Nelson Mandela BBC News Special


Nelson Mandela

Huw Edwards presents a special news report from the BBC, with reaction and tributes following the announcement that Nelson Mandela has died.


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We will report on his remarkable life from prisoner to president,

:00:16.:00:22.

from freedom fighter to local statesman. President Zuma has made

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this announcement. Our beloved Nelson Mandela, the founding

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president of our democratic nation has departed. He'd become

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increasingly frail in recent years and died at home in Johannesburg,

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surrounded by close family members. We've lost one of the most

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influential, courageous and profoundly good human beings that

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any of us will share time with on this earth. He no longer belongs to

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us. He belongs to the ages. Tonight, one of the brightest lights of our

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world has gone out. He spent three decades in jail, an enemy of the

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apartheid regime and a determined fighter for democracy. There's Mr

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Nelson Mandela, a free man, taking his first steps into a new South

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Africa. His long walk to freedom was celebrated worldwide. He became one

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of the towering figures of the past century. His election as South

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Africa's first black president brought a spirit of reconciliation

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after all the pain of apartheid. Never and never again shall it be

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that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by

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another. Good evening. The former South African president, Nelson

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Mandela, has died at home at the age of 95. Mr Mandela spent nearly three

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decades in prison, fighting for equality and in 1994, South Africa

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held its first multiethnic, fully representative elections and he

:02:21.:02:24.

became president. The former antiapartheid leader, who led the

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struggle against white minority rule had been suffering from a recurrence

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of a lung infection, was taken to hospital in Pretoria at the

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beginning of June. It was the third time this year that he had needed

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hospital treatment. He had been receiving treatment at home after

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that. His death was announced by the South African president, Jacob Zuma.

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Fellow South Africans, our beloved Nelson Mandela, the founding

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president of our democratic nation has departed. He passed on

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peacefully in the company of his family around 20. 50, on the 5th of

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December, 2013. He is now resting. He is now at peace. Our nation has

:03:31.:03:43.

lost its greatest son. Our people have lost a father. Jacob Zuma make

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being the announcement just over an hour ago of the death of President

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Mandela, at the age of 95 and underlining his immense contribution

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to the people of South Africa and indeed, his status as a towering

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figure during the Twentieth Century Anderson emblem of freedom and

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justice throughout the world. Our correspondent is in Johannesburg and

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Gabriel can tell us more about the tributes being paid in the past

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hour. Yes, well we've seen tributes coming

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not only from Jacob Zuma, as you heard there, but also from around

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the world. David Cameron, Barack Obama, everywhere you can think of,

:04:32.:04:37.

people are talking about the symbol of justice that Nelson Mandela meant

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to the world. Looking a little bit closer at Jacob Zuma's statement, I

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think some of the key words to pick out there are "a sense of profound

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and enduring loss, that South Africa had lost its greatest son and that

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our people have lost a father." He's known as Nelson Mandela to the world

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but here in South Africa, he's often known by his tribal name Madiba or

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simply Tata, father. Jacob Zuma went on to say, "in him we saw so much of

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ourselves". That's a key thing here at this moment in South Africa, that

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is what people are mourning. They feel like a part of themselves, part

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of this nation, has left them. They identified Nelson Mandela in a

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sense, as the emblem of their better selves, of everything they wanted to

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achieve. Jacob Zuma said - let us reaffirm his vision of a society in

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which no-one is exploited or oppressed, to build a united and

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nonracial and prosperous South Africa. In the coming days, we will

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see South Africans gathering in cities and towns and villages to

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mark the respect with which they hold Nelson Mandela, for achieving

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everything that he did achieve in a peaceful, relatively peaceful

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transition from apartheid to democracy, but also, recognising, I

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think, in the coming days, how much distance this country still has to

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travel to achieve that vision. As you speak, we've been seeing images

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of people at the Mandela residence in Johannesburg. Really telling us

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something about a fusion of emotions, there'll be an outpouring

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of grief, clearly, for many millions of people, but there is a mood of

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celebration in one sense, celebrating all the remarkable

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things that this man achieved. I think that's right. Mixed emotions.

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People are sad. People feel that profound sense of loss, but Nelson

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Mandela is a symbol of hope and people will indeed be coming

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together to remember that, to remember him as an emblem, not just,

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a fighter against oppression, but as a man who could forgive, who could

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bring this country together against so many odds. I think what we've

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seen, in fact, in the last six months, ever since Mr Mandela went

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into hospital in June, and we were told that it was very, very serious,

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people beginning to prepare for this moment and beginning to begin to be

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able to believe it, in a sense. Even though South Africans have had six

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months to prepare themselves, you still constantly heard this hope

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against hope that he might just carry on. The word "fighter" was

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constantly used. Indeed, two days ago, on Tuesday, Nelson Mandela's

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eldest daughter said that while she could see that her father was

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suffering, on what she called his death bed, she said he continued to

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inspire, continued to fight courageously, she said he continues

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to teach us lessons. Thank you for now.

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Remarkable scenes in Johannesburg because we have dancing and singing,

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all of it dignified, of course, as you'd expect and really a show of

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admiration and respect in the way that people want to share their

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feelings and share their love for Mr Mandela. And to show that they're

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there with the family too. Very nice scenes for us to be able to see,

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these are the live images from Johannesburg now.

