05/12/2013 BBC News at Ten


05/12/2013

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Full Set Nelson Mandela, South Africa's first black president, has

:00:15.:00:20.

died. He was 95. We will be reporting on

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his remarkable life, from freedom fighter to global statesman.

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President Zuma has just made this announcement. Our beloved Nelson

:00:30.:00:35.

Rolihlahla Mandela, the founding president of our democratic nation,

:00:36.:00:44.

has departed. He had becoming critically frail in recent years and

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died at home, surrounded by close family members. He had spent three

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decades in jail. An enemy of the apartheid regime and a determined

:00:54.:01:01.

fighter for democracy. Mr Nelson Mandela, a freeman, taking

:01:02.:01:04.

his first steps into a new South Africa. His Long Walk To Freedom was

:01:05.:01:10.

celebrated worldwide. He became one of the towering figures of the past

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century. His election as Darth Africa's first black president

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brought a spirit of reconciliation after the pain of apartheid. Never,

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and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again

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experience the oppression of one by another. Good evening. Nelson

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Mandela, the father of modern South Africa, has died at the age of 95.

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He was a freedom fighter who became president and global statesman,

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carrying the hopes and aspirations of his people. Nelson Mandela spent

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27 years in prison, a symbol of resistance at home and a figure of

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great authority abroad. The announcement of his death was made

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in the past few minutes by President Zuma. Fellow South Africans, our

:02:05.:02:13.

beloved Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, the founding president of our

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democratic nation, has departed. He passed on peacefully, in the company

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of his family, at around 20.50 on the 5th of December, 2013. He is now

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resting. He is now at peace. Our nation has lost its greatest son.

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Our people have lost a father. Although we knew that this day would

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come, nothing can diminish our sense of a profound and enduring loss. His

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tireless struggle for freedom earned him the respect of the world. His

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humility, his compassion and his humanity earned him their love. Our

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thoughts and prayers are with the Mandela family. To them, we owe a

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debt of gratitude. They have sacrificed much and endured much so

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that our people could be free. President Jacob Zuma, making the

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announcement of the death of former President Mandela refused in its

:04:19.:04:25.

ago. Let's go live to Johannesburg. Our correspondent is there. It was a

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long wait, because lots of people were concerned over the last few

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years by his health. He had been very frail in recent months, but the

:04:33.:04:36.

music that will have an enormous in fact in South Africa and around the

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world? That is right. This announcement by Jacob Zuma that you

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just saw in Pretoria was preceded by heightened activity around Nelson

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Mandela's home in his Johannesburg suburb. We saw family members

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arriving and government cars. An hour before the announcement was

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made, we saw police vans arriving, setting up a cordon around the house

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to keep away whatever Krauts might have gathered. And then, of course,

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that announcement. The keywords there from Jacob Zuma were" profound

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and enduring loss" . He said South Africa had lost its greatest son,

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and the people have lost a father. Even though, as you said, people had

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been preparing for this, especially over the last dicks months, when Mr

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Mandela went into hospital -- over the last six months, when Mr Mandela

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went into hospital and was released later, South Africa had been slowly

:05:42.:05:45.

preparing itself for this news. It knew it was coming, and yet there

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was always this sense that he might somehow pull through. Only on

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Tuesday, his eldest daughter was talking about how she could see her

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father struggling, as she put it, on his deathbed, but he was still a

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courageous fighter and continued to teach them, the family and the

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nation, lessons as he lay there. We heard Jacob Zuma saying that in

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him, we saw so much of ourselves. That is one of the key things here,

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that for South Africans, he represented their better nature,

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everything they hoped their nation could become. Jacob Zuma talked

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about Mandela was buying vision of building a united and nonracial

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South Africa. At the moment, amidst the morning, there will also be a

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recognition of the distance that South Africa still has to go to

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achieve that vision. In the days and weeks to come, South Africa and

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people around the world will want to pay tribute and talk about his

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achievements with great formality and the committee as they prepare

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for that state funeral. That is right. We heard Jacob Zuma

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announcing that from tomorrow, all flags in South Africa would be

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lowered to half-mast and that President Mandela would get a state

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funeral. We understand that there will be a ceremony of national

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mourning at a football stadium five days from now. There will then be a

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period of lying in state in Pretoria, followed by an ANC

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ceremony at a military airbase. Then he will be flown to his hometown,

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where the state funeral will take place, presumably in the company of

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both South Africans and world leaders.

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We will have lots of reaction for you not just from South Africa, but

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from London and around the world. In the meantime, our correspondent

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considers the people and places that influenced Nelson Mandela and drove

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his struggle against the apartheid regime.

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His story is one of the most remarkable of any world leader. Few

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in history have endured oppression with such little rancour, or

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overcome the oppressor with such little bloodshed. I, Nelson

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Rolihlahla Mandela, do hereby swear to be faithful to the Republic of

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South Africa. In May 1994, Nelson Mandela, the man a white South

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Africa in prison for nearly 30 years, was sworn in as the

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country's first black president. Through his dignified and courageous

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leadership, the African National Congress had broken the stranglehold

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of apartheid and transformed South Africa into a multiracial democracy.

