15/02/2018 Beyond 100 Days


15/02/2018

The latest national and international news, exploring the day's events from a global perspective.


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You're watching Beyond 100 Days.

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It's happened again.

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The 18th school shooting this year

in America kills 17 people.

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Why can't the US fix this?

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The accused gunman

is now in custody.

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He'd been a student

at the Florida high school.

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He went up and down the hallway,

banging and shooting

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into the classrooms.

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He shot through my door.

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President Trump addresses

the nation, promising to tackle

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the difficult issue of mental

health, but makes no

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mention of gun control.

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It is not enough to simply take

actions that make us feel

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like we are making a difference.

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We must actually make

that difference.

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All change in South Africa -

Cyril Ramaphosa says one

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of his priorities as the country's

new President will be

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to fight corruption.

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Also on the programme:

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The city of Compton is famous

for rap music and gang wars

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but life is improving there.

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We explore how.

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Get in touch with us

using the hashtag #Beyond100Days.

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Hello, I'm Katty Kay in Washington.

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It's another of those days

that the world looks

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at America and wonders,

how do they tolerate this?

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There has been a school shooting

in the US on average every 60

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hours so far this year.

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Every 60 hours.

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As parents across this country

sent their children off

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to class this morning,

they wondered, is my child safe?

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For too many families in south

Florida, the answer was no.

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But, even as politicians

across the board said today that

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mass shootings have to stop,

it seems they are

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only getting worse.

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For the latest, from Florida,

here's Neda Tawfik.

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Running for their lives, these

panicked students fled as fast as

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they could.

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They realised quickly

that they were in very real danger.

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This was not a drill that American

schools have rehearsed time

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and again for these exact scenarios.

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I have the gunshot victim.

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Stoneman Douglas High

was quickly placed on lockdown.

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These were the terrifying

sounds from inside.

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Students huddled together, shaken,

scared, and completely helpless.

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They leaned on each other

for support as the horror

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unfolded in front of them.

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One of my friends, I haven't heard

from him, says that shooting

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happened.

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Police have identified

the 19-year-old attacker

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as Nikolas Cruz.

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He arrived on campus heavily armed,

with a semiautomatic rifle

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and several magazines of ammunition.

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He also carried a gas

mask and smoke grenades.

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It is clear that this

was a well-planned plot

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to maximise the loss of life.

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The shooter set off the fire alarm

to draw children out

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of their classrooms.

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Police warned that the shooter was

still at large even as the rescue

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operation was under way.

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Another jolt of terror, and then

relief as students realised SWAT

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teams and not the shooter had

reached them first.

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He went up and down the hallway

banging and shooting

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into the classrooms,

he shot through my door

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and broke the window.

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As soon as the fire drill went

to the kids got evacuated.

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Then all of a sudden we heard one

of our student government teachers

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say, run as fast as you can,

and we heard a gunshot.

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17 children and teachers killed,

more than a dozen injured,

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being treated in local hospitals.

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President Trump addressed the nation

from the White House and said

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he will visit victims and local

officials in Parkland.

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He said the country needed to tackle

the difficult issue of mental health

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but was silent on gun control.

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No child, no teacher should ever be

in danger in an American school.

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No parent should ever have to fear

for their sons and their daughters

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when they kiss them goodbye

in the morning.

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This is the moment Nikolas Cruz was

finally arrested in a nearby town.

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He evaded authorities

for almost one hour,

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blending in with the swarms

of students fleeing the school.

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He has now been charged with 17

counts of premeditated murder

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and is being held without bail.

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Authorities are piecing

together his possible motives.

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He was expelled from the school last

year for disciplinary

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reasons, and students

described him as troubled.

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He was on the FBI's

radar since September.

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He was flagged up to the agency

after he commented on a YouTube

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video that he would be

a "professional schools shooter".

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The FBI says they investigated

the threat but could not identify

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the person behind it.

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One of the safest cities

in the country, but it did not stop

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it from becoming the 18th

school shooting this year.

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The question that seemingly everyone

in the nation is now asking

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is whether this is the new normal.

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Tales of heroism are

emerging from the tragedy.

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One security guard and football

coach is said to have shielded

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children as the gunman fired.

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He did not survive his injuries.

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The kids in the community

loved him, adored him.

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He was one of the greatest

people I knew.

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A phenomenal man.

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With each shooting, there

is the inevitable debate on gun

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ownership in America.

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Yet this country is more

divided than ever on how

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to solve this problem.

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Too many children and families.

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Neda Tawfik reporting

there from Florida.

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The government has now appeared in

court in southern Florida and has

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been held without bail. The FBI has

conferred it got a tip about

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somebody with the same name as the

shooter in September, and a white

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separatist group said he had some

ties to them. -- white supremacist

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group.

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For more on the investigation now

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under way I am joined by Ron Hosko,

former assistant

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director of the FBI.

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What happens when the FBI gets a tip

of the nature that it received about

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somebody with the same name as the

shooter in September?

The FBI gets

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dozens of tips every day. They are

looking for those tips not only for

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the ability to track it back to a

source, but also from the

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perspective of, is there any sort of

federal crime being committed by the

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conduct, by the words of the text or

tweet, or their communication.

If

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there hasn't been, they can't do

much.

They can't do much other than

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talk to local law enforcement

authorities that might have a piece

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of jurisdiction but, if the FBI

would try and identify and run out

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on every one of these tips, the FBI

would have nothing else on its

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plate, and it does have much on its

plate, cyber terrorism,

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counterintelligence, criminal

activities.

We are seeing pictures

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of the shooter, who has appeared in

court. I understand he appeared by

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video link. It seems, in this case,

there was a YouTube page in which

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somebody by the same name as that

young man said he wanted to become a

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professional school shooter. Would

that language fall into the category

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of something that was actionable for

the FBI?

It depends.

Is there no set

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standard?

They could maybe try and

identify him and have a

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conversation, if they have the right

wee sources. They might be able to

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hand it to local law enforcement if

they can trace it back to one

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person. But is it actionable from a

federal prosecutor perspective? No.

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What the FBI is looking for four

federal prosecution is, are there

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any contingencies with the threat?

Does the person have the immediate

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ability to carry out? Is it an

immediate threat? There is a

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difference between this sort of

threat, even though it is later

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proven that this person may be the

same may have been serious, and

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e-mailing somebody or communicating

with them, I am coming to your house

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to shoot you dead this afternoon and

I live three blocks away, or across

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the state line, even better for the

FBI. The FBI is looking for a

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federal nexus. Federal prosecutors

look closely at that, and FBI agents

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make determinations on how to

allocate their time, based on the

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likelihood of federal prosecution.

