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Beyond One Hundred Days.
Teenagers confront lawmakers
in Tallahasee Florida
to try to change America's gun laws.
And in solidarity with the Parkland
victims, students across the state
walk out of school in protest
at mass shootings.
These high school kids
are the new factor
in America's old gun debate -
the question is their voice
louder than the gun lobby?
Because to me, to let these victims'
lives be taken without any change
in return is an act of treason.
There is a "monstrous
campaign of annihilation"
taking place in Syria,
says the UN, and it must stop.
Also on the programme...
Donald Trump attacks Democrats,
his own Attorney General
and the FBI over Russian meddling -
anyone, it seems,
except Vladimir Putin.
There are problems that face us
tonight that will never be solved
unless we bring them to the Lord
And the evangelist Billy Graham,
who's thought to have
dies at the age of 99.
Get in touch with us
using the hashtag...
Hello - I'm Katty Kay
in Washington and Christian
Fraser is in London.
We've all seen too many mass
shootings in the US to believe
that the latest one in Florida
will produce significant changes
to America's gun laws -
but the anger and determination
of high school students in the state
is a new factor in this old debate.
Today those teenagers
took their campaign for tighter gun
controls to the state
capital of Tallahassee.
They marched to the government
building, chanted slogans
and met local politicians.
Whether they can change
anything, no one knows yet,
but they are mobilising the support
of their peers across the country,
and we haven't seen that before.
Here's the BBC's North
America editor Jon Sopel.
A school trip like no other.
These students from Marjorie
Stoneman Douglas haven't come
to the Florida state
capital to listen.
They have come to speak and demand
change after 17 of their classmates
and teachers were killed last week.
And they're determined to be heard.
No one needs these weapons that
are taking children's lives,
and they should just ban them
because all they are used
for is destruction.
And they're just not needed.
You should go to school feeling safe
and be confident that
you are there for an education
and a bright future.
You're not here to worry
about getting shot.
These youngsters will be heard
politely and given a warm reception
by Florida lawmakers.
But last night those same people
voted against even reopening
a debate on semiautomatic weapons.
The battle for gun control
is going to be an uphill struggle.
You're not up here
to give suggestions,
you are up here to demand.
But that decision not even to debate
guns in the state assembly
has infuriated pupils,
teachers and community
I buried personally in the last
four days three kids
from my congregation.
I watched a father want to climb
into the mausoleum with his son.
I watched a mother curled up
in a ball who refused to come out
to be with her family
for the funeral.
And they have the gall to not
even discuss the issue.
We are very upset.
But from the White House
there are small but significant
signs of movement.
The president apparently in favour
of raising to 21 the age
at which people can buy weapons.
And he tweeted this.
"Whether we are Republican
or Democrat, who must now focus
on strengthening background checks."
And he announced yesterday
that he wanted to ban bump stocks,
the device used in Las Vegas that
turns a semiautomatic
rifle into a machine gun.
These students have
captured public attention
with their demand for change.
But those who have wearily trod this
path before will tell you that
winning support is a very different
thing to winning reform.
Jon Sopel, BBC News, Tallahassee.
Among the students who travelled
to the Florida state
capitol today was Julia Salomone.
I spoke to her just
a short while ago.
On your way to Tallahassee you said
that you were hopeful that lawmakers
would listen to you. Are you still
hopeful having met them?
hopeful about these lawmakers. I've
met with a few this morning and they
have been very receptive of the
message that we are trying to send
that we want reform in gun laws and
in the mental health system to make
sure this does not happen again.
They're listening to us and we do
believe change will happen.
a specific set of proposals that you
would like to see happen when it
comes to gun legislation and mental
I would say there are just a
few things I want to see, not
necessarily set out specific things.
But I would like to see a
registration of firearms in the
state of Florida and the country in
general, that would increase
accountability for gun owners. And
create safety. I want to see the age
of buying and owning a gun raised to
21 for all firearms. I would like to
see an extended waiting period for
buying a gun. In Florida you can
walk into a store and buy a gun on
the same day with no waiting period.
I would like to see three months,
six months, so safety can be
increased in that area.
You were in
the school in Parkland last week
when it was attacked. You said you
do not want your colleagues at
school, your peers at school to have
died in vain. Those who were killed.
Do you think that this movement,
that it can be attributed them?
This movement is our tribute, so
many of us have lost people we have
grown up with, people we are close
with. People we have been best
friends with forever. I lost so many
classmates personally and there will
be empty seats in those classrooms.
This move would make sure they do
not die in vain at their lives were
not lost and other lives will not be
lost like theirs. So we are
honouring them with this movement.
How determined are you that there
should be change?