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Nelson Mandela was born in 1918 in South Africa's Eastern Cape, the son

:08:59.:09:04.

of a tribal chief. He qualified as a lawyer and by 1952, he had set up a

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legal partnership with the man who was to be a lifelong friend and

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ally, Oliver. Together, they campaigned against apartheid, the

:09:13.:09:17.

exercise in social engineering under which South Africa's white minority

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originally crushed the human rights and aspirations of the black

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majority. In 1956, and a lot was among 156 political activists to be

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charged with high treason. The trial lasted more than four years before

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charges were dropped. The Sharpeville massacre in 1964 the ANC

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to change strategy. 69 people died when police opened fire on black as

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traitors. The ANC was outlawed, Mandela went underground and

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peaceful resistance became a thing of the past. Many feel that it is

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useless and futile for us to continue talking peace and

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nonviolence against a government whose reply is only savage attacks

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on an unarmed and defenceless people. Mandela undertook a campaign

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of sabotage against the state. He was eventually arrested and charged

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with conspiracy to overthrow the government. At his trial, he made a

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three-hour speech from the dog. A tape of it was discovered later.

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This, his final plea for freedom and democracy for all South Africans,

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was to echo down 27 years he was to remain a political prisoner.

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Sentenced to life imprisonment, he was sent to Robben Island, a top

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security prison in Cape Town's table Bay. Photographs of Mandela were

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banned from publication. To quote him was an offence. But

:11:09.:11:12.

astonishingly, he was not embittered by his long imprisonment. I soon

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grasped the fact that we are not conducting a struggle against white

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domination. In the course of that struggle, we can form friendships

:11:30.:11:35.

with people from the other side. Outside, time was running out for

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apartheid. With the ANC leadership in jail, even the children of Soweto

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were now helping sustain the revolution. The hardline government

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of the W Botha tried to crush the uprising, but gradually, more

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liberal white people began to realise that Mandela was the

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solution, not the problem. An international campaign was begun for

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the release of Nelson Mandela as around the world, governments

:12:04.:12:08.

imposed sanctions on South Africa. In 1990, a courageous white leader,

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President FW de Klerk, announced that the ANC would be an banned. --

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un-band. Mr Mandela is taking his first steps into a new South Africa.

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That seven three, after 27 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela walked

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to freedom with his then wife at his side. Worldwide pressure had borne

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fruit, but hope soon turned to despair. Township riots left blacks

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fighting blacks. Mandela repeatedly appealed for peace. Take your guns,

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your knives and throw them into the sea. In 1994, Mandela cast his vote

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in South Africa's first multiracial elections. Millions enjoyed their

:13:05.:13:08.

first taste of democracy. The result was a landslide for the ANC. Nelson

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Mandela was president of a new South Africa. Never, never and never again

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shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression

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of one by another. Three years later Nelson Mandela gave up the

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presidency of the African National Congress in favour of the

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Vice-President, can I Mbeki, who succeeded him as head of state.

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Mandela was feted throughout the world as here in London. But there

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had been personal sadness. His long-time marriage to Winnie, once

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known as the mother of the nation, had ended. In 1998 at the age of 80

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he married Graca Machel, the widow of the late President of Mozambique.

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It was a marriage which brought him personal happiness and helped him to

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enjoy some of the family life which his long imprisonment had denied

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him. On the eve of the new millennium Nelson Mandela had

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revisited the cell on Robben Island where he had spent nearly 20 of the

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27 years he was imprisoned. He lit a candle to symbolise reconciliation.

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It was passed to an African child to represent that Continent's hope for

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the future, a hope inspired by the life and ideals of one of the truly

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great leaders of our time, Nelson Mandela.

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Let me show you what's happening in Johannesburg. This is the scene at

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the home of the Mandela family. The crowd was gathering earlier, because

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they were sensing that something was about to happen. The crowd you

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gathering in number and strength. Among them is our southern Africa

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correspondent, who is on the phone. I'm hoping Milton can hear me. Give

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me a sense of the news there and the impact of that news. I'm standing

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outside Nelson Mandela's house here in Houghton in the leafy suburb of

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Houghton in Johannesburg. There are lots of people here who are just

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coming in dribs and drabs, black and white. People are shocked, even

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though he had known that Mr Mandela was ill for a long time. The

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announcement by President Zuma tonight has gone a long way to shock

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them and to bring them the reality that, finally, a day that South

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Africans had feared had come had finally arrived. There is a huge

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media contingent here. Lots of cameras, local and international.