From what we know of this attack and

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the investigation so far, what more

could law enforcement have done? Was

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there anything that was missed that

should have been picked up?

From

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what we've heard, it sounds as

though there were a number of

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warning signs with this gentleman,

and this one communication the FBI

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was made aware of months ago might

have been significantly enhanced by

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some of the postings that have been

referred to in recent days and

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weeks. They were much more

threatening and may be suggested

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this person had a serious problem.

Add to that his weapon possession of

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a AR-15, maybe acquisition of it. It

goes back to this see something, say

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something idea. Do enough pieces,

wrote a person that start to suggest

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it's real. -- pieces come around a

person. The problem for law

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enforcement is we are not perfect at

predicting when words will turn to

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action.

There have been claims by a

Florida -based white supremacist

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group that he had done some training

with them. How would that play into

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the investigation?

The FBI would

look at that and they will be

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working with law enforcement on

these connections. What were his

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inspirations? It sounds as though he

suffered a serious loss, losing his

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mother in November. Perhaps that was

life changing and started to put him

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on this path. Law enforcement will

try to reconstruct the entire

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picture to occlude what ever he

chooses to tell them and share, and

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try and look back and say, what were

his real drivers, was a depression,

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psychotic episodes, family loss,

school, the whole collection.

Thank

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you for coming in.

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So why does America have this

scourge that no other country does?

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The lobby group for the gun

industry, the National

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Rifle Association,

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has formidable power

in this country.

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It donates a lot of money to

politicians who oppose gun controls.

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In the 2016 election campaign

cycle, the NRA spent

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$54.4 million on candidates

who support gun rights.

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98% of that money

went to Republicans.

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Marco Rubio, the Republican senator

from Florida, tweeted last night,

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Senator Rubio has received

$3.3 million from the NRA

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over his political career.

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President Trump was a huge

recipient of NRA support.

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The group spent $11.4

million on pro-Trump ads

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in the 2016 election -

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and, just as importantly,

$19.8 million on ads

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against Hillary Clinton.

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Chris Murphy is the Democratic

senator from Connecticut.

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In 2012, 20 six and seven-year-olds

were killed in his state

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at Sandy Hook elementary school.

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He gave an impassioned speech on the

Senate floor last night.

This

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happens nowhere else other than the

United States of America. This

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academic of mass slaughter --

epidemic slaughter, the scourge of

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school shooting after school

shooting. It only happens here not

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because of coincidence, not because

of bad luck, but as a consequence of

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our inaction. We are responsible.

I

spoke to Senator Murphy a short time

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ago.

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President Trump mentioned the issue

of mental health, which certainly is

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a problem in the United States, but

every country has people with mental

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health problems. It's only America

that has this rate of school

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shootings. Why?

The problem has

never been one of mental illness.

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America has no greater rate of

mental illness than any other

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country. What's different in the

United States is a celebratory

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culture of gun violence, that

somehow green lights in these

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shooters' mines, the idea of mass

violence, and access to weapons that

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doesn't exist in other places. Many

people in Newtown don't think that

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Adam Lansar wouldn't have bought

into that count if he didn't have

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violent video games. The ease with

which people can get their hands on

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AR-15s contributes to it, and that

is something which is exclusive to

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the United States.

How powerful is

the National Rifle Association? What

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pressure does it put on members of

Congress?

The NRA remains powerful

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enough to block progress. It's an

issue of political power. They have

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been organising for 20 to 30 is, and

the modern anti-gun movement really

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dates from Sandy Hook. We will catch

up and become stronger than them,

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but it's going to be a bunch of

failures until we get success, and

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that isn't unlike any other great

social change in this country.

We

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all thought, after the awful tragedy

in Newtown in your state, things

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might change, but if they didn't

change then, will it ever?

This is

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about political power. I wish it

were about people having an epiphany

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that they should demand that

Congress takes steps to protect

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their children and grandchildren,

but it's ultimately about creating

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more activists across this country

that will show up at town halls and

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flood campaign offices and work to

vote out members of Congress that

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routinely vote against the 90% of

their constituents that want things

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like universal background checks.

Thank you for joining me. There

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seems to be a pick-up in the number

of these incidents, and it's

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possible that parents across this

country start demand some kind of

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action from lawmakers, but I covered

the Newtown shootings and I was

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there just after the children were

killed. We thought that would change

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things in America, but that would be

the catalyst for action to make sure

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that school shootings stop. It

wasn't, and you have to wonder, if

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it didn't happen then, will it

happen this time? All of our

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thoughts go out to those families in

south Florida.

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South Africa has a new President.

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Its parliament elected

Cyril Ramaphosa to the leadership

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today, bringing to an end the reign

of Jacob Zuma, who resigned

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late Wednesday.

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Mr Ramaphosa inherits a troubled

economy and a divided party -

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but among his first items

of business, he says,

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will be to fight corruption.

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Our Africa editor, Fergal Keane,

sent this report from Cape Town.

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In the place they call the mother

city of the Republic,

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exaltation at what they felt

was nothing less than deliverance.

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And, inside, the words that

signalled the arrival

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of a new and very different order.

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I declare the honourable

Cyril Ramaphosa duly elected

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President of the Republic of South

Africa.

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He knew this moment was coming,

yet seemed abashed.

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In his first words as President,

the tone was consciously humble.

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When one is elected in this type

of position, you basically become

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a servant of the people

of South Africa, and I'll seek

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to execute that task

with humility, faithfulness

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and with dignity as well.

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That is what I will seek to do.

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For now, his party enemies

are defeated and the country

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is broadly behind him.

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But, on the other side

of Table Mountain from Parliament,

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a sense of the challenge facing

the new leader.

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Here in Langa township,

they welcome Ramaphosa

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but expect him to deliver

houses, jobs, services.

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We are still living in sheds.

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We, our mothers and fathers lived

in sheds, and we the children

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and obviously our grandchildren have

to live in sheds also.

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Mr Ramaphosa, we vote for him,

give him a chance and see

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if he will do things better,

different than Mr J Zuma.

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After years when their party

was tainted by corruption

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and losing electoral support,

ANC Members of Parliament

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are daring to hope.

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There is a great deal of joy here,

but also expectation.

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Cyril Ramaphosa will have to move

quickly to answer people's

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needs on the economy and,

above all, corruption.