I am extremely
determined that there has to be a
change should up and determined to
make that change was up and just
part of it, we are a collective
force, not one aged people, we are
an entire school and now and entire
country of students and teachers and
parents and everyone just wanting
change to happen. And it just
started with us, now it is bigger
than us. It is about honouring the
lives of our classmates and making a
They're such good speakers and what
strikes me about that interview,
they're not trying to divide people
guns but looking for sensible
solutions such as background checks
and age limits. Entered yet we
remain, even those sort of things
should be achievable but will remain
cynical because after Sandy Hook
this kind of things were promised
and nothing happened so what is
different this time?
Maybe it is
these students and their parents and
teachers got that is what we have
never had before. After Sandy Hook
the children were aged 67 and did
not have contemporaries to speak up
on their behalf. But these children
from Parkland have decided to make
this their mission. What has to
happen now for things to change it
for them to become activists in the
way people who are in favour of gun
rights are acting. Something like
five, 6% of the American voting
population for whom the only issue
would be built on is gun rights and
they will inundate their lawmakers
with phone calls and with protest
about that. Now there must be the
counterpart for that on the
gun-control site and the question is
whether those students become that
counterpart. We just do not know
that yet. We will have to see how
the movement continues.
It's been just over two weeks
since February 4th and in that
short space of time 346 Syrians have
been killed in Eastern Ghouta -
878 more people have been injured.
Those figures come from the UN
which is describing the situation
in Syria as a "monstrous campaign
of annihilation" that must stop.
A local resident has told the BBC
that bombing is hitting
every part of the enclave
and a doctor tells us 14 separate
medical centres have
been put out of action.
The result, says the UN
Secretary General, is "hell
on earth" for the four thousand
people who live there.
Our Middle East editor
Jeremy Bowen has more.
The Syrians deny targeting
civilians in Eastern Ghouta.
These, they say, are precision
strikes against artillery
that has hit central Damascus.
But the evidence from inside
the enclave is that civilians
are getting hurt and dying.
The suffering of civilians
could have a political effect.
Putting pressure on the rebel groups
in eastern Ghouta to make a deal.
The lives of their children
against strategic front line
territory near central Damascus
that the regime wants to get back.
This activist says helicopters
are hovering over us
here in eastern Ghouta.
God help us, we are
I was able to cross
from government-controlled Damascus
to eastern Ghouta several times
at the beginning of the war.
Even then it was very badly
damaged by regime bombing.
Morale among the rebels was high
and dozens of young men were joining
what they believed was a revolution.
What do you think
will happen to Assad?
Must be killed.
When the war started the regime
was under severe pressure.
It lost control of a crescent
of suburbs around Damascus.
Eastern Ghouta is the last of them
that has not surrendered.
In 2013 Eastern Ghouta was hit
by a chemical attack
that killed hundreds.
The Americans threatened a military
strike against the regime
and then decided against it.
It was a turning point in the war
after that the regime lost its fear
of Western intervention.
In September 2015 Russia intervened,
decisively, on Assad's side.
Now he is more secure
and he is emboldened,
more so than at any time
since the war started.
And the Russians are becoming
the dominant foreign
power in the Middle East.
In northern Syria the president
has just sent militia
men to join the fight
against the Turkish incursion.
He would not have the confidence
to move against Nato power
without the Russians.
And it suggests he will not listen
to foreign condemnation
of the attack on eastern Ghouta.
Jeremy Bowen BBC News.
Syria reminds me, those pictures we
saw from Aleppo a year and a half
ago and we did not think we would
see them again and the pattern is so
familiar. We hope the United Nations
say it is hell on earth but it does
not too much. President Assad says
he's attacking terrorists in the
region and he seems to carry on with
these bombings totally with impunity
because he has Russia on his side.
do not see what could break the
pattern. Well they're used to be 12
enclaves around Damascus and this is
the last and he wants to secure his
grip on Damascus and on power. I
think we will see more bloodshed in
the coming days and not less. A
pretty grim situation.
President Trump is
preoccupied with the Russia
investigation and has now tweeted 20
times about the issue
since last Friday.
Today he focused his anger
not on Moscow on Putin,
but on Obama and the Democrats.
Here's Mr Trump's tweet
from this morning.
Question: If all of the Russian
meddling took place
during the Obama Administration,
right up to January 20th,
why aren't they the subject
of the investigation?
Why didn't Obama do something
about the meddling?
Why aren't Dem crimes
Ask Jeff Sessions!
Russia still denies any meddling.
At the Munich security
conference last weekend -
the former Russian Ambassador
to Washington was directly
confronted about the interference
by America's former Ambassador
to NATO, Nick Burns.