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The crowd is gathering. The police have in the last hour put up a

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cordon to try to control the crowds on the corner of 12th Avenue and 4th

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Street here in Houghton. We heard the President earlier saying the

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nation had lost its greatest son, our people have lost a father. He

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called him the great son and the father of modern South Africa. Just

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tell us a little bit about how the nation now will receive this news

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and how important it is in the days and weeks ahead to recognise his

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contribution properly and fully and with deep dignity. That's very

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important. I think President Jacob Zuma encapsulated the feelings of

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the nation when he said we've lost one of our greatest sons. I think

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that that is exactly how the nation will feel here in South Africa. .

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Remember Mr Mandela liberated millions of black South Africans

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from racial oppression. But he also liberated the oppressors themselves

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when he walked out of prison and said, let's bygone be bygones.

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That's how the nation will remember him as they prepare for his funeral.

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Milton, for now, thank you. We are expecting President Obama to

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make a statement in a short while. We'll bring that to you straight

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away. David Cameron is leading the tributes tonight, saying that a

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great light has gone out in the world. Nick Robinson our political

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editor is at Westminster. Nick, I just gave a brief summary there of

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what the Prime Minister's been saying. Tell us more. I can think of

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no other figure that's had greater influence on Britain. No other world

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figure has more stirred and moved and inspired the current number of

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leaders. He said Nelson Mandela was a hero of time. He went on to say he

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had asked the flag to be flown at half-mast at Number ten. Mr Cameron

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met Nelson Mandela when he was Leader of the Opposition. It was a

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poignant meeting because David Cameron had apologised for the way

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his own party, the Conservative Party, had handled apartheid. Mrs

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Thatcher had talked about using the carrot rather than the stick. In a

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very, very different time, the ANC were then suspected by many on the

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right of having associations with the Soviet Union, in some way of

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being the enemy of the West. But Mr Cameron embrace Mr Mandela and met

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him again, and has photographs of Nelson Mandela in his flat in

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Downing Street. Ed Miliband, the Labour leader, very close to many

:18:56.:18:59.

members of the African National Congress. Including some who stood

:19:00.:19:04.

trial with Nelson Mandela, which led to imprisonment for more than a

:19:05.:19:08.

quarter of a century. It wasn't until 2007 that Ed Miliband met

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Mandela. It was at the unveiling of a statue that stands in Parliament

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Square. He too I think will be very affected. Nick Clegg I'm told never

:19:20.:19:25.

got to meet Mr Mandela but like many of his age went to the Free Mandela

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Concert at Wembley, which was part of the great campaign that stirred

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so many in Britain to try to get Mandela released. There was

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controversy about how to handle apartheid while in prison, but after

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he was out Mandela was embraced by all and he was forgiving and was a

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frequent visitor to this country. There'll be many people I'm sure who

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are remembering where they were when he was released, when he became

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President, when he made one of those frequent visits. I was one of those

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lucky enough to meet him. All I've spoken to talk of the same thing:

:20:05.:20:08.

Quiet dignity and enormous strength of character.

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Nick, you you rightly mentioned the impact here in the UK. Many people

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will be mourning his death. It's the impossible to think of any other

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world statesman whose death would have this kind of, would deliver

:20:23.:20:27.

this kind of blow, if you like, to millions of people around the world.

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That's right, because he became a symbol of something. For so many he

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became a symbol of one man's strength, the power to endure

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against imprisonment, against terrible injustice, and also the

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strej of character -- strength of character once out of prison not

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then to be embittered, not then to turn on those who had imprisoned

:20:50.:20:54.

him, not then to search out for those he might regard as having been

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previously his or the ANC's enemies. . He seemed capable not just only of

:21:00.:21:06.

embracing people in his country but people throughout the world,

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whatever their view had been. As such he became for politicians as

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well as ordinary people a symbol of that strength of personality and the

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ability to overcome bitterness and terrible injustice. Nick, for now,

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thank you. Let's go live to Washington to our

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North American editor. We are expecting a statement from President

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Obama quite soon? He'll be making a statement very shortly indeed. I

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think it will be a pretty emotional moment. Nelson Mandela is the

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closest the world has to a secular saint. He has a particular meaning

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in this country, which has had its own struggle against legally imposed

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racism. And already the tributes have started coming from across the

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political spectrum. George W Bush said he and his wife join the people

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of South Africa in paying tribute. President Mandela bore his buried

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beens with dignity and grace and the world is better off because of his

:22:08.:22:10.

example, he says. The great man will be missed but his contributions will

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live forever. George Bush's father, George HW Bush, says he mourns the

:22:19.:22:22.

passing of one of the greatest believers in freedom we've had the

:22:23.:22:26.

privilege to know. He talks of his moral courage, which changed the

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course of history. I think we'll see a lot more tributes like that. Let's

:22:31.:22:36.

talk about the reaction, likely reaction across the United States.

:22:37.:22:39.