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I do believe that we're joined on the line by the former South African

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president FWDeKlerk. Good evening. Good evening. Thank you so much for

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joining us on such a momentous day. Can I ask you your thoughts now that

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you've heard the news of Mr Mandela's passing. It's a very sad

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moment for the whole of South African and I'm -- South Africa and

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I'm sure for millions of people around the world. I fully associate

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myself with the dignified and feeling statement which President

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Zuma made. I've become good friends with the late Nelson Mandela. We had

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our moments of political opponents, but our retirement and at times,

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during his presidency, we became very close. He's a remarkable man.

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He was a remarkable man. Because legacy will be the emphasis on

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reconciliation. He's a remarkable lack of bit Ernst. He -- bitterness.

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He didn't only talk about reconciliation. He lived

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reconciliation. He was a great union firing. -- unifier. Mr President, I

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hope you can still hear me. Are you still there? I'm still here. Can you

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hear me? Yes, we can. Very happy to hear you as well and pleased that

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you're with us. The line sounded a little odd. But I'm glad you're

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still there. What was the moment at which your relationship changed,

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when you thought this was a man you could get on with? Yes, the very

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first time I met him, he was brought under cover of darkness from his

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home, where he was living. My first impression of him was he was taller

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than I expected. He had a dignified air around him. He spoke with great

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clarity. I found him an analytical listener. I immediately liked him

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and there was a spark between us. That chemistry, as it developed, was

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based on mutual respect. How did he come to show that respect given that

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the apartheid regime had done so much for him. He had a remarkable

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lack of bitterness, that he understood the concerns of my people

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and what I represented in public life. And that he was prepared to go

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out of his way to accommodate those concerns without giving up his

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principle. From our side of negotiatiations, we also understood

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the concerns of the ANC. We tried to accommodate it and all this led it a

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remarkable agreement, a remarkable consensus, which is embodied in our

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very good constitution. Mr President, how would you say that

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the shape of modern South Africa bears the imprint of Mr Mandela?

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What would you point to principally as his greatest legacy? I think his

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greatest legacy and the influence on the South African nation is that we

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are basically at peace with each other, notwithstanding our great

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diversity, that we will be taking hands once again now, around our

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common sadness and mourning. He's got this legacy that he was a

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unifier and that he successfully built the bridge between the

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conflict of the past and the peace of today.

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As you speak to us, we're seeing images of you getting the Nobel

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Prize and talking about unity, both of you shaking hands and celebrating

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what you've achieved, all those years ago. Again, the warmth between

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you is clear. I just want to finally thank you for being with us and ask

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you for just a thought for the Mandela family and what they're

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going through tonight. My wife and I have been close in our later years,

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in these later years and we've reached out to his wife and to all

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his children, also to Winnie, his former wife, his children and

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grandchildren and great chand children, our -- great

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grandchildren, we hold them in our sympathy. That was the former

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president of South Africa, FWDeKlerk. More tributes in a second

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because that's important, including President Obama. Wasn't that

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fascinating, assen insight. For me, it was extraordinary. It's

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interesting that President DE Klerk he took over from the last great

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tyrant of South Africa, who was rigidly against compromise. None of

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us knew where President De-Klerk would leave South Africa. I don't

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think he knew where he would leave South Africa. He knew that he had to

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do something. That stick him most when he met Nelson Mandela.

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We are joined by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, thank you very much. Your

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thoughts this evening? A moment of sadness, but Nelson Mandela took us

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to unbelievable heights, this takes us to unbelievable depths, he was a

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force for good. Having suffered on his way into prominence, with his

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suffering and his vision, he chose at a critical moment reconciliation

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over retribution. If he had she was in retribution for the years of

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suffering, there would have been a bloody and divided both Africa even

:15:47.:15:54.

today. But this sets an example for the world. Using the political

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process for resolution. Not a violent one. The former president,

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President FW de Klerk, seeing this man commanded authority we he went.

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What was your experience that authority? He was a talented and

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bright lawyer. Oliver is life was caught up -- all of his life was

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caught up in this ambition to free his country. He came up in the

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ranks, tried nonviolence for a wild, and the government was told rigid,

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killing people with massacres in Soweto and other places, finally

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becoming the general of the military arm of Free South Africa. A remember

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him saying in our last conversation, when they finally find him, they had

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been bombing installations, railroads and the like, and were

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about to escalate again to attack some people, maybe hospitals and

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schools, and he was glad he was caught, rather than suffering in

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jail than killing innocent people. That's ends of principle, tough

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mind, tender heart, was Nelson Mandela. Everywhere he went, there

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was an army of people waiting to admire and express their views. And

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yet, this was a man whose reputation change significantly. How did he

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manage that a change and what was your perception of that? People have

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the capacity to change and not the landlocked. He saw the power of

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suffering and nonviolence. He saw the power of reconciliation. He saw

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a new South Africa that would have to be a nonracial South Africa,

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white people having a place, everyone having a place. He knew

:17:53.:17:57.

there was some history of the role of Mahatma Gandhi. A strong Indian

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constituency. He knew that some people would not support that. He

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had to reconcile these moving parts and did so with a keen analytical

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mind. But one thing that struck me when he came out of jail that

