21/02/2018 Beyond 100 Days


21/02/2018

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Beyond One Hundred Days.

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Teenagers confront lawmakers

in Tallahasee Florida

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to try to change America's gun laws.

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And in solidarity with the Parkland

victims, students across the state

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walk out of school in protest

at mass shootings.

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These high school kids

are the new factor

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in America's old gun debate -

the question is their voice

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louder than the gun lobby?

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Because to me, to let these victims'

lives be taken without any change

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in return is an act of treason.

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There is a "monstrous

campaign of annihilation"

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taking place in Syria,

says the UN, and it must stop.

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Also on the programme...

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Donald Trump attacks Democrats,

his own Attorney General

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and the FBI over Russian meddling -

anyone, it seems,

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except Vladimir Putin.

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There are problems that face us

tonight that will never be solved

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unless we bring them to the Lord

Jesus Christ.

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And the evangelist Billy Graham,

who's thought to have

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dies at the age of 99.

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Get in touch with us

using the hashtag...

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'Beyond-One-Hundred-Days'

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Hello - I'm Katty Kay

in Washington and Christian

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Fraser is in London.

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We've all seen too many mass

shootings in the US to believe

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that the latest one in Florida

will produce significant changes

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to America's gun laws -

but the anger and determination

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of high school students in the state

is a new factor in this old debate.

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Today those teenagers

took their campaign for tighter gun

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controls to the state

capital of Tallahassee.

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They marched to the government

building, chanted slogans

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and met local politicians.

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Whether they can change

anything, no one knows yet,

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but they are mobilising the support

of their peers across the country,

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and we haven't seen that before.

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Here's the BBC's North

America editor Jon Sopel.

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A school trip like no other.

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These students from Marjorie

Stoneman Douglas haven't come

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to the Florida state

capital to listen.

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They have come to speak and demand

change after 17 of their classmates

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and teachers were killed last week.

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And they're determined to be heard.

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No one needs these weapons that

are taking children's lives,

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and they should just ban them

because all they are used

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for is destruction.

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And they're just not needed.

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You should go to school feeling safe

and be confident that

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you are there for an education

and a bright future.

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You're not here to worry

about getting shot.

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These youngsters will be heard

politely and given a warm reception

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by Florida lawmakers.

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But last night those same people

voted against even reopening

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a debate on semiautomatic weapons.

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The battle for gun control

is going to be an uphill struggle.

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You're not up here

to give suggestions,

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you are up here to demand.

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But that decision not even to debate

guns in the state assembly

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has infuriated pupils,

teachers and community

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leaders alike.

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I buried personally in the last

four days three kids

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from my congregation.

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I watched a father want to climb

into the mausoleum with his son.

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I watched a mother curled up

in a ball who refused to come out

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to be with her family

for the funeral.

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And they have the gall to not

even discuss the issue.

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We are very upset.

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But from the White House

there are small but significant

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signs of movement.

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The president apparently in favour

of raising to 21 the age

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at which people can buy weapons.

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And he tweeted this.

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"Whether we are Republican

or Democrat, who must now focus

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on strengthening background checks."

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And he announced yesterday

that he wanted to ban bump stocks,

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the device used in Las Vegas that

turns a semiautomatic

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rifle into a machine gun.

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These students have

captured public attention

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with their demand for change.

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But those who have wearily trod this

path before will tell you that

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winning support is a very different

thing to winning reform.

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Jon Sopel, BBC News, Tallahassee.

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Among the students who travelled

to the Florida state

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capitol today was Julia Salomone.

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I spoke to her just

a short while ago.

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On your way to Tallahassee you said

that you were hopeful that lawmakers

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would listen to you. Are you still

hopeful having met them?

I'm still

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hopeful about these lawmakers. I've

met with a few this morning and they

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have been very receptive of the

message that we are trying to send

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that we want reform in gun laws and

in the mental health system to make

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sure this does not happen again.

They're listening to us and we do

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believe change will happen.

You have

a specific set of proposals that you

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would like to see happen when it

comes to gun legislation and mental

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health?

I would say there are just a

few things I want to see, not

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necessarily set out specific things.

But I would like to see a

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registration of firearms in the

state of Florida and the country in

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general, that would increase

accountability for gun owners. And

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create safety. I want to see the age

of buying and owning a gun raised to

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21 for all firearms. I would like to

see an extended waiting period for

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buying a gun. In Florida you can

walk into a store and buy a gun on

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the same day with no waiting period.

I would like to see three months,

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six months, so safety can be

increased in that area.

You were in

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the school in Parkland last week

when it was attacked. You said you

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do not want your colleagues at

school, your peers at school to have

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died in vain. Those who were killed.

Do you think that this movement,

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that it can be attributed them?

Yes.

This movement is our tribute, so

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many of us have lost people we have

grown up with, people we are close

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with. People we have been best

friends with forever. I lost so many

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classmates personally and there will

be empty seats in those classrooms.

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This move would make sure they do

not die in vain at their lives were

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not lost and other lives will not be

lost like theirs. So we are

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honouring them with this movement.

How determined are you that there

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should be change?

I am extremely

determined that there has to be a

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change should up and determined to

make that change was up and just

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part of it, we are a collective

force, not one aged people, we are

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an entire school and now and entire

country of students and teachers and

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parents and everyone just wanting

change to happen. And it just

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started with us, now it is bigger

than us. It is about honouring the

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lives of our classmates and making a

change.

Thank you.

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They're such good speakers and what

strikes me about that interview,

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they're not trying to divide people

guns but looking for sensible

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solutions such as background checks

and age limits. Entered yet we

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remain, even those sort of things

should be achievable but will remain

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cynical because after Sandy Hook

this kind of things were promised

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and nothing happened so what is

different this time?

Maybe it is

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these students and their parents and

teachers got that is what we have

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never had before. After Sandy Hook

the children were aged 67 and did

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not have contemporaries to speak up

on their behalf. But these children

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from Parkland have decided to make

this their mission. What has to

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happen now for things to change it

for them to become activists in the

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way people who are in favour of gun

rights are acting. Something like

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five, 6% of the American voting

population for whom the only issue

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would be built on is gun rights and

they will inundate their lawmakers

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with phone calls and with protest

about that. Now there must be the

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counterpart for that on the

gun-control site and the question is

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whether those students become that

counterpart. We just do not know

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that yet. We will have to see how

the movement continues.