Nick Robinson earlier touched on the fact this is a man whose reputation

:22:40.:22:45.

has changed over the past 40 or 50 years. What take would you have on

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that in America? I think that's right. This country knows all about

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racism, knows all about history, so I think he is especially celebrated

:22:57.:23:00.

here because of that. As Nick said, it is an important point that it is

:23:01.:23:04.

not just what he stood for, what he fought for. It is when he got out of

:23:05.:23:09.

prison. The sense that he could forgive, the sense that he could

:23:10.:23:15.

come to an accommodation with the people who had been his poem's

:23:16.:23:18.

oppressors. That is very important in this country. It is something

:23:19.:23:22.

that President Obama has already referred to in June of this year. He

:23:23.:23:27.

was in South Africa. He visited the cell on Robben Island where Nelson

:23:28.:23:32.

Mandela was held prisoner. He wrote in the book there that he was

:23:33.:23:37.

humbled to stand where men of such courage had faced down injustice. He

:23:38.:23:43.

went on to write, no shackles or cells can match the strength of the

:23:44.:23:48.

human spirit. Only last month at the White House, President Obama hosted

:23:49.:23:54.

a reception to show the film The Walk To Freedom about Nelson

:23:55.:23:58.

Mandela. He said then that truth and justice will win out. Something that

:23:59.:24:02.

President Obama is always very keen to stress, and stress in the terms

:24:03.:24:07.

of this country's own civil rights movement. That he often uses the

:24:08.:24:14.

quote about the moral ark of the universe bends slowly but bends

:24:15.:24:18.

towards freedom. I think he will put Nelson Mandela in that context when

:24:19.:24:22.

he makes his own comments, which we are expecting very soon indeed. . He

:24:23.:24:26.

should have been up at the White House five minutes ago but we are

:24:27.:24:31.

expecting him shortly. Mark, we'll be right back when that happens.

:24:32.:24:38.

Thank you. When Mr Mandela was jailed in 1962

:24:39.:24:43.

the authorities hoped to undermine his authority and to destroy his

:24:44.:24:46.

ambition to end the apartheid system. And bring about a democratic

:24:47.:24:51.

transformation. He once said the prison years had helped to shape

:24:52.:24:58.

him. As George Alagiah experience, the prison experience turned him

:24:59.:25:05.

into a strong and unyield opponent. It has been a lepar colony and

:25:06.:25:10.

military base but most famously the place where Nelson Mandela was

:25:11.:25:17.

jailed for 25 years. . The prisoner who became a President went back to

:25:18.:25:21.

the bleak island and to the cell where his only view of the world was

:25:22.:25:25.

through steel bars. One of the things that was difficult to

:25:26.:25:28.

comprehend was that we spent such a long time here. He was back at the

:25:29.:25:33.

lime quarry where all political prisoners were forced into hard

:25:34.:25:37.

labour, a back-breaking task designed to crush their spirits. But

:25:38.:25:42.

far from it. Robben Island became a kind of finishing school for

:25:43.:25:45.

activists, with Nelson Mandela himself sometimes giving the

:25:46.:25:52.

lessons. The a visibly frail Nelson Mandela returned to the island in

:25:53.:25:54.

retirement and remembered how he once turned the tablesen a warder

:25:55.:26:00.

who threatened him. I said, you dare touch me I will take you to the

:26:01.:26:05.

highest court in the land, and by the time I finished with you, you

:26:06.:26:10.

will be as poor as a church mouse. He then stopped. The courtyard, the

:26:11.:26:15.

cells, the quarry, the backdrop against which the prisoners fought

:26:16.:26:21.

to preserve their humanity. Ahmed was there with Nelson Mandela. Our

:26:22.:26:26.

general approach was that we are not going to do anything that impinges

:26:27.:26:33.

on our dignity. Dozens of freedom fighters were banished to Robben

:26:34.:26:39.

Island but Nelson Mandela's authority was there to see. You

:26:40.:26:44.

could tell that Nelson Mandela was the leader of the group. When he

:26:45.:26:49.

spoke to his colleagues, they would stand still or work or whatever. In

:26:50.:26:52.

other words he would lead by example.

:26:53.:26:57.

In the divided nation outside, a new generation was taking to the

:26:58.:27:02.

streets. The leader of the Soweto uprising in 1976 were angry and

:27:03.:27:06.

impatient with the old guard. But even they would eventually bow to Mr

:27:07.:27:16.

Mandela's moral authority. Cyril ram pose za says if anything

:27:17.:27:22.

imprisonment had raised his profile. But imprisoning him they gave him a

:27:23.:27:26.

life that was much larger than life itself. They actually made him the

:27:27.:27:37.

hero of our struggle. They created a martyr. Created an icon. Around whom

:27:38.:27:44.

everybody rallied. The man who emergeded from prison did not

:27:45.:27:48.

disappoint. And as he once said to me, prison had taught him to think

:27:49.:27:56.

through his brain, not his blonde. The one-time firebrand was ready to

:27:57.:28:03.

reconcile old enemies. Let's carry on with our tributes and

:28:04.:28:07.

underline what we are reporting tonight. If you are just joining us

:28:08.:28:11.

here on BBC News we are reporting from South Africa the death of

:28:12.:28:15.

former President Mandela, who was 95.He had of course been ill for

:28:16.:28:19.

quite a long time. In the past three months increasingly frail,

:28:20.:28:22.

discharged from hospital in September, his third visit to

:28:23.:28:26.

hospital this year. The news announced by President Zuma just a

:28:27.:28:30.

few minutes ago that former President Mandela has passed away.