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Sunday, after 27 years, piratical it he was. His mind remained sharp to

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the very end. We have more remarkable scenes, this time from

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Soweto. Such a symbolically important township, of course, where

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there were a lot of incidents reported in the past, some of them

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travelling. And right at the heart of the story of South Africa. As we

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are seeing those images, we're there will be lots of grief, but also

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celebrating, Mr Jackson, tell us how this is likely to impact on people

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in the United States, where let's face it, there will be many millions

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of people, black people, looking at this news and pondering what he

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achieved but the future of South Africa, which in recent years has

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been maybe more unsteady than it should have been? And steady,

:19:17.:19:23.

because Africa is free but not equal. There is that economical

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disparity where do people own the land and corporate power. Many

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people language than poverty. That is unfinished business. -- more

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people languish in poverty. Fighting against degradation, R Buddhism, --

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fighting against degradation, and he fought against that. He could have

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been the lifetime president. I'd have him comes Thabo Mbeki, then

:19:53.:20:02.

Jacob Zuma. -- out of him. That is a part of his legacy. We end with a

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lovely photograph of you with Nelson Mandela, and we thank you for your

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comments tonight. Reverend Jesse Jackson there. I think on the line

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from Johannesburg, we have the South African businessman, Saki Macozoma,

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who spent time on Robben Island with Nelson Mandela. Thank you so much

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for joining us. Can I have your thoughts on this sad news? Thank you

:20:31.:20:36.

very much. I think this is something a lot of us had been expecting. He

:20:37.:20:43.

had been ill for a long time. And I have been listening to all the

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tributes that have been paid to him and I can confirm I have not heard

:20:47.:20:53.

any exaggeration. When Nelson Mandela was released, I was in Cape

:20:54.:21:02.

Town, I was there, I was going around South Africa at the time, and

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remember fondly on that day. Whatever your memories of the

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election itself? We are looking at those powerful, well-known images of

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his release. Then the election that followed, what was your sense of the

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transformation of South Africa on the day of the election? Actually,

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that transformation took a couple of years before the election. The real

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herculean task was the times when Nelson Mandela had to go into places

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like Soweto, and people were being mown down by a known men in the

:21:44.:21:48.

middle of the night and people would get into a train and killed,

:21:49.:21:52.

innocent people. Those were the most difficult times. I remember those

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trips with him, many a time, times when he had to call of negotiation

:21:59.:22:04.

in order to put the point across that the government could not

:22:05.:22:09.

negotiate on the one hand, and allows sinister forces to be keeping

:22:10.:22:14.

people all around. Nelson Mandela also gained respect in the

:22:15.:22:20.

negotiated settlement when he stood up to President FW de Klerk and the

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dated him for not following the agreed protocol -- berated him. A

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lot of people who might have lost faith in him realised that Nelson

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Mandela was not a big teddy bear, that as smooth as he was, there was

:22:43.:22:51.

strength to him. Still looking at nice images from South Africa, the

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flag, being patriotic, clearly paying respect, and the question I

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want to ask you now is about Robben Island, because earlier we were

:23:01.:23:03.

discussing the transformation that happened for Mr Mandela, and you are

:23:04.:23:12.

the best person to ask, what is your sense of how 27 years in jail

:23:13.:23:19.

changed this man? He used to talk about it quite a lot about how the

:23:20.:23:27.

patients he had -- about the patients he needed, that he was not

:23:28.:23:32.

always a patient man, and he was often irritated, because all of the

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time it would take so much time talking to one client, not making

:23:39.:23:42.

much money in the process, and he said being on Robben Island, having

:23:43.:23:46.

the time to read and think and contemplate and debate made him the

:23:47.:23:53.

person that he was, to read about the struggles of other people, and

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the stories of other leaders and what mistakes they had made. One of

:23:59.:24:02.

the striking things when I arrived on Robben Island was how keen they

:24:03.:24:07.

were to listen to those of buyers who were young at the time, coming

:24:08.:24:12.

forth, trying to understand our psychology, what issues concerned as

:24:13.:24:20.

most. And the generation that we were. Robben Island had a lot of

:24:21.:24:27.

input for him, and the character that he became. That was not

:24:28.:24:33.

something that came naturally, it was cultivated, part of preparing to

:24:34.:24:42.

lead a people. Fascinating to Torquay to -- to talk to you and, on

:24:43.:24:49.

today of all days, thank you. James Robbins is still here. The

:24:50.:24:54.

former correspondent in South Africa during that amend this time in the

:24:55.:25:01.

early 1990s. And one of our current correspondence now. She happens to

:25:02.:25:06.

be in London at this time. For you, you mentioned earlier on the power

:25:07.:25:11.

of the release of, and the fact that your mother was in tears when it

:25:12.:25:17.

happened, and you were a young girl trying to grasp the enormity of what

:25:18.:25:21.

was happening. Tell us today a full about the fact that this news

:25:22.:25:26.

clearly is going to mean a lot to most South Africans, but they had

:25:27.:25:31.

been expecting it for a long time. It is still a shock, and I want to

:25:32.:25:37.

talk about the kind of mood we are seeing. Looking at these images now,

:25:38.:25:43.

how would you describe to a UK audience why people would be dancing

:25:44.:25:47.

and celebrating as part of the response to this news? South

:25:48.:25:52.