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It's been just over two weeks

since February 4th and in that

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short space of time 346 Syrians have

been killed in Eastern Ghouta -

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878 more people have been injured.

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Those figures come from the UN

which is describing the situation

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in Syria as a "monstrous campaign

of annihilation" that must stop.

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A local resident has told the BBC

that bombing is hitting

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every part of the enclave

and a doctor tells us 14 separate

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medical centres have

been put out of action.

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The result, says the UN

Secretary General, is "hell

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on earth" for the four thousand

people who live there.

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Our Middle East editor

Jeremy Bowen has more.

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The Syrians deny targeting

civilians in Eastern Ghouta.

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EXPLOSIONS.

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These, they say, are precision

strikes against artillery

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that has hit central Damascus.

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SCREAMING.

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But the evidence from inside

the enclave is that civilians

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are getting hurt and dying.

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The suffering of civilians

could have a political effect.

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Putting pressure on the rebel groups

in eastern Ghouta to make a deal.

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The lives of their children

against strategic front line

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territory near central Damascus

that the regime wants to get back.

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This activist says helicopters

are hovering over us

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here in eastern Ghouta.

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God help us, we are

being exterminated.

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I was able to cross

from government-controlled Damascus

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to eastern Ghouta several times

at the beginning of the war.

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Even then it was very badly

damaged by regime bombing.

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Morale among the rebels was high

and dozens of young men were joining

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what they believed was a revolution.

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What do you think

will happen to Assad?

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Killed.

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Must be killed.

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When the war started the regime

was under severe pressure.

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It lost control of a crescent

of suburbs around Damascus.

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Eastern Ghouta is the last of them

that has not surrendered.

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In 2013 Eastern Ghouta was hit

by a chemical attack

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that killed hundreds.

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The Americans threatened a military

strike against the regime

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and then decided against it.

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It was a turning point in the war

after that the regime lost its fear

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of Western intervention.

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In September 2015 Russia intervened,

decisively, on Assad's side.

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Now he is more secure

and he is emboldened,

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more so than at any time

since the war started.

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And the Russians are becoming

the dominant foreign

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power in the Middle East.

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In northern Syria the president

has just sent militia

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men to join the fight

against the Turkish incursion.

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He would not have the confidence

to move against Nato power

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without the Russians.

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And it suggests he will not listen

to foreign condemnation

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of the attack on eastern Ghouta.

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Jeremy Bowen BBC News.

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Syria reminds me, those pictures we

saw from Aleppo a year and a half

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ago and we did not think we would

see them again and the pattern is so

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familiar. We hope the United Nations

say it is hell on earth but it does

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not too much. President Assad says

he's attacking terrorists in the

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region and he seems to carry on with

these bombings totally with impunity

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because he has Russia on his side.

I

do not see what could break the

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pattern. Well they're used to be 12

enclaves around Damascus and this is

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the last and he wants to secure his

grip on Damascus and on power. I

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think we will see more bloodshed in

the coming days and not less. A

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pretty grim situation.

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President Trump is

preoccupied with the Russia

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investigation and has now tweeted 20

times about the issue

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since last Friday.

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Today he focused his anger

not on Moscow on Putin,

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but on Obama and the Democrats.

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Here's Mr Trump's tweet

from this morning.

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Question: If all of the Russian

meddling took place

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during the Obama Administration,

right up to January 20th,

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why aren't they the subject

of the investigation?

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Why didn't Obama do something

about the meddling?

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Why aren't Dem crimes

under investigation?

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Ask Jeff Sessions!

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Russia still denies any meddling.

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At the Munich security

conference last weekend -

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the former Russian Ambassador

to Washington was directly

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confronted about the interference

by America's former Ambassador

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to NATO, Nick Burns.

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If we're talking about

nuclear security, your

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government has completely undermined

the foundation for it.

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And you were Ambassador when this

was happening, so you must have

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known something about it.

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I have said already

that we did not meddle

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in the American political life.

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And to suggest that

we started meddling

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in elections that have not started

is even more bizarre to hear.

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It is your life, it is your fight.

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And Ambassador Burns joined me

from Harvard a short time ago.

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Ambassador Burns, President Trump

tweeted today that the Obama

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Administration did not do anything,

that they are the ones that should

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be investigated over

the Russia collusion issue.

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Was he right?

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He was wrong.

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This is a preposterous

statement by President Trump.

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The facts are that President Obama

expelled 35 Russian diplomats

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from the United States,

closed two diplomatic

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compounds, Russian compounds,

in the United States.

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Sanctioned Russia and told

the American people

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in the President's last month,

what the problem was,

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publicly acknowledged it.

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And urged the American people

and Congress to be wary

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of what Russia was doing.

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President Trump has

done none of that.

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He refuses to this day even

with all the tweets in the last

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couple of days to acknowledge

that the Russians launched

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a conspiracy, Trump has refused

to implement the sanctions voted

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overwhelmingly by the Congress.

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President Trump's statements today

are just completely untrue.

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When you were at the Munich Security

conference over the course

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of the weekend you confronted

the former Russian ambassador

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to Washington over the issue

of meddling in American elections.

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And he seemed to almost echo

the Trump administration line

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that this is basically fake news.

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He did, this was a public

forum in Munich.

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I was the moderator and I decided

I had to confront him with the facts

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that Robert Mueller had brought out

in his indictment of the 13 Russians

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that the Russian government

was behind this major conspiracy.

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Of course he and his boss

the Russian Foreign Minister Sergei

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Lavrov, they hid behind

the Trump administration statements.

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Sergei Lavrov even quoted

Vice President Pence and other

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administration officials saying

the allegations against

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Russia were fake news.

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So I thought that was profoundly

depressing for an American to hear -

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that our president was basically

using the same argument

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that the Russians are using to deny

the undeniable facts.

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That the Russians interfered

in a major way in our elections.

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And the president, our president,

needs to atone for this.

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So ever since those indictments last

week, President Trump has tweeted,

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I think I'm right in saying 21

times, about the Russia

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investigation.

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Does it seem to you not only

that this is getting under his skin,

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this investigation,

but that it is preoccupying

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his presidency?

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There's no question about it.

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I think it is hanging

over his entire presidency.

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No one knows what is going to happen

next in the Robert Mueller

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investigation except for director

Robert Mueller and his team.

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But President Trump has gone

overboard in a very unusual way

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with all of these tweets.