:28:31.:28:35.

With me two people with very interesting stories to share with us

:28:36.:28:39.

about their experiences in South Africa. James Robbins, who was there

:28:40.:28:45.

for the BBC back in the early 1990s when Mr Mandela was released, and

:28:46.:28:51.

our South African correspondent. What are your memories of that day,

:28:52.:29:01.

you must have been very young. I was ten years old of when Nelson Mandela

:29:02.:29:05.

walked out of the prison when he was holding hands with his former wife,

:29:06.:29:11.

Winnie Madikezela Mandela. I grew up in a family where it has always been

:29:12.:29:15.

instilled in us the importance of why people like Nelson Mandela

:29:16.:29:19.

fought and liberated South Africa. I had been be, it was a Sunday and I

:29:20.:29:25.

had been sent to the shops on that day. When I came back I found my

:29:26.:29:29.

mother staring at the TV screen and she was crying. I said to her, but

:29:30.:29:36.

why are you crying? ? What's wrong? For a good 15 or 20 seconds she did

:29:37.:29:42.

not answer me. She held me and shook me and said to me, this is the day

:29:43.:29:47.

you will never forget for the rest of your life. You are now free. That

:29:48.:29:53.

to me... I'm constantly reminded of that, each time I see the beauty of

:29:54.:29:59.

South Africa, and all its flaws, Nelson Mandela to a lot of South

:30:00.:30:03.

Africans stands for peace. He stands for reconciliation when a lot of

:30:04.:30:08.

black people were calling for revenge when he was released. He was

:30:09.:30:12.

the one who preached peace. He said in one of his speeches, I studied

:30:13.:30:18.

the Afrikaner for all the 27 years that I was in prison. I am going to

:30:19.:30:23.

beat them at their own game. I am preaching forgiveness. And that is

:30:24.:30:27.

how you defeat the enemy. That is what he kept on saying.

:30:28.:30:34.

Given that deep respect and that deep admiration, what were your

:30:35.:30:37.

feelings when you heard the news tonight? For a long time South

:30:38.:30:42.

Africans have always known, and the world, we've always known that

:30:43.:30:46.

Mandela was very ill. He was 95 years old. We've always been told by

:30:47.:30:53.

family, by members of the presidency and Government that he was stable,

:30:54.:30:57.

but critical. But all we knew a was that he was frail. A lot of people

:30:58.:31:02.

have been expecting this news for as long as Nelson Mandela had been

:31:03.:31:08.

released from prison. But this day now that it has happened, it is

:31:09.:31:12.

happening in South Africa, it has gone after midnight right now. A lot

:31:13.:31:16.

of people will not have heard what's happened when they wake up tomorrow

:31:17.:31:21.

morning, but we are likely to see people gather in every bit of open

:31:22.:31:26.

space in South Africa where they will be mourning their hero. Their

:31:27.:31:33.

father. Mandela is dad. That is what we call him in South Africa. It

:31:34.:31:37.

means father. He has been a father to the nation. He is not a saint but

:31:38.:31:41.

he has been good for the reconciliation process of South

:31:42.:31:55.

Africa. Let me bring viewers the response of President Obama. At his

:31:56.:32:03.

trial in 1964, Nelson Mandela closed his statement from the dog, saying"

:32:04.:32:12.

I have fought against white domination. I have fought against

:32:13.:32:17.

black domination. I cherished the ideal of a democratic and free

:32:18.:32:22.

society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal

:32:23.:32:26.

opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve.

:32:27.:32:34.

But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. Nelson

:32:35.:32:41.

Mandela lived for that ideal, and he made it real. He achieved more than

:32:42.:32:48.

could be expected of any man. And today, he has gone home. We have

:32:49.:32:54.

lost one of our most influential, courageous and profoundly good human

:32:55.:32:59.

beings that any of us will share time with on this earth. He no

:33:00.:33:05.

longer belongs to us. He belongs to the ages. Through his fist knitting

:33:06.:33:10.

and unbending will to sacrifice his own freedom above others -- his

:33:11.:33:18.

fierce dignity, Madiba moved all of us. His journey from a prisoner to a

:33:19.:33:25.

president embodied the promise that human beings and countries can

:33:26.:33:30.

change for the better. His commitment to transfer power and

:33:31.:33:37.

reconcile with those who jailed him set an example that all humanity

:33:38.:33:40.

should aspire to, whether in the lives of nations or our own personal

:33:41.:33:44.

lives. And the fact that he did it all with grace and good humour and

:33:45.:33:51.

an ability to acknowledge his own imperfections only makes the man

:33:52.:33:54.

that much more remarkable. As he once said, "I am not a St, unless

:33:55.:34:01.

you think of a St as a sinner who keeps trying". President Obama,

:34:02.:34:08.

speaking at the White House a few minutes ago, with his moving

:34:09.:34:12.

tribute, having heard the news that Nelson Mandela has died. With me now

:34:13.:34:22.

are James Robbins, who spent much time reporting from South Africa.