Africans have always been described as a confused nation. When it comes

:25:53.:25:57.

to South Africans protesting, you will see chanting and dancing on the

:25:58.:26:01.

streets. When they are happy, the chant and dance and laugh and cry.

:26:02.:26:11.

That is the spirit of South Africa, which was also harnessed by

:26:12.:26:13.

President Nelson Mandela when he was preaching reconciliation. We are

:26:14.:26:18.

likely to hear a lot of songs that were being sung, even during

:26:19.:26:23.

apartheid, when Nelson Mandela was the leader of the armed struggle.

:26:24.:26:27.

Both in and out of South Africa, songs that pay tribute to Nelson

:26:28.:26:32.

Mandela, songs that they Nelson Mandela, -- that say to Nelson

:26:33.:26:40.

Mandela, there is no one like you. And there is no one item anywhere in

:26:41.:26:49.

South Africa. Look at Soweto, it is like a party. Underlined the

:26:50.:26:59.

importance of Soweto? We are seeing those streets, because he used to

:27:00.:27:02.

live on the streets, that house where people are celebrating and

:27:03.:27:06.

morning showing the tutors, that is the house that has been turned into

:27:07.:27:13.

a museum. -- celebrating and mourning. Not all South Africans can

:27:14.:27:19.

fit into a hospital waiting room, or where he has been taken, but a lot

:27:20.:27:25.

of, particularly black South Africans still living in townships

:27:26.:27:30.

like Soweto, that place holds significance for a lot of South

:27:31.:27:35.

Africans. Let us hold that thought, because we have been talking to some

:27:36.:27:38.

people in Johannesburg since this news was announced, and this is the

:27:39.:27:43.

kind of thing people are seeing there tonight. I am sad, but at the

:27:44.:27:50.

same time, he has had his part in life and he did it very well. It is

:27:51.:27:57.

fine that he goes, he did all he could, he was old, you know. It is a

:27:58.:28:04.

tragedy, and we have lost a great hero, and people will be upset. It

:28:05.:28:10.

is quite tragic, like being around the families and knowing that the

:28:11.:28:13.

person you have no knowledge of life has gone. That is how we feel right

:28:14.:28:19.

now. At the same time, we should celebrate what he has achieved and

:28:20.:28:24.

given as. I would not be free if it was not for him. What a powerful

:28:25.:28:33.

statement. Absolutely, and he said we should also celebrate. And those

:28:34.:28:39.

scenes on that street. That is where, within a few days of Nelson

:28:40.:28:42.

Mandela being released in prison, that is the one to which he

:28:43.:28:47.

returned, -- released from prison, that is where he returned, and gave

:28:48.:28:52.

his first interview to the BBC with me, within days of coming out of

:28:53.:28:56.

prison. It was a powerful symbol for him. He insisted he wanted to go

:28:57.:29:02.

back to Soweto, to his people. He did not want to put on the clothes

:29:03.:29:05.

of a leader, but be back amongst his people in the home that was

:29:06.:29:09.

important to him at the early stages of his life before going into prison

:29:10.:29:14.

for such a long time, though he renewed his connection with the

:29:15.:29:17.

people of South Africa, broken by that long imprisonment, and hugely

:29:18.:29:21.

symbolic, and strange to see that house, which is now a museum, but

:29:22.:29:28.

hardly surprising, and it is in a predominantly middle-class area of

:29:29.:29:33.

Soweto. In the 1990s, to me, when he came out of prison, that was not

:29:34.:29:38.

imaginable, because the black middle class was almost nonexistent. He and

:29:39.:29:42.

others around him is shared in the poverty of Soweto, because that was

:29:43.:29:47.

forced on them by apartheid. Job reservation, the insistence by white

:29:48.:29:50.

South Africa that black people could only have their jobs, could only

:29:51.:29:55.

have certain levels of education, the delivered minimisation of

:29:56.:29:58.

spending on black education, all things holding black South Africa

:29:59.:30:03.

back, he's so partly helped to change. -- so powerfully help to

:30:04.:30:16.

change. This is a special programme from BBC News, we are reporting

:30:17.:30:21.

about the death of Nelson Mandela at the age of 95. Many tributes have

:30:22.:30:28.

been paid. People want to underline their admiration and love for Nelson

:30:29.:30:31.

Mandela and what he has made to them, not just in South Africa but

:30:32.:30:36.

across the world. Our correspondent considers the people and the places

:30:37.:30:40.

which influenced Nelson Mandela and drove his struggle against the

:30:41.:30:48.

partied regime. -- the apartheid regime. His story is remarkable. Few

:30:49.:30:55.

in history have in history have injured oppression with such little

:30:56.:31:00.

rancour or overcome the oppressor with such little bloodshed. I,

:31:01.:31:09.

Nelson Mandela, do hereby swear to be faithful to the Republic of South

:31:10.:31:19.

Africa. In May 1994, Nelson Mandela, the man white South Africa had

:31:20.:31:23.

imprisoned for nearly 30 years, was sworn in as the first black

:31:24.:31:26.

president of the country. Through his courageous leadership the

:31:27.:31:32.

African National Congress had broken the stranglehold of partied and

:31:33.:31:37.

transformed South Africa into a multiracial democracy. -- of

:31:38.:31:44.

apartheid. Nelson Mandela was born in 1916 in the Eastern Cape of South

:31:45.:31:48.