If we're talking about
nuclear security, your
government has completely undermined
the foundation for it.
And you were Ambassador when this
was happening, so you must have
known something about it.
I have said already
that we did not meddle
in the American political life.
And to suggest that
we started meddling
in elections that have not started
is even more bizarre to hear.
It is your life, it is your fight.
And Ambassador Burns joined me
from Harvard a short time ago.
Ambassador Burns, President Trump
tweeted today that the Obama
Administration did not do anything,
that they are the ones that should
be investigated over
the Russia collusion issue.
Was he right?
He was wrong.
This is a preposterous
statement by President Trump.
The facts are that President Obama
expelled 35 Russian diplomats
from the United States,
closed two diplomatic
compounds, Russian compounds,
in the United States.
Sanctioned Russia and told
the American people
in the President's last month,
what the problem was,
publicly acknowledged it.
And urged the American people
and Congress to be wary
of what Russia was doing.
President Trump has
done none of that.
He refuses to this day even
with all the tweets in the last
couple of days to acknowledge
that the Russians launched
a conspiracy, Trump has refused
to implement the sanctions voted
overwhelmingly by the Congress.
President Trump's statements today
are just completely untrue.
When you were at the Munich Security
conference over the course
of the weekend you confronted
the former Russian ambassador
to Washington over the issue
of meddling in American elections.
And he seemed to almost echo
the Trump administration line
that this is basically fake news.
He did, this was a public
forum in Munich.
I was the moderator and I decided
I had to confront him with the facts
that Robert Mueller had brought out
in his indictment of the 13 Russians
that the Russian government
was behind this major conspiracy.
Of course he and his boss
the Russian Foreign Minister Sergei
Lavrov, they hid behind
the Trump administration statements.
Sergei Lavrov even quoted
Vice President Pence and other
administration officials saying
the allegations against
Russia were fake news.
So I thought that was profoundly
depressing for an American to hear -
that our president was basically
using the same argument
that the Russians are using to deny
the undeniable facts.
That the Russians interfered
in a major way in our elections.
And the president, our president,
needs to atone for this.
So ever since those indictments last
week, President Trump has tweeted,
I think I'm right in saying 21
times, about the Russia
Does it seem to you not only
that this is getting under his skin,
but that it is preoccupying
There's no question about it.
I think it is hanging
over his entire presidency.
No one knows what is going to happen
next in the Robert Mueller
investigation except for director
Robert Mueller and his team.
But President Trump has gone
overboard in a very unusual way
with all of these tweets.
What is remarkable to me
is that he has never uttered any
criticism of President Putin.
Why do you think that is?
He has criticised everybody under
the sun but not Putin.
What is your interpretation of that?
You know this is the big question.
My own view is that President Trump
believes that any indication that
Russia may have interfered
in the election
President Trump's victory.
Against Hillary Clinton.
And he doesn't want that to happen.
He's proud of his victory,
proud of the way he ran his race.
He does not want
to see it belittled.
But that is not his first job.
His first job is to
defend the States.
Dan Coats who is President Trump's
director of national intelligence,
said last week that we are under
attack by the Russians.
That we were in 2016,
we are in the 2018 elections.
And President Trump needs
to get beyond himself,
his own narrow concern,
and be president of 320 million
Americans and defend us.
And help our states
to raise their defences.
He has not done any of that.
I find him entirely
deficient in this basic role
of being commander-in-chief.
Nick Burns, thanks very
much for joining me.
The indictment of the 13 Russians
last week established that there was
a conspiracy and anyone who
supported it or knew about it,
Robert Mueller could go after. I
think belatedly the president has
realised it has made it much more
difficult for him to fire Robert
Mueller. That seems to be the case.
I cannot see why, any other reason
for so many tweets in the last few
That and his national security
adviser saying at the same Munich
conference that there was
undoubtedly Russian intervention in
the US election, now I think it will
be difficult for him as you say to
fire Robert Mueller. There's also
talk amongst lawyers here in this
town is Robert Mueller has also gone
after a lawyer of a foreign national
and they're all saying this is
serious, he's not going to stop at
anything but we do not know whether
Donald Trump is reluctant to say
something about President Putin
because the Russians do have some
kind of information about him or
because as Nick Burns suggested he
is worried his election victory
would be regarded as not legitimate.
The Watergate investigation took two
years and may take that long but
there will be answers about by this
president is so reluctant to
criticise Putin and the Russians and
so reluctant to say there was
Russian involvement in the US
The British charity
Save the Children has apologised
to three female employees
who complained about
by its former chief executive.
Justin Forsyth resigned
from the organisation
after being accused
of sending inappropriate texts.