:34:23.:34:26.

What are your memories of that time? My strongest memory is the privilege

:34:27.:34:31.

of being in Cape Town on that Sunday in February, 1990, when Nelson

:34:32.:34:38.

Mandela walked out of business. It was the most important moment in my

:34:39.:34:42.

journalistic career. You have to remember, this was a man whose image

:34:43.:34:51.

was banned in South Africa. It was not lawful to have an image of

:34:52.:34:55.

Nelson Mandela. People were sent to prison for having his photograph on

:34:56.:34:59.

a coffee mug. He had been suppressed utterly and become something of a

:35:00.:35:03.

myth, but he came out the man. He made that walk to Freedom. The very

:35:04.:35:08.

next day, I remember sitting in Archbishop Desmond Tutu's Darden at

:35:09.:35:12.

the first conference the newly released Nelson Mandela gave Mo and

:35:13.:35:17.

I asked him, what surprised you most as you made that walk towards the

:35:18.:35:21.

prison gates? He said it was the number of white people who had come

:35:22.:35:27.

among the huge black crowd. That was a deliberately reconciling statement

:35:28.:35:31.

already, at that very first instant. He was being elliptical and -- being

:35:32.:35:40.

political and holding out a hand to the minority who he knew he had to

:35:41.:35:44.

embrace. That was an extraordinary thing to hear from a man who had

:35:45.:35:48.

lost 27 years of his life. He had been in prison when his first son

:35:49.:35:52.

had died and suffered so much deprivation, and yet he was

:35:53.:35:54.

radiating forgiveness from the moment he came out of prison. That

:35:55.:36:01.

is my abiding memory. He was, in the proper sense of this word, a unique

:36:02.:36:08.

figure. He was. He was surely the only truly global hero of our age.

:36:09.:36:14.

It was his utter consistency and his committee and his forgiveness that

:36:15.:36:21.

marks him out -- his committee. He inspired a whole nation. He

:36:22.:36:30.

transcended the white regime that had pressed him for so long. They

:36:31.:36:39.

wanted to negotiate with him, and he said "I cannot negotiate unless I am

:36:40.:36:44.

a free man" . They kept putting pressure on him to renounce violence

:36:45.:36:47.

while he was still in his prison cell. What did he say? "I cannot

:36:48.:36:53.

negotiate as long as I remain in prison and I will not abandon the

:36:54.:36:58.

principle of one man, one vote". They were terrified of what might

:36:59.:37:03.

happen. They had no cause to be terrified, because he presided over

:37:04.:37:08.

an extraordinary multiracial democracy. Whatever the problems of

:37:09.:37:31.

South Africa now, let's not centuries in which they had been

:37:32.:37:33.

inferior citizens in their own land. James watched them queue in

:37:34.:37:41.

their millions to take heart in the democratic process. He has been back

:37:42.:37:44.

to find out how that day changed people's lives.

:37:45.:37:51.

South African families, out enjoying themselves. You might not think

:37:52.:37:53.

there is anything unusual about that, but to me, who reported from

:37:54.:38:00.

South Africa at the height of apartheid in the 1980s, this is

:38:01.:38:02.

extraordinary. This was then a white only suburb. I was reporting on the

:38:03.:38:13.

struggle against apartheid and the regime's extraordinarily brutal

:38:14.:38:17.

response to any opposition. In the years since then and since Nelson

:38:18.:38:24.

Mandela's release, I have been back several times, talking to ordinary

:38:25.:38:27.

South Africans, black and white, about the immense difference Nelson

:38:28.:38:31.

Mandela made their lives. These are some of their stories. Antoinette

:38:32.:38:37.

Pietersen is still coming to terms with her terrible loss as a

:38:38.:38:43.

schoolgirl in the 1970s. Look at her screaming grief. It is June 1976,

:38:44.:38:47.

and her 13-year-old brother Hector has just in shock and killed the

:38:48.:38:52.

police, first victim of the Soweto uprising. This museum of up

:38:53.:38:59.

apartheid in Soweto has been named in Hector Peterson's honour.

:39:00.:39:03.

Schoolchildren learn their divided history here. For several years,

:39:04.:39:09.