0:17:330:17:37

Fergal Keane, BBC News, Cape Town.

0:17:370:17:43

High expectations for Cyril

Ramaphosa, now he has to deliver.

0:17:500:17:53

Archbishop Desmond Tutu has become

the latest high-profile personality

0:17:530:17:55

to end his ties with Oxfam over

a row about sexual misconduct

0:17:550:17:58

by the charity's workers

in Chad and Haiti.

0:17:580:17:59

Meanwhile, a former Oxfam worker

at the centre of the reports has

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denied paying for sex.

0:18:020:18:04

In an open letter, Roland van

Hauwermeiren said a reception held

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at his home in Haiti was not,

as alleged, a sex party.

0:18:090:18:14

The US Secretary of State, Rex

Tillerson is warning the involvement

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of Lebanese militant

group his brother in regional wars

0:18:170:18:21

will have a negative

impact on Lebanon itself.

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-- Lebanese militant group

Hezbollah.

0:18:300:18:34

Mr Tillerson was speaking

in Beirut, where he held

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talks with the president,

speaker of parliament

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and the Prime Minister.

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Germany's Chancellor

has been holding talks

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with the Turkish Prime Minister.

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Angela Merkel told Binali Yildirim

that Berlin wants to see

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a fast judicial process

for a German-Turkish

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journalist held in Turkey.

0:18:450:18:46

The jailing of Deniz Yucel has put

a strain on relations

0:18:460:18:49

between the countries,

and Mr Yildirim said he hoped

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We began this programme with news

of gun violence in Florida.

0:18:550:18:58

A few weeks ago, I went to the city

of Compton in California to look

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at how they've reduced

the number of killings.

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Compton became famous

in the 1980s for gang wars.

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It was one of the most dangerous

places in the country

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and the birthplace of gangsta rap.

0:19:090:19:12

But, with better policing,

a proactive mayor and a community

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that wants peace, Compton

is turning round.

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Here's my report, and a warning -

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there are flashing

images at the start.

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Crime situation is high, it's very

busy for law enforcement. But it's a

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very small percentage of people

causing the problems.

The night

0:19:360:19:40

patrol with the LA sheriffs in the

city of competence. Two suspected

0:19:400:19:44

members of the south side Compton

Crips gang are under arrest.

It

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would be really unsafe for them to

be in the rivals' area and, if they

0:19:510:19:55

they'll have to have protection

because it's almost expected for

0:19:550:20:00

them to be armed.

Police estimate

there are almost 4000 gang members

0:20:000:20:04

in competent

our service area is ten

square miles. So, for every square

0:20:040:20:14

mile we have, we have almost six

active gangs.

37 gangs compete for

0:20:140:20:22

control in a city of just 100,000

people. Compton's notorious street

0:20:220:20:30

gangs, the Compton Crips, the Gloves

and one other, were formed in the

0:20:300:20:37

1960s. Their clothes, their tattoos,

even their jewellery Walmart which

0:20:370:20:41

gang they belonged to. -- all

marked. Wearing the wrong colour

0:20:410:20:47

shirt could have, and still could,

get you killed. Today, Compton is on

0:20:470:20:54

the up. Compton's youthful mayor,

Asia Brown, has made it her mission

0:20:540:21:04

to transform the image and the

economy of the city. In 2013, early

0:21:040:21:12

into her first term, and after 16

killings in just four months, Asia

0:21:120:21:18

Brown decided to hold a crisis

meeting. She put a call out to the

0:21:180:21:29

Gloves and Crips to get a truce.

It's my community, I'm not afraid of

0:21:290:21:36

my own people, and it was

interesting to hear from them, but

0:21:360:21:38

they are very pragmatic, they talk

about the need for opportunities

0:21:380:21:45

they can access, they talked about

the barriers to their employment

0:21:450:21:48

because of criminal records, but I

told them, it's not about just what

0:21:480:21:52

can I do for you, I told them I am

willing to work with you if you are

0:21:520:21:56

going to make a commitment.

Don and

Fred are from rival gangs. Don is a

0:21:560:22:01

Blood. Fred is a Crip. If you'd come

across Dom in a street ten to 15

0:22:010:22:10

years ago...

It would be no problem.

There would have been a fight

0:22:100:22:17

stabbing or shooting up

because you

were in rival gangs?

Like I said, I

0:22:170:22:25

was young, and I didn't have a

understanding of life, all I cared

0:22:250:22:30

about was my gang and the rebels to

defend us.

You would have hurt him.

0:22:300:22:35

Yes.

Yeah.

He would have tried.

Will

is also a former gang member. He

0:22:350:22:46

served 12 years in prison for a

string of offences, including

0:22:460:22:51

carjacking at gun possession. In

December 1999, he decided to turn

0:22:510:22:56

his life around

a of kids are

looking for something when they join

0:22:560:22:59

gangs. They are looking for

something. There was something

0:22:590:23:04

missing. The gangs cater to those

things that are missing.

This was

0:23:040:23:11

almost a shared store between two

rival gangs, so a lot of people lost

0:23:110:23:14

their lives up here, a lot of

shootings and drive-bys.

He now

0:23:140:23:20

spends most of his nights on the

streets, trying to stop conflicts

0:23:200:23:24

from happening or getting out of

control.

We are going corner to

0:23:240:23:30

corner, communicating with those

that are always out.

For the mayor,

0:23:300:23:35

it's also personal. Down this quite

street is Asia's former family home.

0:23:350:23:41

My mother was a registered nurse and

worked overnight, and her schedule

0:23:410:23:44

was a bit different, and there was a

home intrusion and somebody raped

0:23:440:23:50

and murdered her. The loss of the

light is for a lifetime, and there

0:23:500:23:58

are holes that are created that can

never be filled and it gives me a

0:23:580:24:01

level of compassion, respect and

even inside and perspective into

0:24:010:24:06

what most people are dealing with.

The mayor's story isn't uncommon.

0:24:060:24:14

There is a level of post-traumatic

stress in this town that comes from

0:24:140:24:17

decades of extreme violence. But

maybe it's that shared experience

0:24:170:24:22

that could also drive people to end

the violence.

0:24:220:24:27

And a reminder you can catch

the full version of that half hour

0:24:270:24:31

documentary on Our World

here on the BBC this weekend.