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What is remarkable to me

is that he has never uttered any

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criticism of President Putin.

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Why do you think that is?

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He has criticised everybody under

the sun but not Putin.

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What is your interpretation of that?

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You know this is the big question.

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My own view is that President Trump

believes that any indication that

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Russia may have interfered

in the election

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somehow delegitimises

President Trump's victory.

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Against Hillary Clinton.

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And he doesn't want that to happen.

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He's proud of his victory,

proud of the way he ran his race.

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He does not want

to see it belittled.

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But that is not his first job.

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His first job is to

defend the States.

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Dan Coats who is President Trump's

director of national intelligence,

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said last week that we are under

attack by the Russians.

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That we were in 2016,

we are in the 2018 elections.

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And President Trump needs

to get beyond himself,

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his own narrow concern,

and be president of 320 million

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Americans and defend us.

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And help our states

to raise their defences.

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He has not done any of that.

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I find him entirely

deficient in this basic role

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of being commander-in-chief.

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Nick Burns, thanks very

much for joining me.

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The indictment of the 13 Russians

last week established that there was

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a conspiracy and anyone who

supported it or knew about it,

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Robert Mueller could go after. I

think belatedly the president has

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realised it has made it much more

difficult for him to fire Robert

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Mueller. That seems to be the case.

I cannot see why, any other reason

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for so many tweets in the last few

days.

That and his national security

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adviser saying at the same Munich

conference that there was

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undoubtedly Russian intervention in

the US election, now I think it will

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be difficult for him as you say to

fire Robert Mueller. There's also

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talk amongst lawyers here in this

town is Robert Mueller has also gone

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after a lawyer of a foreign national

and they're all saying this is

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serious, he's not going to stop at

anything but we do not know whether

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Donald Trump is reluctant to say

something about President Putin

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because the Russians do have some

kind of information about him or

0:19:100:19:15

because as Nick Burns suggested he

is worried his election victory

0:19:150:19:19

would be regarded as not legitimate.

The Watergate investigation took two

0:19:190:19:26

years and may take that long but

there will be answers about by this

0:19:260:19:30

president is so reluctant to

criticise Putin and the Russians and

0:19:300:19:34

so reluctant to say there was

Russian involvement in the US

0:19:340:19:37

elections.

0:19:370:19:39

The British charity

Save the Children has apologised

0:19:390:19:41

to three female employees

who complained about

0:19:410:19:43

inappropriate behaviour

by its former chief executive.

0:19:430:19:45

Justin Forsyth resigned

from the organisation

0:19:450:19:46

after being accused

of sending inappropriate texts.

0:19:460:19:48

Save the Children has admitted

proper procedures were not followed

0:19:480:19:51

while investigating the complaints

in 2015 and says it

0:19:510:19:53

has launched a review

of its "organisational culture".

0:19:530:20:00

A new study by scientists

in France suggests heavy

0:20:000:20:02

drinkers may risk the early

onset of dementia.

0:20:020:20:05

Researchers looked at the habits

of more than a million

0:20:050:20:07

people and found that of the 57,000

0:20:070:20:09

diagnosed with the disease

before the age of 65,

0:20:090:20:11

half had alcohol problems.

0:20:110:20:15

It's thought that heavy drinking

is associated with smoking,

0:20:150:20:17

depression and other factors,

which increase the risk of dementia.

0:20:170:20:23

Environmental campaigners in the UK

have won another victory

0:20:230:20:26

in the High Court after a judge

ruled government plans to tackle air

0:20:260:20:29

pollution are "unlawful".

0:20:290:20:31

The government has modified

its plans to reduce harmful

0:20:310:20:33

nitrogen dioxide in the past

following previous rulings that

0:20:330:20:36

levels are too high across Britain.

0:20:360:20:40

However, the court says still more

needs to be done to comply

0:20:400:20:42

with pollution laws.

0:20:420:20:43

It's estimated that outdoor air

pollution contributes to 40,000

0:20:430:20:46

early deaths a year in the UK.

0:20:460:20:54

The American evangelist,

Billy Graham,

0:20:540:20:55

has died at the age of 99.

0:20:550:20:57

Graham began preaching in October

of 1947, and during the course

0:20:570:21:00

of his life he is thought to have

spoken to 215 million people

0:21:000:21:04

in more than 185 countries

and territories around the world.

0:21:040:21:10

He was the founder and the master

of the art of tele-evangelism.

0:21:100:21:14

Mr Graham was close

to Presidents and world leaders.

0:21:140:21:17

Today Buckingham Palace said

the Queen will send a private

0:21:170:21:19

message of condolence to his family.

0:21:190:21:22

But he was not without

some controversy.

0:21:220:21:24

He apologised after audio recordings

revealed he'd failed to criticise

0:21:240:21:28

Richard Nixon's anti-semitic

comments and he was criticised for

0:21:280:21:31

preaching behind the iron curtain.

0:21:310:21:41

The problems that face us tonight

that will never be solved,

0:21:410:21:43

unless we bring them

to the Lord Jesus Christ.

0:21:430:21:47

Charismatic and handsome,

Billy Graham preached a simple

0:21:470:21:51

message that he took

around the world.

0:21:510:21:57

That people should turn to Jesus. He

had a remarkable effect on a

0:21:570:22:05

sometimes disinterested public.

God

loves you and if there's one thing

0:22:050:22:12

you get out of these days we are in

Edinburgh it is that God loves you.

0:22:120:22:18

In 1954 London first experienced the

force of the Billy Graham Brandt of

0:22:180:22:24

evangelism.

We have come here at the

invitation of these churches to lead

0:22:240:22:27

you in a crusade to win meant to

Jesus Christ.

As his reputation

0:22:270:22:32

grew, so that the crowds. From New

York to Nigeria.

He was God and he

0:22:320:22:38

was also man. I want you to get out

of your seat right now and say I

0:22:380:22:44

want my sins forgiven.

It was as a

Billy game rally in Earls Court in

0:22:440:22:49

1966 the Cliff Richard publicly

declared his Christianity.

0:22:490:23:02

He reached hundreds of millions. And

he was courted by American

0:23:090:23:16

presidents. From Nixon to Clinton.

Though he never took sides. I'm

0:23:160:23:21

looking forward to death because I

want to go into the glorious New

0:23:210:23:26

World I believe everyone that knows

Jesus Christ is going to go and I

0:23:260:23:29

will have all the answers that now I

would like to have cancers too.