Africa. He was the son of a tribal chief. He qualified as a lawyer and

:31:49.:31:55.

set up a partnership with a lifelong friend and ally, Oliver Tambo.

:31:56.:32:00.

Together they campaigned against apartheid, an exercise in social

:32:01.:32:05.

engineering under which the white minority in South Africa crushed the

:32:06.:32:11.

aspirations of the black jollity. Mandela was among activists to be

:32:12.:32:18.

charged of high treason. The trial lasted four years before the charges

:32:19.:32:24.

were dropped. The Sharpeville massacre in 1964 speed ANC to change

:32:25.:32:29.

strategy. The police opened fire on demonstrators. The ANC was outlawed

:32:30.:32:35.

and peaceful resistance became a thing of the past. Many people fear

:32:36.:32:43.

that it is useful and futile to continue a campaign of nonviolence

:32:44.:32:46.

against a current -- a government whose only reply is savage action

:32:47.:32:54.

against unarmed people. He undertook a campaign of sabotage against the

:32:55.:32:59.

state. He was eventually arrested and charged with conspiracy to

:33:00.:33:03.

overthrow the government. He made a three-hour speech from the Dock at

:33:04.:33:08.

his trial. This was his final plea for freedom and democracy for all

:33:09.:33:11.

South Africans will stop it was to a cold down the 27 years he remained a

:33:12.:33:15.

political prisoner. Sentenced to life imprisonment, he

:33:16.:33:47.

was sent to Robin Island, a top security prison in Table Bay in Cape

:33:48.:33:53.

Town. Photographs of them were banned from publication.

:33:54.:33:58.

Astonishingly, he was not embittered by his imprisonment. We are not

:33:59.:34:07.

conducting a struggle against individual whites. In the course of

:34:08.:34:15.

that struggle, we had formed friendships with people from the

:34:16.:34:20.

other side. Outside, time is running out for apartheid. With the ANC

:34:21.:34:26.

readership in jail, even the children in Soweto were helping to

:34:27.:34:30.

sustain the revolution. The hardline government tried to crush the

:34:31.:34:36.

uprising but gradually more liberal white people began to realise

:34:37.:34:40.

Mandela was the solution, not the problem. An international campaign

:34:41.:34:47.

was begun for the release of Nelson Mandela, as around the world,

:34:48.:34:51.

governments impose sanctions on South Africa. In 1919 80, President

:34:52.:35:01.

FW de Klerk announced the ANC would be on band. -- in 1990. Nelson

:35:02.:35:11.

Mandela taking the first three steps into democracy. Nelson Mandela

:35:12.:35:17.

walked to freedom with his then wife Winnie Mandela at his side. How soon

:35:18.:35:26.

turned to despair. Township islands had blacks fighting blacks. And

:35:27.:35:31.

Della repeatedly appealed for peace. Take your gun, your knife and throw

:35:32.:35:43.

them into the river. -- Nelson Mandela repeatedly appealed for

:35:44.:35:50.

peace. He cast his vote in the first multiracial elections. The result

:35:51.:35:57.

was a landslide for the ANC. Nelson Mandela was president of the new

:35:58.:36:05.

South Africa. Never, and never again shall it be that this beautiful land

:36:06.:36:12.

will again experience the oppression of one by another. Three years

:36:13.:36:20.

later, Nelson Mandela gave up the presidency of the ANC in favour of

:36:21.:36:26.

Thabo Mbeki, who also succeeded him as head of state.

:36:27.:36:33.

Nelson Mandela was fated throughout the world, as here in London. There

:36:34.:36:43.

had been personal sadness. His long-time managed to Winnie, had

:36:44.:36:54.

ended. -- marriage. In 19 90, he married grass shell, the widow of

:36:55.:37:03.

the late president of was unbeaten. -- Graca Machel. He enjoyed family

:37:04.:37:12.

life which is long-term imprisonment had denied him. He visited Robben

:37:13.:37:19.

Island again. He lit a candle to symbolise reconciliation. It was

:37:20.:37:25.

passed to an African child to represent the hopes of the continent

:37:26.:37:30.

for the future, I hope inspired by the life and ideals of one of the

:37:31.:37:34.

truly great leaders of our time, Nelson Mandela.

:37:35.:37:43.

Nicholas Witchel on the remarkable life and times of Nelson Mandela.

:37:44.:37:51.

Let us stop to a professor from Johannesburg University. -- let us

:37:52.:37:58.

talk to. Thank you for joining us. I should ask you for your tribute and

:37:59.:38:02.

your thoughts tonight. It is a very poignant moments. Nelson Mandela was

:38:03.:38:08.

one of our most illustrious other night. He had spent many years

:38:09.:38:15.

there, with many of his contemporaries. They went on as a

:38:16.:38:21.

collective to transform our country and to do so in a way that could

:38:22.:38:27.

only be better. For most South Africans and especially students,

:38:28.:38:33.

staff and other night of this university it is a very sad moment.

:38:34.:38:39.

We are seeing lots of images of people in Johannesburg and in

:38:40.:38:42.