0:24:310:24:38

On days like today, which seem

pretty bleak in the United States

0:24:380:24:42

after the Florida shooting, it's

worth remembering that things can

0:24:420:24:44

get done, and Compton is a symbol of

that, when the mayor and Sheriff and

0:24:440:24:49

former gang members all decided to

work together. They can reduce the

0:24:490:24:52

levels of homicide in the city, and

it's extraordinary to see Compton, a

0:24:520:24:58

town I walked around feeling totally

safe in in the middle of the

0:24:580:25:01

daytime, becoming normal place where

people can recover from a level of

0:25:010:25:06

post-traumatic stress that they have

suffered for the last few decades,

0:25:060:25:10

and they have done it by coming

together, working together and

0:25:100:25:13

putting aside their differences.

It's good to see that happening

0:25:130:25:19

Now, are these the world's

worst burglars?

0:25:190:25:20

Shanghai Police have released this

footage of two would-be burglars

0:25:200:25:23

in China attempting to break

into a shop in the early hours

0:25:230:25:26

of Wednesday morning.

0:25:260:25:29

As you can see, it's the accomplice

who comes off worse.

0:25:290:25:32

This is Beyond 100

Days from the BBC.

0:25:320:25:36

Coming up

for viewers on the BBC News Channel

0:25:360:25:40

and BBC World News,

the ultra-processed food linked

0:25:400:25:43

to an increased risk of cancer,

including mass-produced bread.

0:25:430:25:46

What should we avoid eating?

0:25:460:25:49

And stock market volatility is back.

0:25:490:25:52

We'll be asking financial guru

0:25:520:25:53

Alvin Hall how best to look

after our money.

0:25:530:25:55

That's still to come.

0:25:550:26:00

it may have been milder, sunnier for

many today, but they have still been

0:26:100:26:13

some snow showers around, especially

in north-west Scotland. Let's focus

0:26:130:26:18

on the sunshine in Norfolk this

afternoon, a gorgeous afternoon.

0:26:180:26:23

England and Wales saw a few showers,

wintry into Northern Ireland.

0:26:230:26:27

Speckled cloud in the satellite

picture, indicating showers, but

0:26:270:26:32

bigger cloud in north-west Scotland

with frequent, heavy, wintry

0:26:320:26:35

showers. They continue overnight and

there will be further snow in the

0:26:350:26:38

hills. Blizzard is developing in the

wind. A few showers on the western

0:26:380:26:45

side of Northern Ireland. Elsewhere,

largely dry and clear, with a

0:26:450:26:52

widespread frost in the morning.

Still picking up a few showers on

0:26:520:26:59

Friday, particularly in north-west

Scotland during the day, so further

0:26:590:27:02

snow showers. One or two showers for

more than Ireland, Wales, England,

0:27:020:27:07

but many will be dry. Morning

sunshine and cloud increasing to the

0:27:070:27:13

west of the UK, leaving the best of

the afternoon sunny spells in

0:27:130:27:17

eastern areas and temperatures

fairly respectable, around seven to

0:27:170:27:21

ten Celsius, hire the further south

you are. Friday night and Saturday

0:27:210:27:26

morning, we are going to bring some

outbreaks of rain, sleet and hill

0:27:260:27:31

snow across parts of Northern

Ireland, Scotland and northern

0:27:310:27:34

England, running into northern

Wales, but the system weakening as

0:27:340:27:37

it heads south on Saturday morning.

More cloud around, temperatures as

0:27:370:27:43

low as this, but perhaps some fog

patches on Saturday morning, dense

0:27:430:27:49

in one or two spots. Overall, the

weather pattern hasn't changed much

0:27:490:27:53

for the first part of the weekend.

Starting with more cloud around as

0:27:530:27:57

northern parts. A few showers,

wintry on hills, and the best sunny

0:27:570:28:04

spells in southern areas, but many

of us will see sunshine at some

0:28:040:28:08

stage on Saturday, and temperatures

at six to 9 degrees foremost, maybe

0:28:080:28:14

ten or 11 in the mildest spots. More

cloud on Sunday, especially across

0:28:140:28:19

northern and western areas of the

UK, leaving central and eastern with

0:28:190:28:22

the best sunny spells. Where you

have got the cloud, dampest Risley,

0:28:220:28:27

but it's a bit milder on Sunday. --

damp and drizzly.

0:28:270:28:34

This is Beyond 100 Days with me,

Katty Kay, in Washington.

0:30:090:30:12

Our top stories...

0:30:120:30:18

President Trump says making schools

safer is a key priority as 17

0:30:180:30:20

people are shot dead

at a school in florida.

0:30:200:30:23

Democratic Senator Chris Murphy

told this programme...

0:30:230:30:25

Schools will only be made safer

fresh Richter- legislation. -- be

0:30:250:30:31

made safer through further gun

legislation.

0:30:310:30:38

This is something exclusive to the

United States.

And in the last half

0:30:380:30:43

an hour, the suspected gunman

appearing in court on murder

0:30:430:30:48

charges.

0:30:480:30:50

We'll have the latest from south

Florida in a moment.

0:30:500:30:53

Also coming up in

the next half hour...

0:30:530:30:55

The ultra-processed, mass-produced

foods reportedly linked to cancer.

0:30:550:30:57

We have the findings of a new study.

0:30:570:30:59

Angelic eyesore

or saintly sculpture?

0:30:590:31:03

One of Britain's most

divisive landmarks turns 20,

0:31:030:31:05

but is everyone celebrating?

0:31:050:31:07

Let us know your thoughts

by using the hashtag...

0:31:070:31:12

Returning to our main story -

the shooting at a high school

0:31:200:31:23

in Parkland, Florida which has left

17 people dead.

0:31:230:31:25

Nikolas Cruz, a 19-year-old who had

been expelled from the school, has

0:31:250:31:28

been charged with multiple counts

of premeditated murder.

0:31:280:31:34

He has appeared in court and the

judge ordered he remain in jail

0:31:340:31:37

without Dale. -- without bail.

0:31:370:31:41

For more, we can cross to the BBC's

Nada Tawfik in Parkland.

0:31:410:31:44

What is the latest?

The authorities here are starting to

0:31:440:31:50

build a profile of the shooter. It

is now known that the FBI had him on

0:31:500:31:56

the radar as early as September. On

social media, on YouTube video, you

0:31:560:32:01

declare that he would be a school

shooter. The FBI says they conducted

0:32:010:32:08

an investigation but were unable to

identify the person at the time, so

0:32:080:32:11

of course questions are being raised

about if there were opportunities

0:32:110:32:16

missed to prevent this tragedy. I

spoke to some students here who said

0:32:160:32:20

he was someone deeply troubled and

would speak about guns and killing

0:32:200:32:22

animals. Authorities here have also

talked about the Sheriff. Spoken

0:32:220:32:28

about how administrators are warned

teachers about this individual.