Save the Children has admitted
proper procedures were not followed
while investigating the complaints
in 2015 and says it
has launched a review
of its "organisational culture".
A new study by scientists
in France suggests heavy
drinkers may risk the early
onset of dementia.
Researchers looked at the habits
of more than a million
people and found that of the 57,000
diagnosed with the disease
before the age of 65,
half had alcohol problems.
It's thought that heavy drinking
is associated with smoking,
depression and other factors,
which increase the risk of dementia.
Environmental campaigners in the UK
have won another victory
in the High Court after a judge
ruled government plans to tackle air
pollution are "unlawful".
The government has modified
its plans to reduce harmful
nitrogen dioxide in the past
following previous rulings that
levels are too high across Britain.
However, the court says still more
needs to be done to comply
with pollution laws.
It's estimated that outdoor air
pollution contributes to 40,000
early deaths a year in the UK.
The American evangelist,
has died at the age of 99.
Graham began preaching in October
of 1947, and during the course
of his life he is thought to have
spoken to 215 million people
in more than 185 countries
and territories around the world.
He was the founder and the master
of the art of tele-evangelism.
Mr Graham was close
to Presidents and world leaders.
Today Buckingham Palace said
the Queen will send a private
message of condolence to his family.
But he was not without
He apologised after audio recordings
revealed he'd failed to criticise
Richard Nixon's anti-semitic
comments and he was criticised for
preaching behind the iron curtain.
The problems that face us tonight
that will never be solved,
unless we bring them
to the Lord Jesus Christ.
Charismatic and handsome,
Billy Graham preached a simple
message that he took
around the world.
That people should turn to Jesus. He
had a remarkable effect on a
sometimes disinterested public.
loves you and if there's one thing
you get out of these days we are in
Edinburgh it is that God loves you.
In 1954 London first experienced the
force of the Billy Graham Brandt of
We have come here at the
invitation of these churches to lead
you in a crusade to win meant to
As his reputation
grew, so that the crowds. From New
York to Nigeria.
He was God and he
was also man. I want you to get out
of your seat right now and say I
want my sins forgiven.
It was as a
Billy game rally in Earls Court in
1966 the Cliff Richard publicly
declared his Christianity.
He reached hundreds of millions. And
he was courted by American
presidents. From Nixon to Clinton.
Though he never took sides. I'm
looking forward to death because I
want to go into the glorious New
World I believe everyone that knows
Jesus Christ is going to go and I
will have all the answers that now I
would like to have cancers too.
asked daddy what do you want on your
tombstone and he thought and said,
just preacher. That is it.
cancer and Parkinson's disease,
Billy Graham was just that. A
preacher, into old age, and
thousands still flocked to hear him.
So how did this farm boy from North
Carolina comes to speak to so many
people around the world?
amazing but the Graham he was born
at the end of the First World War
but mastered the very modern
technology of television. He
understood that was how he was going
to reach millions of people around
the world. He was an icon, it is
hard to overstate his influence on
the Christian movement here in
America. He bridged in South Africa
to integrated audiences, he preached
in North Korea and the soviet union
service which was global for but if
you track Billy Graham and his telly
evangelical movement with the rise
of evangelical Christianity around
the world there is a parallel. You
could say he the founder of that.
Most of my knowledge came from the
All these presidents since
Robert Schumann, but he said he
never advised them, all but he did
was to pray with them.
criticised for being too close to
some of the presidents and that was
the source of some controversy.
we're focusing on this Norwegian
cross country skier who has become
the most successful Winter Olympian
of all time after winning bronze in
the cross-country team sprint where
were the Americans? That is Marit
This is Beyond 100
Days from the BBC.
Coming up for viewers
on the BBC News Channel
and BBC World News -
we return to the issue of gun
control - will talks
between the President and survivors
of some of the worst school
shootings bear fruit?
And ever been to the Nile?
How BBC viewers can now explore it
using the power of virtual reality.
That's still to come.
Good evening. The weather is going
to change over the next few days and
things will become significantly
colder. But today we had some
beautiful sunny skies. There will be
more sunshine to come because high
pressure is currently exerting
influence across much of western
Europe. And it will feed in colder
air in the coming days from the
East. It turns quite chilly through
tonight, some clear spells but also
some areas of cloud. Temperatures in
the towns and cities around freezing
but dropping below out in the
countryside. So Thursday morning
from any some spells of sunshine
after any early mist and fog has
cleared. Through the day generally
more clout bubbling up. Still a
decent look to the weather. More
clout and the strengthening wind
into Northern Ireland and the West
of Scotland and temperatures around
five, 7 degrees. Into Friday a
similar looking day, a lot of
sunshine. Some areas of cloud here
and there. The breeze perhaps
becoming more noticeable down
towards the south and making it feel
a bit colder. Then we head into the
weekend, high pressure still the
dominant feature. But it has moved
further north at this stage across
Scandinavia. So the air is coming in
all the way from Siberia. Through
the weekend things to turn
increasingly cold. Getting down to
perhaps 4 degrees is the maximum
temperature on Sunday. But adding on
the strength of the winter it will
feel even colder. And the high
pressure remains dominant as we get
on into next week. What you can see
on the chart is just the suggestion
that we might see some snow showers.