Soweto, of people who have gathered at the former family home. What do

:38:43.:38:50.

you think people want to see in the days and weeks that head, what kind

:38:51.:38:56.

of recognition and what kind of state formality would be like to see

:38:57.:39:01.

which would do justice to this man? I think what everybody would like to

:39:02.:39:07.

see is that the death of Nelson Mandela brings this country together

:39:08.:39:11.

like nothing else has. He is the one symbol which can unite South Africa

:39:12.:39:18.

in the way nothing else can. He can unite people across class, religion

:39:19.:39:22.

and race. In the days ahead you will see that. That is quite an elaborate

:39:23.:39:30.

system are to honour Nelson Mandela. It will be done officially through

:39:31.:39:37.

the union house. There will be a big memorial service in Johannesburg.

:39:38.:39:40.

There will be another big funeral service in the chance gal. -- in the

:39:41.:39:48.

Eastern Cape. We will see South Africans coming together in ways we

:39:49.:39:54.

have not seen before. You will see the world coming together because

:39:55.:40:00.

Nelson Mandela was the greatest son of South Africa, but he was also an

:40:01.:40:04.

icon for the world. Across the world, people involved in struggles

:40:05.:40:10.

against oppression and exploitation use him as a symbol to unite that

:40:11.:40:16.

struggle. We will see the world coming together to honour what is a

:40:17.:40:23.

magnificent life, a magnificent contribution not only to South

:40:24.:40:28.

Africa and the continent, but to the whole of humanity. As you speak

:40:29.:40:33.

recess, the British Foreign Secretary has offered his own

:40:34.:40:41.

tribute. # as you speak, Professor. He says his name will go down

:40:42.:40:46.

through the ages for his immense contribution to Africa and the world

:40:47.:40:51.

and his tireless work to peace and reconciliation. His example to us

:40:52.:40:54.

all of tireless courage and fortitude. What for you is the place

:40:55.:41:01.

in history that people should be recognising today? I think there are

:41:02.:41:08.

two things. One of the most striking things about him is that he gave up

:41:09.:41:12.

power after five years. He could have been a life president. After

:41:13.:41:19.

five years, he handed over power to Thabo Mbeki. He gave up the

:41:20.:41:25.

political presidency but he became a global icon and became a symbol for

:41:26.:41:30.

freedom across the world. That is what people should remember. He

:41:31.:41:33.

spent 27 years in prison and came out, at that point, he saw South

:41:34.:41:42.

Africa needed reconciliation. He stood up for reconciliation. He

:41:43.:41:47.

united South Africans. He gave South Africa the moment where it could

:41:48.:41:52.

route its democracy, that moment of peace which are loaded to avoid a

:41:53.:41:59.

civil war. It allowed it to establish a firm democracy. We have

:42:00.:42:03.

serious problems of inequality and poverty, we have serious

:42:04.:42:09.

challenges, but what is not questionable is the fact we will

:42:10.:42:11.

move forward as a stable political system. That possibility was

:42:12.:42:20.

bequeathed to us by Nelson Mandela. It was a pleasure to talk to you.

:42:21.:42:29.

Thank you very much. Thank you. We have had tributes from all around

:42:30.:42:35.

the world. No fewer than four former US Presidents have been paying

:42:36.:42:39.

tribute to Mr Mandela, to his achievements and his life. We are

:42:40.:42:45.

reporting here his death at the age of 95. President Jacob Zuma

:42:46.:42:50.

announced his death just a couple of hours ago, paying tribute to this

:42:51.:42:54.

remarkable contribution, not just to South Africa but to the cause of

:42:55.:43:01.

justice around the world. Former US presidents joining in the tributes.

:43:02.:43:08.

President Obamas, of course the first lack American president, has

:43:09.:43:16.

been expressing his feelings and paying his tribute to Nelson

:43:17.:43:21.

Mandela. At his trial in 1964, Nelson Mandela composed a statement

:43:22.:43:33.

saying, I have fought against white domination and black domination. I

:43:34.:43:39.

have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which

:43:40.:43:42.

all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is

:43:43.:43:47.

an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. If needs be, it is

:43:48.:43:53.

an ideal for which I am prepared to die. Nelson Mandela lived for that

:43:54.:44:01.

ideal and he made it real. He achieved more than could be expected

:44:02.:44:11.

of any man. Today he has gone home. We have lost one of the most

:44:12.:44:15.

influential, courageous and profoundly good human beings that

:44:16.:44:19.

any of us will share time with on this earth. He no longer belongs to

:44:20.:44:26.

us. He belongs to the Angels. For his fears dignity and unbending will

:44:27.:44:32.

to sacrifice his own freedom for the sake of others, he transformed South

:44:33.:44:39.

Africa and moved all of us. His journey from a prisoner to a

:44:40.:44:43.

president embodied the promise that human beings and countries can

:44:44.:44:49.

change for the better. His commitment to transfer power, to

:44:50.:44:54.

reconcile with those who jailed him was an example that all humanity

:44:55.:45:03.

should aspire to. President Obama speaking at the White House in the

:45:04.:45:09.

last hour. Very keen to pages tribute to former president Mandela

:45:10.:45:15.

of South Africa. Tributes from all over the world. Including here in

:45:16.:45:22.

London as Prime Minister Cameron has been speaking in Downing Street

:45:23.:45:28.

tonight. One of the brightest lights of our world has gone out tonight.