0:32:280:32:33

Again, questions being raised about

what our virginity is where missed

0:32:330:32:36

to prevent this. -- about what

opportunities were missed.

0:32:360:32:44

There are questions about what more

can be done to prevent shooters

0:32:440:32:51

walking on campuses with these

deadly weapons.

0:32:510:32:54

How does the US compare

with other countries when it

0:32:540:32:57

comes to gun killings

as a percentage of homicides?

0:32:570:33:00

In the US, it's 64%.

0:33:000:33:03

Compare that to Canada, where

firearms laws are much tougher,

0:33:030:33:05

and that figure drops

by more than half - to 30%.

0:33:050:33:12

Australia, 13%.

0:33:120:33:13

Meanwhile, in England and Wales,

where citizens are not allowed

0:33:130:33:16

to carry any sort of

gun, it's just 4.5%.

0:33:160:33:18

Moving on to the top 10 countries

in which civilians own guns,

0:33:180:33:21

it's no surprise

where comes out top.

0:33:210:33:22

In America, nearly nine out of 10

people own a firearm.

0:33:220:33:28

With me now is in North America

editor, Jon Sopel. Is this really

0:33:290:33:36

the issue? The president talked

about mental health, security or in

0:33:360:33:39

schools. In the end, isn't the issue

of gun ownership in the country?

My

0:33:390:33:45

guess would be that incidence of

mental illness is the same in the UK

0:33:450:33:49

as the US. The same as France as the

US, the same in the Netherlands. So

0:33:490:33:57

it can't be that that explains why

there are so many more gun deaths in

0:33:570:34:01

the United States of America than

there are in any of those advanced

0:34:010:34:04

industrial nations of Europe. The

reason is guns. It is incorrigible

0:34:040:34:11

that anyone could argue otherwise.

There are other arguments about it.

0:34:110:34:16

What measures can you do to make

sure background checks are

0:34:160:34:18

increased? The guns of the

difference. Mental illness is not

0:34:180:34:22

the problem unique to the US. The

death toll from guns is unique to

0:34:220:34:28

the United States of America.

You

know this country well. I know this

0:34:280:34:32

is a problem other countries look at

and they think, why can't America

0:34:320:34:36

fix this? Everyone else seems to

average is the rate of gun crime in

0:34:360:34:40

their own countries. Why does

America live with this? But as you

0:34:400:34:44

know, it is incredibly difficult

political issue to get members of

0:34:440:34:47

Congress to budge on.

Why? It's

difficult to get them to budge on it

0:34:470:34:52

because largely, there are enough a

lot of gun-owners revoked. -- who

0:34:520:35:03

vote. A lot of people in America own

guns and a body called the National

0:35:030:35:10

Rifle Association is immensely poor.

Even though you have opinion polls

0:35:100:35:12

that say, you know what, a majority

of us favoured tighter gun laws, the

0:35:120:35:17

NRA is so powerful and affecting the

way that senators vote, they tend

0:35:170:35:23

not to vote for change. If you look

back to Sandy Hook, Barack Obama, a

0:35:230:35:28

Democratic majority in the house did

not get gun reform measures through.

0:35:280:35:36

Also, it is immensely complicated.

You can say, let's ban the AR-15

0:35:360:35:44

assault rifle. How do you ban what

is deemed a semiautomatic? The

0:35:440:35:51

Clinton Administration tried it. But

it was deemed unworkable because

0:35:510:35:56

there are so many variations and

nuances. You can say that there is a

0:35:560:36:00

total ban on handguns, like they did

in the UK, but to try and change it

0:36:000:36:04

by five degrees or ten degrees is

incredibly, located.

And millions of

0:36:040:36:09

guns in society that you would have

to bring back into the authority's

0:36:090:36:14

control as well. Jon Sopel, thank

you very much for joining the

0:36:140:36:17

programme.

0:36:170:36:19

Many of you watching in the US,

the UK or Europe may just have

0:36:190:36:23

eaten your lunch or evening meal -

did you go for something convenient

0:36:230:36:26

- a microwave meal, perhaps -

something savoury rounded off

0:36:260:36:28

by a cake?

0:36:280:36:29

Well, our next item might just leave

a bitter taste in your mouth.

0:36:290:36:32

According to research out today,

eating ultra-processed foods

0:36:320:36:34

could be linked to an increased

risk of cancer.

0:36:340:36:37

Here's our health correspondent

James Gallagher with the details.

0:36:370:36:39

Pizza and fizzy drinks

are ultra-processed foods,

0:36:390:36:42

but so too are bread

and breakfast cereals.

0:36:420:36:52

They are some of the nation's

favourite foods but new concerns

0:36:520:36:54

have been raised by French

scientists.

0:36:540:36:56

They think the way these foods

are produced or packaged may be

0:36:560:36:59

raising the risk of cancer.

0:36:590:37:00

It may come as a surprise but around

half the foods we eat

0:37:000:37:03

are classed as ultra-processed.

0:37:030:37:04

That generally means they're made

in a factory with a huge list

0:37:040:37:07

of ingredients down the side

of the packet.

0:37:070:37:09

We know they're bad for our

waistlines, but could they be bad

0:37:090:37:13

for our health in other ways too?

0:37:130:37:16

The French study looked

at nearly 105,000 people.

0:37:160:37:21

They were quite young,

with an average age of 43.

0:37:210:37:27

The results showed a 10% increase

in ultra-processed foods was linked

0:37:270:37:29

to a 12% increase in the risk

of cancer, and an 11% increase

0:37:290:37:32

in breast cancer risk.

0:37:320:37:33

But critics say the term

"ultra-processed" encompasses

0:37:330:37:35

so many foods it's hard to work out

what's really going

0:37:350:37:38

on, and while this research

0:37:380:37:39

has found hints

of a link with cancer,

0:37:390:37:41

it's not definitive.

0:37:410:37:50

So do we need to bin the bread?

0:37:500:37:52

We should not be panicking.

0:37:520:37:53

I think as all of us know,

highly processed foods like these -

0:37:530:37:56

so things like pizza,

crisps and chips are not

0:37:560:37:59

things we should be making

the main focus of our diet.