I

0:23:290:23:35

asked daddy what do you want on your

tombstone and he thought and said,

0:23:350:23:38

just preacher. That is it.

Despite

cancer and Parkinson's disease,

0:23:380:23:46

Billy Graham was just that. A

preacher, into old age, and

0:23:460:23:52

thousands still flocked to hear him.

0:23:520:23:56

So how did this farm boy from North

Carolina comes to speak to so many

0:23:560:24:02

people around the world?

What is

amazing but the Graham he was born

0:24:020:24:08

at the end of the First World War

but mastered the very modern

0:24:080:24:11

technology of television. He

understood that was how he was going

0:24:110:24:15

to reach millions of people around

the world. He was an icon, it is

0:24:150:24:19

hard to overstate his influence on

the Christian movement here in

0:24:190:24:23

America. He bridged in South Africa

to integrated audiences, he preached

0:24:230:24:30

in North Korea and the soviet union

service which was global for but if

0:24:300:24:34

you track Billy Graham and his telly

evangelical movement with the rise

0:24:340:24:40

of evangelical Christianity around

the world there is a parallel. You

0:24:400:24:44

could say he the founder of that.

Most of my knowledge came from the

0:24:440:24:50

Crown!

All these presidents since

Robert Schumann, but he said he

0:24:500:24:58

never advised them, all but he did

was to pray with them.

He was

0:24:580:25:02

criticised for being too close to

some of the presidents and that was

0:25:020:25:06

the source of some controversy.

Now

we're focusing on this Norwegian

0:25:060:25:14

cross country skier who has become

the most successful Winter Olympian

0:25:140:25:20

of all time after winning bronze in

the cross-country team sprint where

0:25:200:25:34

were the Americans? That is Marit

Bjoergen.

0:25:340:25:43

This is Beyond 100

Days from the BBC.

0:25:430:25:45

Coming up for viewers

on the BBC News Channel

0:25:450:25:48

and BBC World News -

we return to the issue of gun

0:25:480:25:51

control - will talks

between the President and survivors

0:25:510:25:53

of some of the worst school

shootings bear fruit?

0:25:530:25:55

And ever been to the Nile?

0:25:550:25:56

How BBC viewers can now explore it

using the power of virtual reality.

0:25:560:25:59

That's still to come.

0:25:590:26:01

Good evening. The weather is going

to change over the next few days and

0:26:080:26:15

things will become significantly

colder. But today we had some

0:26:150:26:20

beautiful sunny skies. There will be

more sunshine to come because high

0:26:200:26:27

pressure is currently exerting

influence across much of western

0:26:270:26:29

Europe. And it will feed in colder

air in the coming days from the

0:26:290:26:35

East. It turns quite chilly through

tonight, some clear spells but also

0:26:350:26:41

some areas of cloud. Temperatures in

the towns and cities around freezing

0:26:410:26:48

but dropping below out in the

countryside. So Thursday morning

0:26:480:26:53

from any some spells of sunshine

after any early mist and fog has

0:26:530:26:59

cleared. Through the day generally

more clout bubbling up. Still a

0:26:590:27:04

decent look to the weather. More

clout and the strengthening wind

0:27:040:27:08

into Northern Ireland and the West

of Scotland and temperatures around

0:27:080:27:12

five, 7 degrees. Into Friday a

similar looking day, a lot of

0:27:120:27:17

sunshine. Some areas of cloud here

and there. The breeze perhaps

0:27:170:27:23

becoming more noticeable down

towards the south and making it feel

0:27:230:27:26

a bit colder. Then we head into the

weekend, high pressure still the

0:27:260:27:34

dominant feature. But it has moved

further north at this stage across

0:27:340:27:39

Scandinavia. So the air is coming in

all the way from Siberia. Through

0:27:390:27:45

the weekend things to turn

increasingly cold. Getting down to

0:27:450:27:48

perhaps 4 degrees is the maximum

temperature on Sunday. But adding on

0:27:480:27:52

the strength of the winter it will

feel even colder. And the high

0:27:520:27:56

pressure remains dominant as we get

on into next week. What you can see

0:27:560:28:00

on the chart is just the suggestion

that we might see some snow showers.

0:28:000:28:05

As we continued to import those cold

easterly winds. The cold air not

0:28:050:28:10

only reaching the UK but going a way

south across Europe and some parts

0:28:100:28:22

of the Mediterranean. For as the

amount of snow are uncertain as we

0:28:220:28:24

get into next week but we can say it

will be cold with a widespread frost

0:28:240:28:28

and bitter wind. And the chance of

some snow.

0:28:280:28:34

This is Beyond 100 Days with me

Katty Kay in Washington.

0:30:090:30:11

Christian Fraser's in London.

0:30:110:30:12

Our top stories...

0:30:120:30:14

Students in Florida take

to the streets in the state capital

0:30:140:30:17

to demand stricter

controls on gun sales.

0:30:170:30:20

The UN Secretary General demands

an immediate end to fighting

0:30:200:30:22

in Eastern Ghouta in Syria,

saying the besieged rebel enclave

0:30:220:30:25

has become "hell on earth".

0:30:250:30:27

Coming up in the next half hour...

0:30:270:30:30

The American evangelist,

Billy Graham, has died at the age

0:30:300:30:33

of 99 after battling Parkinson's

disease for several years.

0:30:330:30:35

He devoted his life to spreading

the Christian message.

0:30:350:30:42

The massive dam that can control

the River Nile across three

0:30:420:30:45

countries.

0:30:450:30:46

But this multi-billion dollar

project in Ethiopia could

0:30:460:30:48

trigger a major regional conflict.

0:30:480:30:49

Let us know your thoughts

by using the hashtag...

0:30:490:30:54

The United Nations Secretary General

has called for an immediate halt

0:30:590:31:07

to all fighting in the Syrian rebel

enclave of Eastern Ghouta,

0:31:070:31:09

which has come under fierce

bombardment from government forces

0:31:090:31:12

for a fourth day.

0:31:120:31:14

Antonio Guterres described

the situation in the area

0:31:140:31:16

as "hell on earth".

0:31:160:31:17

Local activists say that more

than 40 people have been killed

0:31:170:31:19

in air strikes today,

I short time ago I spoke to

0:31:190:31:22

in air strikes today,

and a short time ago I spoke to

0:31:220:31:25

Dr Bassam Bakri an anesthesiologist

who's been treating patients today.