As we continued to import those cold
easterly winds. The cold air not
only reaching the UK but going a way
south across Europe and some parts
of the Mediterranean. For as the
amount of snow are uncertain as we
get into next week but we can say it
will be cold with a widespread frost
and bitter wind. And the chance of
This is Beyond 100 Days with me
Katty Kay in Washington.
Christian Fraser's in London.
Our top stories...
Students in Florida take
to the streets in the state capital
to demand stricter
controls on gun sales.
The UN Secretary General demands
an immediate end to fighting
in Eastern Ghouta in Syria,
saying the besieged rebel enclave
has become "hell on earth".
Coming up in the next half hour...
The American evangelist,
Billy Graham, has died at the age
of 99 after battling Parkinson's
disease for several years.
He devoted his life to spreading
the Christian message.
The massive dam that can control
the River Nile across three
But this multi-billion dollar
project in Ethiopia could
trigger a major regional conflict.
Let us know your thoughts
by using the hashtag...
The United Nations Secretary General
has called for an immediate halt
to all fighting in the Syrian rebel
enclave of Eastern Ghouta,
which has come under fierce
bombardment from government forces
for a fourth day.
Antonio Guterres described
the situation in the area
as "hell on earth".
Local activists say that more
than 40 people have been killed
in air strikes today,
I short time ago I spoke to
in air strikes today,
and a short time ago I spoke to
Dr Bassam Bakri an anesthesiologist
who's been treating patients today.
And he's doing it in fear of his
And he's doing it in fear of his own
wife, under the constant threat of
Feels not enough
equipment. -- there is not enough
equipment. No medicine. It's so
hard. It's catastrophic. We don't
have morphine, we don't have any
medicine... I don't know, it's so
Does that mean that you're
treating children and operating on
children and you can't make them
Yes. It is so hard to
treat children. There is no safe
place to send them, not enough
medicine, as I told you. No food.
You can't feed them. We have money,
maybe more than 330 injured
And you're dying this
amidst bombs falling around -- and
you're doing this.
Yes, maybe more
than 200 bombardment and missiles.
Artillery. So, you cannot imagine
the danger and how it scales the
children. -- and how its scares. It
is so hard.
How do you think this
will end, doctor?
I don't know. I
will stay here until people. It's
our country, our towns. We'll stay
here and say people and help the
injured. That's what we have to do.
What you say to the outside world,
the international community?
international community just
watching us and leaving us to be
called. I don't know why. I don't
know what's our fault, just ask for
our freedom. We want some United
Nations convoys, medicine and food.
Stop killing. We need real pressure
on this criminal regime.
Terrible listening to that. Here's a
humanitarian and doctor and can't
help the patients with them. They're
not even working in a hospital.
They're having to hide in buildings
and basements. Earlier today when
trying to get in touch with him, he
said, is it possible that we said,
is it possible to get an interview?
He said, I've been working flat out
all day. Then he said, if I get
time, if I'm alive.
Our hearts go out to them.
Returning now to the students
from Parkland, Florida
who are taking their calls for gun
control to the state's capital.
Earlier many of them
spoke passionately and
here is just a sample.
I am a high school senior. I don't
know the exact course of action to
take. I don't know exactly what
needs to be done. I just know that
what we're doing there was nowhere
near enough. If I have to keep
seeing neighbours die, friends die,
other people on the news deal with
this same tragedy... They do not
deserve this. America does not
deserve this. Humanity does not
That was an amazing
group of articulate students who are
As those students press
their case in Florida,
today the President is holding
a listening session with students
and teachers here in Washington.
For more on the politics of this
we are joined now by former
advisor to George W
Bush, Ron Christie.
You, like me have seen this happen
time and time again after each of
these events. We think things will
change and America will find a way
to stop these killings but that
It doesn't happen.
One of the reasons is we have the
second Amendment in the United
States. It's in the bill of Rights.
It says on the constitution you're
allowed to bear arms. There has been
such a growing political fight after
each one of these shootings where we
think we will reform the gun laws
and expand background checks but
ultimately, the Congress and
President do nothing.