0:37:590:38:05

This study adds to our understanding

but it's not saying anything new,

0:38:050:38:08

and it certainly isn't saying

we need to throw these foods

0:38:080:38:10

away out of our cupboards.

0:38:100:38:11

Gorging on huge amounts of processed

food will make us fat

0:38:110:38:14

and being overweight is the biggest

preventable cause of

0:38:140:38:16

cancer after smoking.

0:38:160:38:17

For health experts, the study

is a timely reminder

0:38:170:38:20

we all need to improve our diets.

0:38:200:38:24

On average, our diets

are unhealthy in this country.

0:38:240:38:29

We all, on average, need to take

steps to improve our diet so, yes,

0:38:290:38:33

take the results of this study

seriously and make changes.

0:38:330:38:36

The Saxtons from Doncaster

say processed food is

0:38:360:38:38

a fact of family life.

0:38:380:38:45

You think, well, how can you avoid

buying ultra-processed

0:38:450:38:47

food unless you grow

everything yourself basically.

0:38:470:38:50

I think evening is not as difficult

as the mornings, I think,

0:38:500:38:52

in terms of breakfasts.

0:38:520:38:53

That's very difficult to rule out

cereal and toast on a day-to-day

0:38:530:38:56

basis when you're doing the school

run and rushing to get out the door.

0:38:560:38:59

Any dangers lurking in these foods

are continuing to be investigated,

0:38:590:39:02

but eating less of this and more

of this is clearly

0:39:020:39:04

good for your health.

0:39:040:39:06

James Gallagher, BBC News.

0:39:060:39:12

But the doughnuts look so good!

0:39:120:39:15

Let's get the thoughts of Amanda

Ersell, who is a nutritionist.

0:39:150:39:17

She's in our London studio.

0:39:170:39:19

Amanda Sacker, do you think people

even know what constitutes

0:39:190:39:23

ultra-processed or highly processed

food?

That's a very good point. Very

0:39:230:39:29

often, people don't stop to think

about it, because they are so much

0:39:290:39:33

part of our I trained as a dietician

many years ago. I then, we didn't

0:39:330:39:39

have the bread and depth of

processed foods then that we have no

0:39:390:39:47

that are now part of our lives. I

think people don't stop to think

0:39:470:39:50

about it. But if they did stop for a

few minutes, they could work out the

0:39:500:39:54

ones that have a long list of

ingredients on the side of the pack

0:39:540:39:57

and be much resemblance to the

original. For example, if you had

0:39:570:40:04

sweetcorn as, macabre, you could

have it like that, but if you

0:40:040:40:09

processed it, it would be in a can,

you could process it more and put it

0:40:090:40:13

in a ready meal. If you thought

about it, you can work out what is

0:40:130:40:16

processed. But that family made a

very interesting point. It is very

0:40:160:40:22

difficult to get them out of our

lifestyles because the convenient.

I

0:40:220:40:27

have four kids and in the morning,

we have cereal and toast. It is

0:40:270:40:30

probably very bad for us. When you

look at that study, to what extent

0:40:300:40:35

is it reliable? How do we know

whether the people eating the

0:40:350:40:38

ultra-processed foods are also the

same people who might have a

0:40:380:40:43

tendency to drink more, smokeless or

have other bad habits?

That is a

0:40:430:40:47

very good point. Scientists say we

need more studies to see these

0:40:470:40:55

suggested links are rare in reality.

We do to remember that people's

0:40:550:40:58

diets were only taken over a two-day

period. That is a small snapshot of

0:40:580:41:04

what we actually do. A two-day

period and then a five-year

0:41:040:41:07

follow-up. Although they take into

account things like smoking, weight

0:41:070:41:12

and exercise, and whether the women

were on the contraceptive pill or

0:41:120:41:17

not, they took that in account and

made statistical allowances but they

0:41:170:41:21

can't rule out that some of us did

not actually have an impact as well.

0:41:210:41:24

What it comes back to, and it is

really boring, because as a

0:41:240:41:29

nutritionist, I have been saying

this for many years, it comes back

0:41:290:41:34

to a healthy lifestyle and are

generally healthy diet. There is

0:41:340:41:37

absolutely no reason why you can't

have peace in our bed. One of those

0:41:370:41:40

nice doughnuts that you said earlier

lit tasty! But it is keeping it in

0:41:400:41:44

proportion and perspective.

Too busy

families looking at this programme,

0:41:440:41:51

what is one thing they could do that

is realistic and doable that would

0:41:510:41:55

improve their diet and health?

You

can switch the very processed

0:41:550:42:00

breakfast serials to porridge. You

can do that night before. That is a

0:42:000:42:03

quick and simple switch that would

potentially cut down on salt, sugar

0:42:030:42:06

and improve fibre intake. There we

are. One quick swap.

I love that. I

0:42:060:42:14

eat porridge every morning. Amanda,

thank you for joining us on breaking

0:42:140:42:17

that down for us.

0:42:170:42:21

Choose France -

that's the clarion call

0:42:210:42:23

from the French President,

Emmanuel Macron, as he tries

0:42:230:42:25

to change international perceptions

of doing business in the country.

0:42:250:42:28

He's been wooing business

leaders at Versailles,

0:42:280:42:29

as our Paris correspondent

Lucy Williamson reports.

0:42:290:42:34

Maybe you're thinking that

France and business don't

0:42:340:42:36

really go together.

0:42:360:42:37

So what if we take two

minutes to tackle a few

0:42:370:42:40

little misconceptions?

0:42:400:42:42

France has has been telling

the world it's open for business.

0:42:420:42:45

Since Emmanuel Macron came to power,

it's loosened labour rules and cut

0:42:450:42:48

corporate and wealth taxes.

0:42:480:42:49

Welcome to France, where every week,

21 foreign companies decide

0:42:490:42:51

to make investments.

0:42:510:42:54

And they don't just come to hire

French people who spend their time

0:42:540:42:58

on holidays drinking cocktails.

0:42:580:43:00

Protection for workers has been core

policy here for decades,

0:43:000:43:05

but President Macron has tried

to shake France's image as a country

0:43:050:43:09

of public strikes, high taxes

and rigid bureaucracy.

0:43:090:43:13

The problem for the last,

I would say, 30 years

0:43:130:43:16

is that we have insisted maybe

too much on solidarity,

0:43:160:43:23

and if you want to be able to fund

solidarity and to help the poorest

0:43:230:43:27

people of the nation,

you need to have competitiveness,

0:43:270:43:30

you need to have strong private

companies, you need to be able

0:43:300:43:33

to create jobs.