Hector's sister Antoinette chose to be one of the guides, to confront

:39:10.:39:14.

her own past every day and her grief. After years, trying to bury

:39:15.:39:21.

it, failing to face it, she says Nelson Mandela inspired her to

:39:22.:39:25.

change. I never thought I would talk about what happened. Every time I

:39:26.:39:31.

spoke about it, I became traumatised and confused. But Mandela went to

:39:32.:39:37.

prison for 27 years and kept going. Why can't I do the same? Next, the

:39:38.:39:43.

story of Herman Daly. I met him in 2004. In the Cape wine lands, the

:39:44.:39:49.

mayor of Wellington is showing some of the riches of South Africa to the

:39:50.:39:55.

Japanese ambassador, drumming up business for the nonracial rainbow

:39:56.:39:59.

nation which Nelson Mandela did so much to create. Under apartheid,

:40:00.:40:02.

Herman, then classified as Cape coloured, could never have been

:40:03.:40:07.

mayor of a wealthy town ruled by the white minority. It is the values of

:40:08.:40:16.

the man, Nelson Mandela. To have been incarcerated all those years

:40:17.:40:19.

and come out and in his very first speech said to let bygones be

:40:20.:40:23.

bygones, no South African who was at the time very influenced by the then

:40:24.:40:28.

government could have leapt these were the words of somebody was

:40:29.:40:33.

incarcerated for so long. Now meet Chris, another prisoner of

:40:34.:40:39.

apartheid. This is the Valley of grace, further east in the Cape. In

:40:40.:40:43.

1738, it was the first Christian missions nation in South Africa.

:40:44.:40:49.

More recently, this is a community which resisted apartheid, causing

:40:50.:40:54.

Nelson Mandela to name his Cape Town home after the village. Chris was

:40:55.:40:58.

pastor of the church here. He was imprisoned in the 1970s for daring

:40:59.:41:04.

to oppose white supremacy. 69 days in solitary confinement almost

:41:05.:41:08.

killed him. Nelson Mandela's example kept him going. I got the feeling I

:41:09.:41:16.

would never come out alive. Sitting there with my thoughts, I thought, I

:41:17.:41:21.

wonder what Nelson Mandela was doing at that time, having been there for

:41:22.:41:27.

so many years, separated from his family. How could he endure such

:41:28.:41:35.

torture for so many years 's here I sat for only a few month, and yet it

:41:36.:41:42.

was so hard. It was practically unbearable. And that gave me

:41:43.:41:47.

strength. Hedwig is our last witness to Nelson Mandela's greatness.

:41:48.:41:56.

Hedwig is a schoolteacher who used to believe Nelson Mandela was a

:41:57.:42:02.

terrorist to be feared, not admired. Her pupils were exclusively white

:42:03.:42:08.

until the mid-1990s. Now she rejoices in the change to

:42:09.:42:12.

multiracial education. But back then, she was scared when Nelson

:42:13.:42:16.

Mandela was freed from prison. Was it going to be safe for white South

:42:17.:42:25.

African? Will we be able to move round the way we used to? Are we

:42:26.:42:28.

going to be thrown into jail because we are white? He started talking and

:42:29.:42:38.

reassured people that there will never be a thing like apartheid in

:42:39.:42:42.

South Africa. It set our minds at rest. The stories of just a handful

:42:43.:42:46.

of South Africans who lived through the worst of times. There are

:42:47.:42:51.

thousands of South Africans with similar stories to tell. It helps

:42:52.:42:57.

explain why, for them, Nelson Mandela was not only a hero, but a

:42:58.:43:02.

giant of his age. To see his legacy, whatever the problems that still

:43:03.:43:06.

confront South Africa, to see the new, free South Africa, you just

:43:07.:43:13.

have to look around. We will have more reaction in a

:43:14.:43:19.

short while and talk more about President Obama. Bill Gates has paid

:43:20.:43:23.

tribute, and the UN Secretary-General, Ban Ki-Moon.

:43:24.:43:30.

James, your impressions when you went back, clearly, people want to

:43:31.:43:36.

talk and pay tribute and recognise what happened to them on that day

:43:37.:43:42.

which changed millions of lives? That is absolutely right. Every

:43:43.:43:45.

South African, regardless of their political view, was touched by that

:43:46.:43:50.

moment. Of course, there were some on the far right in South Africa who

:43:51.:43:55.

were appalled and felt betrayed by their leaders that the hard line

:43:56.:43:59.

that had been taken since 1948 had been abandoned. They were

:44:00.:44:04.

frightened. The schoolteacher their echo that. She was not from the far

:44:05.:44:08.

right, but she was nervous because white South Africa had utterly

:44:09.:44:12.

demonised Nelson Mandela and the entire ANC, all those who stood

:44:13.:44:15.

behind him. It was a dangerous moment. All the years immediately

:44:16.:44:20.

after his release were dangerous moments. These were tough

:44:21.:44:25.

negotiations which Nelson Mandela had to lead to persuade all South

:44:26.:44:29.

Africans that actually, they could feel safe in the hands of an ANC

:44:30.:44:34.

government which was eventually elected. It is impossible to

:44:35.:44:42.

exaggerate the extent to which he had to have moral political stature.

:44:43.:44:48.