Part of the
reason on this and I think we have
the numbers is that the number of
people for her and our rights a
single issue is a bigger number than
those who want gun-control. If you
call your congressmen, they listen
worked in that area for many years,
we had many calls saying, don't
restrict my right to bear arms.
yet, they voted not to have a
discussion on gun ownership. But
devoted to have a discussion about
pornography, that is bad for your
elf. Nothing about the pornography
of guns, which is terrible for the
children gathered outside the state
is in Tallahassee. To elected
representatives would even discuss
These children are still
traumatised by what happened to them
and decided to exercise their first
Amendment rights. To go to
Tallahassee and come to Washington,
DC. There was a big demonstration
earlier today to demand lawmakers do
something. We can debate with the
right -- what the right course of
action should be, but given the fact
that the 18-24 -year-old demographic
is the largest one, larger than
seniors any native states, these
politicians better be worried
because I think these young people
will mobilise the vote.
you for joining us. This is a debate
we will return to several times.
Oprah Winfrey and various
celebrities in Hollywood have backed
the students. Is that a good thing?
No, at the moment, the key is the
students. They are the offence take
voices and new in this debate. We
have had liberals in Hollywood
weighing in before, but the new
thing now is these didn't. -- is
He was America's pastor -
that's how former President George W
Bush described Billy Graham
and today the tributes have been
pouring in for the preacher
who reached millions.
The spirtual guidance he gave
to multiple US presidents
is the topic of a book coauthored
by Nancy Gibbs - former
editor in chief of TIME.
She joins us from New York now.
Nancy, Guilmette Billy Graham
several times while you were
researching this book. What was it
about him, do you think, that
catapulted him from end of the First
World War birth to farm boy, to
being the famous preacher he became?
Well he of course would say that it
was not anything he did, it was what
God did. In a way, that tells you
everything you need to know.
Somehow, a man who spent more years
in public life on the public stage
than almost any figure in the 20th
century managed to not have that
completely distorted view of the
world and have pride go to his head.
By the 1950s, he was photographed at
more than Marilyn Monroe and he was
more famous than those presidents he
became such good friends with. And I
think that at some level,
extraordinary humility that he
managed to hang onto, despite the
same and the millions and millions
of people who would come out to hear
him night after night. Really
distinguished him and gave his
message a kind of resonance with
atomic age population who wanted
reassurance and understanding of
something that felt real, affecting
an accessible to them.
He came from
that tumultuous time in unaided --
in the 1960s in the native states.
But he managed to reach people
around the world. Was it through
television that he understood this
new means of mass communication?
certainly did. He understood radio.
He had a newspaper column and
published books. He had a massive
audience that never saw him in
person. On the other hand, he is
probably an individual who spoke to
more people in person than anyone
who has ever lived. Well over 200
million people. So it was both.
People would come to see him at
these enormous receives all over the
world but then he also had his
virtual ministry that was
ecumenical, global and used every
form of medium available to him very
shrewdly. He understood the power of
media far better than certainly most
religious speakers of age.
was the controversy. He went behind
the Iron Curtain at a time when that
wasn't done. Why do you think he did
He did it because he felt
every human being has the same need
to hear the gospel. And he was
pretty immune to the criticism,
because, in a way, he could answer
by saying, he needs to hear God's
worth more than the people who are
enslaved by communism or do not
enjoy freedom of religion in the
country? So he was fully prepared to
withstand criticism if it allowed
him to preach in places where
Christian leaders had never stepped
foot in recent years.
And he gave
the indication that -- the
invocation at nine presidential
inauguration. Residents done to him
in their darkest hours. What was it
about and that they wanted to talk
to and what spiritual guidance to
tea for them?
This is what's
remarkable. He was valuable to them
privately and publicly. The kind of
things they talked about in private,
from Eisenhower wanting to know
whether he would see his parents in
heaven, and Johnson, who was
terribly afraid of death, wanted
Billy Graham to fly with him because
he would say, God is not going to
let this plane Godin Billy Graham is
on it. When Ronald Reagan was shot,
Nancy Reagan took to the hospital
on it. When Ronald Reagan was shot,
Nancy Reagan took to the hospital.
When Hillary Clinton faced enormous
turmoil in her marriage, Billy
Graham is the one she wanted to talk
to. These are most intimate, Private
kind of emotional and spiritual
issues. At the same time, he was
enormously valuable to these public
figures in public. And to have Billy
Graham at your side, whether that
your inauguration of the night
before the Gulf War began for
President Bush 41, after the
Oklahoma City bombing for Bill
Clinton, after 9/11 for George W
Bush, at these moments of enormous
national pain and concern, having
Billy Graham there was a signal to
the country that the president is a
thoughtful, spiritual man and people
are praying for him. With him.