0:43:330:43:34

Mr President, it's great to see you.

0:43:340:43:35

How have you been?

0:43:350:43:37

Last month, Mr Macron invited 140

business leaders to Versailles

0:43:370:43:41

for a speed networking session.

0:43:410:43:43

You're doing a great job.

0:43:430:43:47

Foreign companies invested

$50 billion in France last year,

0:43:470:43:49

a rise of almost 80%.

0:43:490:43:53

Much of that was committed before

Mr Macron's election,

0:43:530:43:57

but the American Chamber of Commerce

here also found that three-quarters

0:43:570:44:00

of their investors,

more than ever before,

0:44:000:44:02

thought the business

environment would improve.

0:44:020:44:07

Google recently announced

it was expanding its French

0:44:070:44:11

workforce and opening a new research

centre for artificial intelligence.

0:44:110:44:15

There is a little bit

of a French paradox.

0:44:150:44:19

The French paradox is that 80%

of the French users use the internet

0:44:190:44:23

every day, but only 16%

of the company sell online,

0:44:230:44:26

so this is really the paradox

that we are talking

0:44:260:44:28

about and the massive opportunity.

0:44:280:44:31

France's traditional economic model

has left pockets of potential to be

0:44:310:44:34

tapped by future investors -

what one economist called

0:44:340:44:37

"low hanging fruit".

0:44:370:44:39

And then there's Brexit.

0:44:390:44:48

France is keen to attract financial

firms from the City of London

0:44:480:44:51

after Brexit and bring them

here to its main business district

0:44:510:44:54

at La Defense.

0:44:540:44:55

It's offering more international

schools, tax cuts and the lure

0:44:550:44:57

of a Parisian lifestyle.

0:44:580:45:00

But France is still seen to be

an expensive place to do business

0:45:000:45:04

and there's stiff competition

from Dublin and Frankfurt.

0:45:040:45:08

But business leaders say

President Macron's approach has

0:45:080:45:10

sparked new confidence here.

0:45:100:45:13

After all, as France's

business agency puts it,

0:45:130:45:18

entrepreneur is a French

word to begin with.

0:45:180:45:25

Of course, if you have to move to

France, you will not be and resist

0:45:250:45:34

those nice croissants, which as we

have held, is a bad idea.

0:45:340:45:40

In other news from

around the world...

0:45:400:45:49

Still to come - we'll be getting

advice from a financial

0:45:490:45:52

guru about how we should

protect our finances ,

0:45:520:45:54

when stock markets take

a roller-coaster ride.

0:45:540:45:56

Former football coach Barry Bennell

has been found guilty of more

0:45:560:45:58

charges of sexual abuse of boys who

were in his care. The BBC's Danny

0:45:580:46:02

Savage has this for us.

I was abused by Barry Bennell as a

0:46:020:46:06

child.

I am Stephen Walters. I was

abused by Barry Bennell.

0:46:060:46:20

Three of the 12 victims in this

case, damaged by controlling

0:46:230:46:27

paedophile Barry Bennell.

No defiant

and weaving anonymity to shed light

0:46:270:46:31

on the shocking childhood

experiences.

For decades, we held

0:46:310:46:38

our silence, just like our abuser

told us to. For decades, we lived in

0:46:380:46:41

fear

0:46:410:46:43

told us to. For decades, we lived in

fear. We might be grown men stood in

0:46:430:46:47

front of you know, but we were once

children.

Their remorseless abuser,

0:46:470:46:54

now 64, shook his head and laughed

as the jury returned a last guilty

0:46:540:46:57

verdicts today. One of football's

reading youth coaches, Barry Bennell

0:46:570:47:02

what with Manchester City and Crewe

Alexandra. For him, it was covered

0:47:020:47:06

to get close to young boys and abuse

them. A child molester on an

0:47:060:47:09

industrial scale so he was described

at the trial. Andy Woodward was also

0:47:090:47:15

abused by Barry Bennell. When he

went public, other victims broke the

0:47:150:47:24

silence. If other victims haven't

come forward, what would your

0:47:240:47:26

message to them?

I believe there is

other victims. It is up to them

0:47:260:47:34

whether they feel they are strong

enough to come forward but I hope

0:47:340:47:36

this has given them some more

courage that justice has been served

0:47:360:47:39

today.

It's understood that more

than 80 other men have come forward

0:47:390:47:45

to say Barry Bennell abused them.

This prolific paedophile will be

0:47:450:47:48

sentenced next week.

0:47:480:47:52

You're watching Beyond 100 Days.

0:48:000:48:01

Financial markets around the world

0:48:010:48:02

are creeping up as investors look

for bargains after the big

0:48:020:48:05

sell offs of last week.

0:48:050:48:06

But many economists agree

we are heading into a period

0:48:060:48:13

of volatility in stock markets,

so how should we protect ourselves

0:48:130:48:15

against those highs and lows?

0:48:160:48:17

Alvin Hall is an author,

broadcaster and financial guru.

0:48:170:48:19

He joins now from our

New York studio.

0:48:190:48:21

Before we get to what we should be

doing with whatever little savings

0:48:210:48:25

we have, are we going to have a

continued need of volatility and is

0:48:250:48:29

this the new normal for 2018? I

suspect it's going to be. There are

0:48:290:48:34

a lot of online is out there. And

keep to the increased use of

0:48:340:48:39

algorithms and High Speed 3 trading.

-- and he to the increased use of

0:48:390:48:48

spending.

Interest rates going up,

businesses face new challenges. That

0:48:480:48:56

means the market will reflect those

challenges.

The algorithms and

0:48:560:49:01

robots doing the buying and selling,

are they just exacerbating

0:49:010:49:05

underlying macro trends or is it

that we can no longer look at the

0:49:050:49:09

real economy for what the stock

market will do?

Brilliant question.

0:49:090:49:14

It is an interesting dance. Those

algorithms look at certain factors

0:49:140:49:19

and reflect the biases and beliefs

of the creators of the algorithms.

0:49:190:49:25

If the market goes to a certain

number, and Michael even lower than

0:49:250:49:28

the algorithms begins to sell. -- it

might go even lower and the

0:49:280:49:35

algorithm begins to sell. The

slightest sign of wage increases,

0:49:350:49:45

the algorithm changes and they come

up with the investment strategy.

