercise against China and the Pacific trade pact was designed to

:40:24.:40:31.

exclude China, contain its influence in trade in the Pacific region. So

:40:32.:40:37.

China in some ways are looking at the Donald Trump administration and

:40:38.:40:41.

having had conversations with the Trump team and they're looking at

:40:42.:40:50.

possibilities for example, Trump is having a soft view on perhaps

:40:51.:40:55.

joining the Asian infrastructure bank as a member. And so they see

:40:56.:40:59.

opportunities here. And they are also ready if Trump is going to

:41:00.:41:07.

escalate conflict with China. Thank you very much. More of course

:41:08.:41:15.

throughout the Trump administration on this relationship.

:41:16.:41:16.

We saw a littler earlier, the car industry chiefs -

:41:17.:41:19.

the heads of General Motors, Ford and Chrysler -

:41:20.:41:21.

sharing breakfast with President Trump earlier today.

:41:22.:41:22.

And you might have heard him saying that he wants a big push on building

:41:23.:41:26.

Our business correspondent Michelle Fleury is on the floor

:41:27.:41:30.

How did these bosses who run multi-million pound 's

:41:31.:41:40.

organisations, how do they respond to being called in by the President

:41:41.:41:44.

and given a bit of an ear wigging on what they should be doing? Given the

:41:45.:41:52.

tongue lashing some have received in recent weeks and months, I think

:41:53.:41:57.

they're inclined to get there and pay attention. You have heard the

:41:58.:42:01.

kind of repetition from Donald Trump that he wants them to stop producing

:42:02.:42:04.

cars overseas destined for the American market, and to make them

:42:05.:42:08.

here. It was a message that he repeated quite forcefully again

:42:09.:42:12.

today saying he wants them to build plants and create jobs here in

:42:13.:42:15.

America and of course he focused on the US car industry in part because

:42:16.:42:21.

it is seen as a symbol for American manufacturing and of course that is

:42:22.:42:24.

at the heart of one of the key economic planks of Donald Trump,

:42:25.:42:28.

trying to bring back jobs and restore manufacturing. Thank you for

:42:29.:42:31.

that. We will be watching

:42:32.:42:32.

the car industry closely. A key indicator perhaps of how

:42:33.:42:34.

effective Donald Trump Before we go don't forget I'll be

:42:35.:42:36.

on Facebook Live straight after the programme,

:42:37.:42:43.

answering your questions.

:42:44.:42:45.