Nancy, thank you for sharing those
stories, as we remember Billy
A letter sent to the UK
Prime Minister from 60
Brexit supporting MPs makes clear
they are not prepared
to swallow many more compromises
when it comes to breaking free
from the EU.
It's the timing of the letter
It comes on the eve of tomorrow's
away day summit at Chequers
in which Theresa May hopes to bring
all sides together.
It's clearly not going to be easy.
What's more, a leaked government
document leaves some ambiguity over
the length of time the transition
period should last.
Earlier, I talked to
influential Conservative back
bencher Johnny Mercer.
I put it to him that the Prime
Minister goes to Chequers tomorrow
to hammer out a deal with colleagues
who might be clear that they don't
want to compromise.
I'm beginning to
get fed up with all these letters
going to the Prime Minister. I think
she has a difficult enough job as it
is at the moment. There are clearly
things everyone wants from this
negotiation. But she will get the
best deal she can. I understand
people have their opinions on her
leadership and what's going on, but
this is a critical time for the
nation. This is such an important
moment to get this settlement right
for the next ten, 20 years. And I
don't want to see her bullied by
factions of the party. There's
actually a hell of a lot more people
who didn't sign that letter as
Parliament. I the concerns of those
who did, but we should calm down a
bit and get behind the Prime
Minister, get this deal done. That
is what people want, who voted for
We have also seen a leaked
government document which is rather
ambiguous about the length of
transition there would be when Brett
Lee the European Union. Your voters
in Plymouth voted to leave. Would
they be happy with an open-ended
No, I don't think they
would. We need a clearly defined
time where people can see what the
planners. Speaking to people in
businesses, they want that vision
and timeline. What is this
transition going to look like and
how long will it last for? What does
the future like beyond that? That is
what we need to focus on. I accept
that they will be elements of
negotiation in this and some might
want to see it open-ended. I don't
think that is at it. People voted to
leave and we need to get on with it.
It transition phase may be part of
it but not an open-ended one.
Outside of the 60 MPs who wrote the
letter, what do backbenchers think?
Another debate is of course the
customs union. People say it is not
possible to keep the border in
Ireland open if you leave the
I am not going to
pretend I know the answer to what
the problem is in Northern Ireland.
There is clearly an issue to how we
have frictionless trade with the
European Union and when you leave
the customs union. I want to see a
gracious Brexit with give and take
on a number of different sides. But
ultimately, we get the best results
for the people in this country who
voted to leave the European Union.
And yes, there clear issues around
Northern Ireland and the customs
union. The Department under David
Davis and the Prime Minister are
working as hard as they can to get
through that now. The time to judge
them, and I know that is -- that
nothing patted the thick time to
judge them is when this is done.
would agree it is time for the plan?
I do agree. I think we need to see a
bit more vision and a programme to
like the way ahead so that
businesses in places like Plymouth
have an idea of what is going on. I
was with the CBI today and yes, it
is tough. People knew this would
happen. I don't buy this argument
that people did not know what they
were voting for. They were stupid
voting for Brexit. It was clearly
laid out by the Remain campaign and
David Cameron. People knew this
would be difficult. But let's get on
and work harder to get a plan so
people can start making decisions
posted 2019 when we actually leave.
The future is bright but we need to
light it up and show that vision to
people in this country.
This is Beyond 100 Days.
Still to come - the River Nile
in virtual reality.
We take a different perspective
on the project to build Africa's
biggest hydroelectric dam.
Two victims of the "black cab
rapist" John Worboys have won
a landmark legal case
against the Metropolitan Police
after officers failed to take action
when they reported him.
The Supreme Court ruling means
police may now face legal action
if they fail to properly
investigate serious cases.
Here's our Legal Correspondent,
For years, John Worboys cruised
the streets of London in his black
cab looking for women to dupe,
drug and sexually assault.
This woman, known for legal reasons
as DST, was attacked by Warboys
in 2003 and was the first
to report him to police.
I put my trust in the police.
I went to them, for
them to sort this out.
I knew who had attacked me.
Didn't know his name but I knew
who was responsible for this.
They had all the information there,
they should have caught him,
they could have stopped him.
Warboys was able to continue
to attack women until he was finally
brought to justice in 2009.
DSD and another Warboys' victims
brought a legal challenge claiming
claiming the police failures
breached their human
and amounted to inhuman
and degrading treatment.
The Metropolitan Police fought them
to the Supreme Court.
Today, the court ruled
in the women's favour.