Everybody around him in the ANC acknowledged that he was head and

:44:49.:44:52.

shoulders above them. There were rivalries within the ANC, but not

:44:53.:44:57.

about him. You were saying also about your memories of the day when

:44:58.:45:02.

he was released. I am wondering about the significance of that

:45:03.:45:07.

election, when he became the first president of South Africa. What was

:45:08.:45:14.

the impact of that day? When all of this was happening I was too young,

:45:15.:45:19.

too young to even vote in 1994 when millions of South Africans were

:45:20.:45:24.

bussed in at a school that was opposite our house where my mother

:45:25.:45:28.

and I lived. A lot of people were wearing ANC colours, shouting, "Viva

:45:29.:45:36.

Mandela." And talking about not just Nelson Mandela but the likes of ol

:45:37.:45:48.

have Tambo, Sisull - -- Sisulu. There was a lot of nervousness. As

:45:49.:45:53.

much as people were shouting and happy, there was a lot of police

:45:54.:45:58.

presence there. People were worried about what was going to happen. What

:45:59.:46:04.

are we expecting for the next day? And as you rightly say, it is not

:46:05.:46:08.

everyone in South Africa who was happy about the release of Nelson

:46:09.:46:12.

Mandela from prison, but things over the years seem to have changed,

:46:13.:46:18.

because of this reconciliation and forgiveness that Nelson Mandela kept

:46:19.:46:22.

preaching. Each time that Nelson Mandela is sick and is hospitalised

:46:23.:46:28.

or was sick and hospitalised, a lot of South Africans by the millions

:46:29.:46:31.

would be virtually in that waiting room along with the family. But it

:46:32.:46:37.

was now white people saying, please don't let him die, because we don't

:46:38.:46:42.

know what future is out there for us white South Africans. Because there

:46:43.:46:47.

is still a belief by some white South Africans that when Mandela

:46:48.:46:52.

goes, which is what we've seen here, that his long walk to freedom has

:46:53.:46:57.

ended. What is to happen to them? That is the question that a lot of

:46:58.:47:01.

people are still asking. Thank you very much. I mentioned that the UN

:47:02.:47:08.

Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon has been paying tribute. He called

:47:09.:47:14.

Nelson Mandela a giant of jus is. Bill Gates said they were inspired

:47:15.:47:20.

when they met President Mandela a number of times, saying he was a

:47:21.:47:23.

tireless fighter in pursuit of equality and justice for all people.

:47:24.:47:27.

Another tribute this evening in London at the film premiere of

:47:28.:47:31.

Mandela. The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge were there. This is what

:47:32.:47:37.

they had to say. Extremely sad and tragic news, the we are reminded

:47:38.:47:41.

what an extraordinary and inspiring man Nelson Mandela was. My thoughts

:47:42.:47:46.

and prayers are with his family right now. A tribute from the Duke

:47:47.:47:54.

of Cambridge earlier tonight. We saw President Obama earlier talking

:47:55.:47:59.

about President Mandela's contribution. Mark Mardell is in

:48:00.:48:05.

Washington for us with his thoughts on what the President said, what did

:48:06.:48:11.

you make of it? It thought it was interesting on a number of levels.

:48:12.:48:14.

President Obama spoke about his own first political involvement being in

:48:15.:48:19.

the antiapartheid movement. This is a theme we'll see over the coming

:48:20.:48:23.

days, just as doubtless people in South Africa took inspiration from

:48:24.:48:27.

the civil rights movement in the United States, so people in the

:48:28.:48:31.

civil rights movement looked towards South Africa and felt a pride in

:48:32.:48:35.

seeing a black President in place. It is America's first black

:48:36.:48:40.

President who paid tribute tonight to the fierce dignity, as he called

:48:41.:48:45.

it, of Nelson Mandela. He took a great lesson from that. He said that

:48:46.:48:49.

Nelson Mandela no longer belongs to us but to the ages. He said there

:48:50.:48:55.

was a lesson not just for politics but for people in their own personal

:48:56.:49:00.

lives. That decisions should be guided not by hate but by love. He

:49:01.:49:06.

went on to echo a quote from Martin Luther King which in itself echoes a

:49:07.:49:12.

quote from a white antislavery campaigner. He said he took history

:49:13.:49:17.

in his hands and bent the moral arc of the universe towards justice.

:49:18.:49:27.

We've been reporting the death of former President Mandela in South

:49:28.:49:33.

Africa at the age of 95. He had been increasingly frail in recent months.

:49:34.:49:38.

Lots of concern about his health oh the past two or 3 years. But the

:49:39.:49:44.

news was announced by President Zuma about 45 minutes ago that the former

:49:45.:49:46.

President has passed away. At this point some of our viewers in the UK

:49:47.:49:51.

are leaving us briefly for the news and weather where you are. Our

:49:52.:49:54.

coverage of the news of the death of Nelson Mandela continues on BBC News

:49:55.:49:57.

Channel and BBC World

:49:58.:49:58.

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