0:31:250:31:28

And he's doing it in fear of his

0:31:280:31:31

And he's doing it in fear of his own

wife, under the constant threat of

0:31:310:31:32

bombardment.

Feels not enough

equipment. -- there is not enough

0:31:320:31:39

equipment. No medicine. It's so

hard. It's catastrophic. We don't

0:31:390:31:46

have morphine, we don't have any

medicine... I don't know, it's so

0:31:460:31:54

hard.

Does that mean that you're

treating children and operating on

0:31:540:32:00

children and you can't make them

comfortable?

Yes. It is so hard to

0:32:000:32:10

treat children. There is no safe

place to send them, not enough

0:32:100:32:21

medicine, as I told you. No food.

You can't feed them. We have money,

0:32:210:32:34

maybe more than 330 injured

children.

And you're dying this

0:32:340:32:44

amidst bombs falling around -- and

you're doing this.

Yes, maybe more

0:32:440:32:51

than 200 bombardment and missiles.

Artillery. So, you cannot imagine

0:32:510:32:58

the danger and how it scales the

children. -- and how its scares. It

0:32:580:33:17

is so hard.

How do you think this

will end, doctor?

I don't know. I

0:33:170:33:25

will stay here until people. It's

our country, our towns. We'll stay

0:33:250:33:32

here and say people and help the

injured. That's what we have to do.

0:33:320:33:38

What you say to the outside world,

the international community?

The

0:33:380:33:47

international community just

watching us and leaving us to be

0:33:470:33:52

called. I don't know why. I don't

know what's our fault, just ask for

0:33:520:34:01

our freedom. We want some United

Nations convoys, medicine and food.

0:34:010:34:12

Stop killing. We need real pressure

on this criminal regime.

0:34:120:34:18

Terrible listening to that. Here's a

humanitarian and doctor and can't

0:34:180:34:24

help the patients with them. They're

not even working in a hospital.

0:34:240:34:27

They're having to hide in buildings

and basements. Earlier today when

0:34:270:34:31

trying to get in touch with him, he

said, is it possible that we said,

0:34:310:34:38

is it possible to get an interview?

He said, I've been working flat out

0:34:380:34:41

all day. Then he said, if I get

time, if I'm alive.

0:34:410:34:48

Our hearts go out to them.

0:34:480:34:53

Returning now to the students

from Parkland, Florida

0:34:530:34:55

who are taking their calls for gun

control to the state's capital.

0:34:550:34:58

Earlier many of them

spoke passionately and

0:34:580:35:00

here is just a sample.

0:35:000:35:01

I am a high school senior. I don't

know the exact course of action to

0:35:010:35:04

take. I don't know exactly what

needs to be done. I just know that

0:35:040:35:07

what we're doing there was nowhere

near enough. If I have to keep

0:35:070:35:10

seeing neighbours die, friends die,

other people on the news deal with

0:35:100:35:15

this same tragedy... They do not

deserve this. America does not

0:35:150:35:21

deserve this. Humanity does not

deserve this.

That was an amazing

0:35:210:35:27

group of articulate students who are

so passionate.

0:35:270:35:31

As those students press

their case in Florida,

0:35:310:35:33

today the President is holding

a listening session with students

0:35:330:35:35

and teachers here in Washington.

0:35:350:35:36

For more on the politics of this

we are joined now by former

0:35:360:35:39

advisor to George W

Bush, Ron Christie.

0:35:390:35:41

You, like me have seen this happen

time and time again after each of

0:35:410:35:44

these events. We think things will

change and America will find a way

0:35:440:35:49

to stop these killings but that

doesn't happen.

It doesn't happen.

0:35:490:35:54

One of the reasons is we have the

second Amendment in the United

0:35:540:35:57

States. It's in the bill of Rights.

It says on the constitution you're

0:35:570:36:00

allowed to bear arms. There has been

such a growing political fight after

0:36:000:36:04

each one of these shootings where we

think we will reform the gun laws

0:36:040:36:08

and expand background checks but

ultimately, the Congress and

0:36:080:36:11

President do nothing.

Part of the

reason on this and I think we have

0:36:110:36:15

the numbers is that the number of

people for her and our rights a

0:36:150:36:19

single issue is a bigger number than

those who want gun-control. If you

0:36:190:36:30

call your congressmen, they listen

to you.

Having

0:36:300:36:42

worked in that area for many years,

we had many calls saying, don't

0:36:430:36:46

restrict my right to bear arms.

And

yet, they voted not to have a

0:36:460:36:51

discussion on gun ownership. But

devoted to have a discussion about

0:36:510:36:55

pornography, that is bad for your

elf. Nothing about the pornography

0:36:550:37:02

of guns, which is terrible for the

children gathered outside the state

0:37:020:37:06

is in Tallahassee. To elected

representatives would even discuss

0:37:060:37:12

it.

These children are still

traumatised by what happened to them

0:37:120:37:17

and decided to exercise their first

Amendment rights. To go to

0:37:170:37:23

Tallahassee and come to Washington,

DC. There was a big demonstration

0:37:230:37:26

earlier today to demand lawmakers do

something. We can debate with the

0:37:260:37:31

right -- what the right course of

action should be, but given the fact

0:37:310:37:35

that the 18-24 -year-old demographic

is the largest one, larger than

0:37:350:37:40

seniors any native states, these

politicians better be worried

0:37:400:37:42

because I think these young people

will mobilise the vote.

Ryan, thank

0:37:420:37:51

you for joining us. This is a debate

we will return to several times.

0:37:510:37:57

Oprah Winfrey and various

celebrities in Hollywood have backed

0:37:570:38:00

the students. Is that a good thing?

No, at the moment, the key is the

0:38:000:38:06

students. They are the offence take

voices and new in this debate. We

0:38:060:38:10

have had liberals in Hollywood

weighing in before, but the new

0:38:100:38:14

thing now is these didn't. -- is

these students.

0:38:140:38:20

He was America's pastor -

that's how former President George W

0:38:200:38:23

Bush described Billy Graham

and today the tributes have been

0:38:230:38:25

pouring in for the preacher

who reached millions.

0:38:250:38:27

The spirtual guidance he gave

to multiple US presidents

0:38:270:38:30

is the topic of a book coauthored

by Nancy Gibbs - former

0:38:300:38:32

editor in chief of TIME.