:45:29.:45:33.

Nelson Mandela was not just the hero of our time, but I hero of all time.

:45:34.:45:41.

The first president of a free South Africa, a man who suffered so much

:45:42.:45:46.

for freedom and justice, and a man who, through his dignity and

:45:47.:45:52.

triumph, inspired millions. The strongest impression of all when you

:45:53.:45:57.

met him was of his extraordinary compassion and generosity and

:45:58.:46:02.

forgiveness. Tonight, families across Britain will mourn with his

:46:03.:46:07.

family and everyone in South Africa. Your greatest son has moved

:46:08.:46:13.

millions and I believe that his inspiration for the future will be

:46:14.:46:17.

every bit as parcel as the extraordinary things -- will be

:46:18.:46:22.

every bit as powerful as the extraordinary thing they achieved in

:46:23.:46:27.

his remarkable life. David Cameron speaking a short while ago. The Duke

:46:28.:46:32.

and Duchess of Cambridge have earlier this evening been attending

:46:33.:46:35.

the premiere of a film of Nelson Mandela's life. She time ago, they

:46:36.:46:44.

gave their reaction. -- short time ago. Sad and tragic news and we are

:46:45.:46:51.

reminded what an extraordinary and inspiring man he was. Thoughts and

:46:52.:46:54.

prayers are with his family right now. That was the brief but solemn

:46:55.:47:05.

response from the Duke and just -- Duke and Duchess of Cambridge

:47:06.:47:08.

attending that film premiere. All around the world, over the next 24

:47:09.:47:12.

hours, there will be moments of silence. People will want to reflect

:47:13.:47:17.

on the astonishing contribution and achievements of former President

:47:18.:47:22.

Mandela. This is what happened at the United Nations short while ago.

:47:23.:47:33.

-- a short while ago. Those gathered from nations all around the world,

:47:34.:47:36.

standing respectfully and with dignity in silence to mark the news

:47:37.:47:43.

that Nelson Mandela has passed away at the age of 95. Let us speak to

:47:44.:47:49.

someone who knows the Mandela family very well. On the line we have an

:47:50.:47:56.

opposition leader who knows the family and he is from the Eastern

:47:57.:47:59.

Cape, the area where Mr Mandela grew up and stop thank you so much for

:48:00.:48:03.

joining us. What are your thoughts tonight? We join the rest of the

:48:04.:48:13.

world in passing condolences to the Mandela family. He lived very well

:48:14.:48:25.

during his innings, Madiba, and when he said to as some years back, I

:48:26.:48:31.

think we were in London at the concert, it is now in your hands. We

:48:32.:48:41.

knew what that meant. It was a way forward. And we feel strongly that

:48:42.:48:52.

the teachings of Mandela should never be forgotten by this country,

:48:53.:49:02.

especially the discipline he displayed during the time he was in

:49:03.:49:06.

jail, during the time he was outside, but being consistent that

:49:07.:49:13.

his fighting for the quality of lives for South Africans. What has

:49:14.:49:20.

been your contact with the family in recent days? I was with the family

:49:21.:49:31.

earlier this afternoon and I had the privilege also of seeing Madiba,

:49:32.:49:46.

then I left and the family, you could see that they have no more or

:49:47.:49:55.

less accepted the reality. And when they said, in the last few days,

:49:56.:49:59.

that he was at peace, is that conclusion that you would also offer

:50:00.:50:05.

after your contact in the 24 hours? At peace? At least. -- at peace.

:50:06.:50:20.

Madiba, since he left hospital, he kept staying in his bed, kept quiet,

:50:21.:50:30.

all alone, and I do not think the family was wrong to say he was at.

:50:31.:50:40.

-- he was at peace. This afternoon, you could see he was struggling to

:50:41.:50:46.

breathe. You say you knew him and the family, and he was strong minded

:50:47.:50:50.

character, very strong willed, and lots of people describing this

:50:51.:50:55.

length of his character. What was your experience of that and how

:50:56.:50:58.

challenging could he be if he was very determined? Well, Madiba, I

:50:59.:51:07.

would say he was a courageous man, and when it was not fashionable, in

:51:08.:51:17.

the 1960s, he called for the ANC two embark on a struggle against

:51:18.:51:19.

apartheid, whilst others thought they could negotiate with the

:51:20.:51:26.

apartheid government. Later on, the same Madiba had the courage to say

:51:27.:51:32.

to stop fighting and to negotiate. Others were still keen to fight on.

:51:33.:51:40.

Really, this is the person who was taking decisions at critical times

:51:41.:51:49.

for the benefit of the country. This is Madiba who spoke directly to

:51:50.:51:56.

decision-makers. I remember actually talking about George Bush Snr, it

:51:57.:52:06.

was in 1992, when he called him with his authority to have -- authority

:52:07.:52:17.

to approach, asking George Bush to request his UN representative to

:52:18.:52:24.

endorse the resolution to send monitors to monitor violence in

:52:25.:52:29.