I

0:49:450:49:49

have two kids in US colleges. I have

no disposable income! M as you have

0:49:490:49:53

more. To those around the world as

being how they can protect

0:49:530:49:57

themselves against highs and lows,

what is it you're doing?

My advice

0:49:570:50:04

first is look at your time horizon.

If you have money in the market, now

0:50:040:50:08

is the time to plot out a hat. A

friend of mine yesterday that I have

0:50:080:50:12

lunch with, his son is beginning

college. They put money aside, sold

0:50:120:50:21

stocks and put it into safer

security so that they have the next

0:50:210:50:23

two years coming. The other thing

you have to look at is the

0:50:230:50:28

composition of your portfolio. In my

case, I have a lot of high

0:50:280:50:32

volatility stocks. Volatility is

called stocks picked up -- stocks

0:50:320:50:40

beta. As the market goes down, they

drop a lot more. What I have been

0:50:400:50:45

doing is trimming back on some of

those stocks because I am

0:50:450:50:48

uncomfortable. The bottom line is

whether the volatility rises you

0:50:480:50:55

sleepless nights. If so, you need to

start trimming back on the stocks

0:50:550:51:00

that cause your portfolio to be

volatile.

Lots of things cosmic

0:51:000:51:04

little Smyczek smack is your advice

applicable to people watching around

0:51:040:51:09

the world? -- lots of things cause

me sleepless nights. Is your advice

0:51:090:51:15

applicable to people around the

world?

These things are connected

0:51:150:51:21

but you have to look at your

particular market because there

0:51:210:51:24

might be some unique things about

your market which causes it not to

0:51:240:51:27

respond the same way in the US.

Overall, I would say, yes, all these

0:51:270:51:34

other economies would get a call.

They all tend to move in sequence

0:51:340:51:38

these days. So the advice is

applicable to many people who are

0:51:380:51:43

looking at what they need to do with

their money today and in the next

0:51:430:51:47

two, 510 years.

OK, thank you very

much for joining us.

-- two, five or

0:51:470:51:58

ten years.

That was the cleanest

advice I have had to do with my

0:51:580:52:06

stocks. Thank you.

0:52:060:52:11

Love them or loathe them -

some landmarks aren't

0:52:110:52:13

to everyone's taste.

0:52:130:52:14

Mount Rushmore here in the US most

definitely divides opinion,

0:52:140:52:16

as does London's iconic glass

tower, the Shard.

0:52:160:52:18

Even the Eiffel Tower put out some

Parisians when it was first built.

0:52:180:52:21

Now, one of Britain's

most popular landmarks -

0:52:210:52:23

once described by one art critic

as a "monstrosity" -

0:52:230:52:26

See what you make of it.

0:52:260:52:28

Here's Fiona Trott.

0:52:280:52:31

The unmistakable Angel of the North,

towering over the A1 in Gateshead.

0:52:310:52:39

It's one of the most photographed

landmarks in Britain and viewed

0:52:390:52:48

by 33 million people every year.

0:52:480:52:49

I've grown to love it.

0:52:490:52:50

I think people do have a very

warm feeling about it.

0:52:500:52:53

It's an artwork that doesn't stand

on its own as an artwork

0:52:530:52:56

in a gallery but it's very much part

of everyday life, in Gateshead

0:52:560:53:00

and in this region.

0:53:000:53:05

In the middle of the night 20 years

ago, the Angel of the North

0:53:050:53:08

made its slow journey up the A1.

0:53:080:53:10

It was built in Hartlepool.

0:53:100:53:12

Its body as long as four

double-decker buses.

0:53:120:53:14

Its wings wider than a Boeing 757.

0:53:140:53:18

People gathered at the former

colliery site in Gateshead

0:53:180:53:21

to watch it put in place.

0:53:210:53:22

An historic moment.

0:53:220:53:23

At first, people were sceptical.

0:53:230:53:25

Why an angel?

0:53:250:53:26

Why so monumental?

0:53:260:53:30

But soon they claimed it

as their own, and that's exactly

0:53:300:53:35

what the sculptor wanted.

0:53:350:53:40

The fact is it's not my Angel,

it is the Angel of the North

0:53:400:53:43

and that means a lot to me.

0:53:430:53:46

I had an idea, but it was realised,

it was made by the people

0:53:460:53:51

of the north-east and it comes

from that extraordinary

0:53:510:53:53

story of the relationship

between coalmining, iron,

0:53:530:53:55

engineering and that history

of the Industrial Revolution.

0:53:550:54:02

For many, it's a special place.

0:54:020:54:04

There have even been

marriage proposals here.

0:54:040:54:07

Local people say it's put

the north-east on the map.

0:54:070:54:10

Northumberland is fabulous

and the Angel I think depicts just

0:54:100:54:13

how good we are up here.

0:54:130:54:16

Well, I'm up from London and I just

wanted to see it for myself.

0:54:160:54:21

I've heard about it before

and, yeah, it's pretty

0:54:210:54:23

impressive if you ask me.

0:54:230:54:28

I think I didn't like it

in the beginning, I think a lot

0:54:280:54:32

of people would say that,

but it's really grown

0:54:320:54:34

on me and now I love it.

0:54:340:54:38

On its 20th birthday, the Angel

is preparing for a medical.

0:54:380:54:42

Like all structures,

its joints need to be checked

0:54:420:54:45

so it can stand proud

for future generations.

0:54:450:54:47

Fiona Trott, BBC News, Gateshead.

0:54:470:54:53

I am sort of reassured to hear that

her joints are ageing and she is a

0:55:000:55:05

lightweight -- and she is only 20. I

am a great fan of Angel of the

0:55:050:55:16

North. Not so much meant Rushmore...

0:55:160:55:19

OK, so you might have noticed

but there's been something

0:55:190:55:22

missing this week...

0:55:220:55:23

I am talking about Christian.

0:55:230:55:25

We tried replacing him

with Paddington Bear but it

0:55:250:55:27

really wasn't the same.

0:55:270:55:31

Paddington doesn't answer back in

the way that Britain does. -- that

0:55:310:55:37

Christian does.

0:55:370:55:38

In case you were wondering,

Christian's been off skiing

0:55:380:55:40

with his family in the Pyrenees.

0:55:400:55:42

That is Christian, and of those

goggles.

0:55:420:55:46

They have had a lovely

time, no broken bones

0:55:460:55:48

and he will be back next week.

0:55:480:55:51

He is now a skiing whiz. He says he

has been watching the programme. But

0:55:510:56:00

he thinks

0:56:000:56:00

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