0:38:320:38:33

She joins us from New York now.

0:38:330:38:36

Nancy, Guilmette Billy Graham

several times while you were

0:38:360:38:38

researching this book. What was it

about him, do you think, that

0:38:380:38:42

catapulted him from end of the First

World War birth to farm boy, to

0:38:420:38:47

being the famous preacher he became?

Well he of course would say that it

0:38:470:38:53

was not anything he did, it was what

God did. In a way, that tells you

0:38:530:38:58

everything you need to know.

Somehow, a man who spent more years

0:38:580:39:02

in public life on the public stage

than almost any figure in the 20th

0:39:020:39:06

century managed to not have that

completely distorted view of the

0:39:060:39:13

world and have pride go to his head.

By the 1950s, he was photographed at

0:39:130:39:19

more than Marilyn Monroe and he was

more famous than those presidents he

0:39:190:39:22

became such good friends with. And I

think that at some level,

0:39:220:39:27

extraordinary humility that he

managed to hang onto, despite the

0:39:270:39:32

same and the millions and millions

of people who would come out to hear

0:39:320:39:35

him night after night. Really

distinguished him and gave his

0:39:350:39:40

message a kind of resonance with

atomic age population who wanted

0:39:400:39:48

reassurance and understanding of

something that felt real, affecting

0:39:480:39:51

an accessible to them.

He came from

that tumultuous time in unaided --

0:39:510:40:00

in the 1960s in the native states.

But he managed to reach people

0:40:000:40:05

around the world. Was it through

television that he understood this

0:40:050:40:08

new means of mass communication?

He

certainly did. He understood radio.

0:40:080:40:13

He had a newspaper column and

published books. He had a massive

0:40:130:40:17

audience that never saw him in

person. On the other hand, he is

0:40:170:40:22

probably an individual who spoke to

more people in person than anyone

0:40:220:40:28

who has ever lived. Well over 200

million people. So it was both.

0:40:280:40:32

People would come to see him at

these enormous receives all over the

0:40:320:40:36

world but then he also had his

virtual ministry that was

0:40:360:40:41

ecumenical, global and used every

form of medium available to him very

0:40:410:40:44

shrewdly. He understood the power of

media far better than certainly most

0:40:440:40:50

religious speakers of age.

But there

was the controversy. He went behind

0:40:500:40:54

the Iron Curtain at a time when that

wasn't done. Why do you think he did

0:40:540:40:59

that?

He did it because he felt

every human being has the same need

0:40:590:41:03

to hear the gospel. And he was

pretty immune to the criticism,

0:41:030:41:09

because, in a way, he could answer

by saying, he needs to hear God's

0:41:090:41:14

worth more than the people who are

enslaved by communism or do not

0:41:140:41:19

enjoy freedom of religion in the

country? So he was fully prepared to

0:41:190:41:25

withstand criticism if it allowed

him to preach in places where

0:41:250:41:27

Christian leaders had never stepped

foot in recent years.

And he gave

0:41:270:41:32

the indication that -- the

invocation at nine presidential

0:41:320:41:38

inauguration. Residents done to him

in their darkest hours. What was it

0:41:380:41:43

about and that they wanted to talk

to and what spiritual guidance to

0:41:430:41:46

tea for them?

This is what's

remarkable. He was valuable to them

0:41:460:41:52

privately and publicly. The kind of

things they talked about in private,

0:41:520:41:57

from Eisenhower wanting to know

whether he would see his parents in

0:41:570:42:03

heaven, and Johnson, who was

terribly afraid of death, wanted

0:42:030:42:05

Billy Graham to fly with him because

he would say, God is not going to

0:42:050:42:10

let this plane Godin Billy Graham is

on it. When Ronald Reagan was shot,

0:42:100:42:14

Nancy Reagan took to the hospital

0:42:140:42:19

on it. When Ronald Reagan was shot,

Nancy Reagan took to the hospital.

0:42:190:42:20

When Hillary Clinton faced enormous

turmoil in her marriage, Billy

0:42:200:42:23

Graham is the one she wanted to talk

to. These are most intimate, Private

0:42:230:42:27

kind of emotional and spiritual

issues. At the same time, he was

0:42:270:42:30

enormously valuable to these public

figures in public. And to have Billy

0:42:300:42:35

Graham at your side, whether that

your inauguration of the night

0:42:350:42:41

before the Gulf War began for

President Bush 41, after the

0:42:410:42:45

Oklahoma City bombing for Bill

Clinton, after 9/11 for George W

0:42:450:42:49

Bush, at these moments of enormous

national pain and concern, having

0:42:490:42:54

Billy Graham there was a signal to

the country that the president is a

0:42:540:42:59

thoughtful, spiritual man and people

are praying for him. With him.

0:42:590:43:04

Nancy, thank you for sharing those

stories, as we remember Billy

0:43:040:43:07

Graham.

0:43:070:43:11

A letter sent to the UK

Prime Minister from 60

0:43:110:43:14

Brexit supporting MPs makes clear

they are not prepared

0:43:140:43:16

to swallow many more compromises

when it comes to breaking free

0:43:160:43:18

from the EU.

0:43:190:43:20

It's the timing of the letter

that's important.

0:43:200:43:21

It comes on the eve of tomorrow's

away day summit at Chequers

0:43:210:43:24

in which Theresa May hopes to bring

all sides together.

0:43:240:43:27

It's clearly not going to be easy.

0:43:270:43:30

What's more, a leaked government

document leaves some ambiguity over

0:43:300:43:32

the length of time the transition

period should last.

0:43:320:43:35

Earlier, I talked to

influential Conservative back

0:43:350:43:37

bencher Johnny Mercer.

0:43:370:43:40

I put it to him that the Prime

Minister goes to Chequers tomorrow

0:43:400:43:42

to hammer out a deal with colleagues

who might be clear that they don't

0:43:420:43:46

want to compromise.

I'm beginning to

get fed up with all these letters

0:43:460:43:50

going to the Prime Minister. I think

she has a difficult enough job as it

0:43:500:43:55

is at the moment. There are clearly

things everyone wants from this

0:43:550:43:58

negotiation. But she will get the

best deal she can. I understand

0:43:580:44:03

people have their opinions on her

leadership and what's going on, but

0:44:030:44:07

this is a critical time for the

nation. This is such an important

0:44:070:44:11

moment to get this settlement right

for the next ten, 20 years. And I

0:44:110:44:15

don't want to see her bullied by

factions of the party. There's

0:44:150:44:20

actually a hell of a lot more people

who didn't sign that letter as

0:44:200:44:29

Parliament. I the concerns of those

who did, but we should calm down a

0:44:290:44:32

bit and get behind the Prime

Minister, get this deal done. That

0:44:320:44:34

is what people want, who voted for

us.