South Africa, before we left together from New York, he had got

:52:30.:52:35.

all the leaders and we knew that by the time we presented our case, that

:52:36.:52:43.

this request would be endorsed, so he was very authoritative, but with

:52:44.:52:54.

humility and also he connected with all kinds of people with ease,

:52:55.:52:59.

because he was not an assuming person. Thank you so much for

:53:00.:53:07.

spending time talking to us. Thank you. While he was sharing his views,

:53:08.:53:17.

we have been gathering some views in and around Johannesburg, where lots

:53:18.:53:21.

of people have been ready to talk and share their tributes and

:53:22.:53:24.

thoughts having him the news of his death. I am sad, but at the same

:53:25.:53:33.

time, I think he has had his part in life and he did it very well. It is

:53:34.:53:39.

fine that he goes. He did all he could, he was old, yeah. A real

:53:40.:53:46.

tragedy, we have lost a great hero in South Africa. Quite tragic. Like

:53:47.:53:54.

being around the family's home and that the person you know all your

:53:55.:53:59.

life has gone. It is tragic, sad, but I think we should celebrate what

:54:00.:54:03.

he has achieved and what he has given us. I would not be free if it

:54:04.:54:11.

was not for him. Such power and strength in those tributes, and

:54:12.:54:20.

there will be more. Just chatting there, and trying to get into the

:54:21.:54:25.

area of personality and strength, and the caller was being diplomatic,

:54:26.:54:28.

just wanting to reinforce and there are people who are big allies today

:54:29.:54:35.

who were maybe -- who maybe had big differences in the past? There were

:54:36.:54:43.

egg differences. -- there were big political differences. Those also

:54:44.:54:49.

led to President Mandela expelling some members. But there was still a

:54:50.:54:56.

connection. There was still a family connection. In the media, we have

:54:57.:55:03.

seen the fact that there are clashes between certain numbers members of

:55:04.:55:14.

the family. And one diplomatic person was the negotiator between

:55:15.:55:20.

the family and government for them to reconcile, going back to them,

:55:21.:55:27.

saying that Mandela is a brand, the family needs to emulate what Mandela

:55:28.:55:31.

stands for. That is what the family needs to see. And thoughts, now we

:55:32.:55:38.

are in the last few minutes of this part of the coverage, really as well

:55:39.:55:44.

about what Mr Mandela made of the South Africa that is to date, over

:55:45.:55:49.

20 years after he was released, and after his period in office, ending

:55:50.:55:54.

in the late 1990s, he made his views plain about some developments. What

:55:55.:55:58.

was his take on modern South Africa and was he overwhelmingly happy with

:55:59.:56:05.

the shape of it? We do not think he was overwhelmingly happy, but happy

:56:06.:56:09.

with the overriding truth of freedom. He could be very caustic.

:56:10.:56:17.

He spoke out famously when in London against President Mugabe in

:56:18.:56:19.

Zimbabwe, against many people he thought had abused power, and he was

:56:20.:56:26.

certainly privately very critical of some of the directions that his

:56:27.:56:30.

successors in the presidency led South Africa into. But very careful

:56:31.:56:34.

and cautious not to undermine them publicly, because as far as he was

:56:35.:56:38.

concerned, the important thing was that they had been elected in a

:56:39.:56:43.

proper, democratic process, unlike anything that could have happened if

:56:44.:56:47.

he had not brought it about. And we saw fleetingly the diplomats that

:56:48.:56:52.

the security council in the United Nations in New York standing around

:56:53.:56:55.

that table in tribute, silent tribute. That was a powerful piece

:56:56.:57:00.

of symbolism, not unprecedented, but very rear for such a thing to

:57:01.:57:07.

happen. -- very rare. Recognising, surely, a true peacemaker, when they

:57:08.:57:12.

are so often divided over issues of peace and war, not finding it

:57:13.:57:17.

difficult to unite behind the memory of Nelson Mandela. Thank you both

:57:18.:57:24.

for your company. Thank you for sharing your experiences. That is it

:57:25.:57:27.

from me, there is continuing coverage here on the BBC on the

:57:28.:57:32.

death of the former president Nelson Mandela, the first like presidents

:57:33.:57:37.

-- the first black president of South Africa. We leave you with

:57:38.:57:41.

images that defined a remarkable lifetime.

:57:42.:57:56.

There are many people who feel it is useless and futile for us to

:57:57.:58:02.

continue talking peace and nonviolence against the government

:58:03.:58:07.

whose reply is only savage attacks. One and an people -- on a non-armed

:58:08.:58:19.

and defenceless people. It is something for which I am prepared to

:58:20.:58:23.

die. One of the things that is difficult

:58:24.:58:27.

for me to comprehend is that I spent such a long time here.

:58:28.:58:35.

There is Mr Mandela, Mr Nelson Mandela, after the man that backdrop

:58:36.:58:44.

a free man. We have realised our greatest team of being free at last.

:58:45.:58:52.

In our own country. Never, never, and never again, shall

:58:53.:59:03.

aid the that this beautiful land shall again experience the operation

:59:04.:59:11.

of one by another. It is time for a new heads to lift

:59:12.:59:25.

the Burtons. It is in your hands now. -- left the burdens.

:59:26.:59:27.

Huw Edwards presents a special news report from the BBC, with reaction and tributes following the announcement that Nelson Mandela has died.

South African BBC reporter Nomsa Maseko and former southern Africa correspondent James Robbins offer their perspective on the news and Gabriel Gatehouse reports live from Johannesburg.


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