We have held that failures
in the investigation of crimes,
provided they are sufficiently
serious, will give rise to liability
on the part of the police.
And we have further found
that there were such serious
deficiencies in this case.
Today's landmark ruling has huge
implications for both
of violent crime and the police
who investigate it.
If they seriously fail
in an investigation,
they can face human rights actions
by the victim and have
to pay out compensation.
Today's judgment can't make up
for the police errors
in investigating John Worboys.
But it will put real pressure
on them to ensure such
mistakes don't happen again.
The project to build Africa's
biggest hydroelectric dam
on the River Nile is threatening
to provoke a major conflict between
some of the countries affected.
The dam is being built by Ethiopia,
and Sudan says it welcomes
the prospect of cheaper power.
But the Egyptians are deeply
unhappy - fearing the flow
through the Aswan Dam
and on to Cairo will be weakened,
in a country already facing
serious water shortages.
Our Africa correspondent
Alastair Leithead has travelled
to all three countries -
and sent the first of his special
reports from Ethiopia.
The source of the blue Nile.
A sacred lake of mystery and legend
way up in the Ethiopian highlands.
But as this great river launches
itself on a long journey to the sea,
there are turbulent times ahead
between the three countries
that share its waters.
It's all about this.
The grand Ethiopian Renaissance dam.
Five years in and two thirds
finished, this multibillion-dollar
dam can already control the flow
of the Nile and that's
upsetting downstream Egypt.
When it's finished, this will be
the largest hydroelectric
power station in Africa.
And one of the biggest
dams on the continent.
It will not only power this country,
but the surrounding
countries as well.
And Ethiopia didn't even ask
the countries downstream before
it started building.
That is the scale of this
This project is a project
that is being built by Ethiopians.
And that will benefit other
African brothers, sisters,
and other countries
across the globe.
The project manager
insists that downstream
countries should not worry.
As it will not consume any water.
The reservoir it creates will be
bigger than Greater London.
It will flood the river valley
for 250 kilometres upstream.
But if it is filled up too quickly,
the flow of the Nile,
85% of which comes from
here, will be reduced.
That is what Egypt is worried about.
These pylons will soon take
cheap power to Sudan
which supports the dam.
It will bring electricity
to some of the 70 million
And it will drive Ethiopia's
Modernisation is already changing
life in the capital Addis Ababa.
Ethiopia wants to pull its people
out of poverty, to create jobs
and get over its historic image
of drought and famine.
To the government, economic
growth is everything.
More important than human
rights or democracy.
And the dam is a modern
defining national project.
It is one of the most important
flagship projects for Ethiopia.
So Egypt has nothing to worry about?
There's nothing to worry about.
It is not about control of the flow.
It is really about providing
opportunity for us
to develop ourselves.
The dam can already control
the flow of the river.
But its full impact
downstream isn't yet known.
It is a political row
that is pulling in the
And we can find out a bit more
about some of the stunning pictures
you saw in that report
because Alastair Leithead is here.
I spent all afternoon in a VR lab
with this man today. He has done the
most extraordinary thing in
television. Go to the front page of
the BBC website and get some of
these goggles that we will show you.
These are the cardboard goggles. He
has done this extraordinary VR
experience down the Nile so that you
can actually look around and I'll
like this and follow the story. Tell
us about how you did it.
It is a
very different way of broadcasting.
As a former foreign correspondent
yourself, your job is to take people
to places will stop explain things
to them and get them to understand
stuff. But when you can actually
take them there and show it to
them... This is cardboard, it is a
cheap version, about eight or $9.
You put your phone in the front, put
some headphones on and you're in
that virtual world.
It is so
immersive. This is the camera here.
Your best friend.
in 360. You want, the clouds, at
your feet... It's the sound as well.
If I look at you here, I get the
sound in this year but overhear,
different sense. Do that?
spatial audio. You can do that with
good headphones. We get the sound
and located in space and people can
be drawn to look in the right place.
As you say, you can look anywhere.
You could see it with that interview
with the Minister Elliott. You could
see his desk, things like that.
Having experience of being there as
well as hearing the story.
really cool and their loved one you
did on the website. But they have to
say, I am a little bit disappointed
because I thought you would come
into the studio with something super
high-tech and supermodel and all
you've got is a little cardboard
That's the point. We need to
try get people to use these things.
It's hassle to get a bit of kit to
put your phone in and watch this
stuff. But it's worth it. What we're
trying to do, doing this film, while
we're on a journey on the River Nile
anyway, is to get people to look at
it and see it the way that we want
to it. The best way to see it is
going to bbc.com.
We are after the Nile because that
looked like too much fun.
These foreign correspondents don't
know they're born. I used to have to
go to these places and film