We have also seen a leaked

0:44:340:44:40

government document which is rather

ambiguous about the length of

0:44:400:44:44

transition there would be when Brett

Lee the European Union. Your voters

0:44:440:44:48

in Plymouth voted to leave. Would

they be happy with an open-ended

0:44:480:44:53

transition?

No, I don't think they

would. We need a clearly defined

0:44:530:44:59

time where people can see what the

planners. Speaking to people in

0:44:590:45:03

businesses, they want that vision

and timeline. What is this

0:45:030:45:06

transition going to look like and

how long will it last for? What does

0:45:060:45:10

the future like beyond that? That is

what we need to focus on. I accept

0:45:100:45:15

that they will be elements of

negotiation in this and some might

0:45:150:45:17

want to see it open-ended. I don't

think that is at it. People voted to

0:45:170:45:25

leave and we need to get on with it.

It transition phase may be part of

0:45:250:45:28

it but not an open-ended one.

Outside of the 60 MPs who wrote the

0:45:280:45:33

letter, what do backbenchers think?

Another debate is of course the

0:45:330:45:37

customs union. People say it is not

possible to keep the border in

0:45:370:45:42

Ireland open if you leave the

customs union.

I am not going to

0:45:420:45:46

pretend I know the answer to what

the problem is in Northern Ireland.

0:45:460:45:50

There is clearly an issue to how we

have frictionless trade with the

0:45:500:45:56

European Union and when you leave

the customs union. I want to see a

0:45:560:46:04

gracious Brexit with give and take

on a number of different sides. But

0:46:040:46:07

ultimately, we get the best results

for the people in this country who

0:46:070:46:11

voted to leave the European Union.

And yes, there clear issues around

0:46:110:46:18

Northern Ireland and the customs

union. The Department under David

0:46:180:46:21

Davis and the Prime Minister are

working as hard as they can to get

0:46:210:46:24

through that now. The time to judge

them, and I know that is -- that

0:46:240:46:34

nothing patted the thick time to

judge them is when this is done.

You

0:46:340:46:39

would agree it is time for the plan?

I do agree. I think we need to see a

0:46:390:46:44

bit more vision and a programme to

like the way ahead so that

0:46:440:46:49

businesses in places like Plymouth

have an idea of what is going on. I

0:46:490:46:53

was with the CBI today and yes, it

is tough. People knew this would

0:46:530:46:57

happen. I don't buy this argument

that people did not know what they

0:46:570:47:00

were voting for. They were stupid

voting for Brexit. It was clearly

0:47:000:47:03

laid out by the Remain campaign and

David Cameron. People knew this

0:47:030:47:10

would be difficult. But let's get on

and work harder to get a plan so

0:47:100:47:16

people can start making decisions

posted 2019 when we actually leave.

0:47:160:47:19

The future is bright but we need to

light it up and show that vision to

0:47:190:47:25

people in this country.

0:47:250:47:28

This is Beyond 100 Days.

0:47:280:47:33

Still to come - the River Nile

in virtual reality.

0:47:330:47:35

We take a different perspective

on the project to build Africa's

0:47:350:47:38

biggest hydroelectric dam.

0:47:380:47:45

Two victims of the "black cab

rapist" John Worboys have won

0:47:450:47:50

a landmark legal case

against the Metropolitan Police

0:47:500:47:53

after officers failed to take action

when they reported him.

0:47:530:47:58

The Supreme Court ruling means

police may now face legal action

0:47:580:48:01

if they fail to properly

investigate serious cases.

0:48:010:48:03

Here's our Legal Correspondent,

Clive Coleman.

0:48:030:48:08

For years, John Worboys cruised

the streets of London in his black

0:48:080:48:15

cab looking for women to dupe,

drug and sexually assault.

0:48:150:48:17

This woman, known for legal reasons

as DST, was attacked by Warboys

0:48:170:48:23

in 2003 and was the first

to report him to police.

0:48:230:48:25

I put my trust in the police.

0:48:250:48:27

I went to them, for

them to sort this out.

0:48:270:48:29

I knew who had attacked me.

0:48:290:48:32

Didn't know his name but I knew

who was responsible for this.

0:48:320:48:38

They had all the information there,

they should have caught him,

0:48:380:48:40

they could have stopped him.

0:48:400:48:42

Warboys was able to continue

to attack women until he was finally

0:48:420:48:44

brought to justice in 2009.

0:48:440:48:48

DSD and another Warboys' victims

brought a legal challenge claiming

0:48:480:48:57

claiming the police failures

breached their human

0:48:570:49:01

and amounted to inhuman

and degrading treatment.

0:49:010:49:03

The Metropolitan Police fought them

to the Supreme Court.

0:49:030:49:05

Today, the court ruled

in the women's favour.

0:49:050:49:07

We have held that failures

in the investigation of crimes,

0:49:070:49:10

provided they are sufficiently

serious, will give rise to liability

0:49:100:49:12

on the part of the police.

0:49:120:49:18

And we have further found

that there were such serious

0:49:180:49:20

deficiencies in this case.

0:49:200:49:22

Today's landmark ruling has huge

implications for both

0:49:220:49:30

of violent crime and the police

who investigate it.

0:49:300:49:36

If they seriously fail

in an investigation,

0:49:360:49:37

they can face human rights actions

by the victim and have

0:49:370:49:40

to pay out compensation.

0:49:400:49:41

Today's judgment can't make up

for the police errors

0:49:410:49:43

in investigating John Worboys.

0:49:430:49:44

But it will put real pressure

on them to ensure such

0:49:440:49:47

mistakes don't happen again.

0:49:470:49:53

The project to build Africa's

biggest hydroelectric dam

0:49:550:50:00

on the River Nile is threatening

to provoke a major conflict between

0:50:000:50:03

some of the countries affected.

0:50:030:50:04

The dam is being built by Ethiopia,

and Sudan says it welcomes

0:50:040:50:07

the prospect of cheaper power.

0:50:070:50:10

But the Egyptians are deeply

unhappy - fearing the flow

0:50:100:50:17

through the Aswan Dam

and on to Cairo will be weakened,

0:50:170:50:20

in a country already facing

serious water shortages.

0:50:200:50:22

Our Africa correspondent

Alastair Leithead has travelled

0:50:220:50:23

to all three countries -

and sent the first of his special

0:50:230:50:26

reports from Ethiopia.

0:50:260:50:27

Lake Tana.

0:50:270:50:28

The source of the blue Nile.

0:50:280:50:30

A sacred lake of mystery and legend

way up in the Ethiopian highlands.

0:50:300:50:33

But as this great river launches

itself on a long journey to the sea,

0:50:330:50:37

there are turbulent times ahead

between the three countries

0:50:370:50:39

that share its waters.

0:50:390:50:46

It's all about this.

0:50:460:50:48

The grand Ethiopian Renaissance dam.

0:50:480:50:50

Five years in and two thirds

finished, this multibillion-dollar

0:50:500:50:54

dam can already control the flow

of the Nile and that's

0:50:540:50:56

upsetting downstream Egypt.

0:50:560:50:58

When it's finished, this will be

the largest hydroelectric

0:50:580:51:00

power station in Africa.

0:51:010:51:06

And one of the biggest

dams on the continent.

0:51:060:51:09

It will not only power this country,

but the surrounding

0:51:090:51:11

countries as well.

0:51:110:51:12

And Ethiopia didn't even ask

the countries downstream before

0:51:120:51:14

it started building.

0:51:140:51:15

That is the scale of this

country's ambition.

0:51:150:51:17

This project is a project

that is being built by Ethiopians.

0:51:170:51:20

And that will benefit other

African brothers, sisters,

0:51:200:51:22

and other countries

across the globe.

0:51:220:51:29

The project manager

insists that downstream

0:51:290:51:31

countries should not worry.

0:51:310:51:32

As it will not consume any water.

0:51:320:51:34

The reservoir it creates will be

bigger than Greater London.

0:51:340:51:40

It will flood the river valley

for 250 kilometres upstream.

0:51:400:51:43

But if it is filled up too quickly,

the flow of the Nile,

0:51:430:51:47

85% of which comes from

here, will be reduced.

0:51:470:51:49

That is what Egypt is worried about.

0:51:500:51:53

These pylons will soon take

cheap power to Sudan

0:51:530:51:55

which supports the dam.

0:51:550:51:56

It will bring electricity

to some of the 70 million

0:51:560:51:58

Ethiopians without.

0:51:580:52:01

And it will drive Ethiopia's

industrial ambitions.

0:52:010:52:05

Modernisation is already changing

life in the capital Addis Ababa.

0:52:050:52:09

Ethiopia wants to pull its people

out of poverty, to create jobs

0:52:090:52:11

and get over its historic image

of drought and famine.

0:52:110:52:17

To the government, economic

growth is everything.

0:52:170:52:19

More important than human

rights or democracy.

0:52:190:52:22

And the dam is a modern

defining national project.

0:52:220:52:27

It is one of the most important

flagship projects for Ethiopia.

0:52:270:52:30

So Egypt has nothing to worry about?

0:52:300:52:33

There's nothing to worry about.

0:52:330:52:34

It is not about control of the flow.

0:52:340:52:37

It is really about providing

opportunity for us

0:52:370:52:39

to develop ourselves.

0:52:390:52:44

The dam can already control

the flow of the river.

0:52:440:52:47

But its full impact

downstream isn't yet known.

0:52:470:52:50

It is a political row

that is pulling in the

0:52:500:52:52

neighbouring countries.

0:52:520:52:56

And we can find out a bit more

about some of the stunning pictures

0:52:560:53:00

you saw in that report

because Alastair Leithead is here.

0:53:000:53:04

I spent all afternoon in a VR lab

with this man today. He has done the

0:53:040:53:13

most extraordinary thing in

television. Go to the front page of

0:53:130:53:16

the BBC website and get some of

these goggles that we will show you.

0:53:160:53:20

These are the cardboard goggles. He

has done this extraordinary VR

0:53:200:53:25

experience down the Nile so that you

can actually look around and I'll

0:53:250:53:28

like this and follow the story. Tell

us about how you did it.

It is a

0:53:280:53:34

very different way of broadcasting.

As a former foreign correspondent

0:53:340:53:39

yourself, your job is to take people

to places will stop explain things

0:53:390:53:42

to them and get them to understand

stuff. But when you can actually

0:53:420:53:47

take them there and show it to

them... This is cardboard, it is a

0:53:470:53:55

cheap version, about eight or $9.

You put your phone in the front, put

0:53:550:54:00

some headphones on and you're in

that virtual world.

It is so

0:54:000:54:04

immersive. This is the camera here.

Your best friend.

Margin.

It films

0:54:040:54:13

in 360. You want, the clouds, at

your feet... It's the sound as well.

0:54:130:54:20

If I look at you here, I get the

sound in this year but overhear,

0:54:200:54:26

different sense. Do that?

That

spatial audio. You can do that with

0:54:260:54:31

good headphones. We get the sound

and located in space and people can

0:54:310:54:37

be drawn to look in the right place.

As you say, you can look anywhere.

0:54:370:54:44

You could see it with that interview

with the Minister Elliott. You could

0:54:440:54:51

see his desk, things like that.

Having experience of being there as

0:54:510:54:59

well as hearing the story.

This is

really cool and their loved one you

0:54:590:55:04

did on the website. But they have to

say, I am a little bit disappointed

0:55:040:55:07

because I thought you would come

into the studio with something super

0:55:070:55:11

high-tech and supermodel and all

you've got is a little cardboard

0:55:110:55:14

box!

That's the point. We need to

try get people to use these things.

0:55:140:55:19

It's hassle to get a bit of kit to

put your phone in and watch this

0:55:190:55:23

stuff. But it's worth it. What we're

trying to do, doing this film, while

0:55:230:55:28

we're on a journey on the River Nile

anyway, is to get people to look at

0:55:280:55:32

it and see it the way that we want

to it. The best way to see it is

0:55:320:55:39

going to bbc.com.

We are after the Nile because that

0:55:390:55:47

looked like too much fun.

These foreign correspondents don't

0:55:470:55:56

know they're born. I used to have to

go to these places and film

0:55:560:55:59

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