22/02/2018 Beyond 100 Days


22/02/2018

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You're watching Beyond One

Hundred Days on PBS.

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The politics of grief.

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Donald Trump proposes some

restrictions on guns

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but defends America's gun lobby

as great patriots.

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The President's

proposals include things

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the powerful National Rifle

Association is unlikely to accept.

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In Washington, the head of the NRA

says the Democratic Party

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doesn't believe in freedom

and dismisses calls for gun control.

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To stop a bad guy with a gun,

it takes a good guy with a gun.

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At an hour-long meeting

at the White House,

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the President reiterated his desire

to see trained teachers

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carry guns in schools.

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Also on the programme:

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A vote in the UN

security council to spare more

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bloodshed in the Syrian enclave

of Eastern Ghoutta is

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delayed by the Russians.

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The UN is calling for

a 30-day ceasefire.

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The demands on the waters

of the Nile are increasing.

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We report from Sudan, where further

efforts to dam the river

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are creating regional tensions.

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Get in touch with us

using the hashtag...

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Hello and welcome -

I'm Katty Kay in New York,

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and Christian Fraser is in London.

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A week after the school

shooting in Florida,

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America's gun lobby has finally

spoken up - and it

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is not compromising.

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As grieving parents and traumatized

children confront lawmakers

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and the President, asking

for something be done to stop

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the country's mass killings,

the NRA chief is blaming Democrats.

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Wayne LaPierre is defiant.

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As head of the organisation that

lobbies and funds politicians

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on behalf of the gun industry

he is determined to prevent any

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further restrictions

on gun sales in the US.

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But many of the teenagers,

and their parents, who've spoken up

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since the Florida attack,

say the NRA is out of

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with the country, and is making

schools less safe.

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As usual, the opportunists wasted

not one second to exploit tragedy

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for political gain.

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The breakback speed of calls

for more gun control

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laws and the breathless national

media, eager to smear the NRA.

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We're yet

to learn the finer detail

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of the President's gun reforms,

but under consideration,

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a proposal to arm some teachers,

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raising the minimum age to buy

certain types of firearms,

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and enhanced background checks.

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Just a short time ago,

President Trump met with state

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and local officials and had

this to say.

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And I think we are making a lot

of progress, and I can tell

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you there there is a tremendous

feeling that we

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want get something done.

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And we're leading that

feeling, I hope, but it

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is a great feeling,

including at the NRA,

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including with Republican senators

and hopefully Democrat

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senators in Congress.

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Let's get reaction

to the day's events

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from Mica Mobascher.

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She's a political commentator

and a member of the 2020

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Trump Campaign National Advisory

Board.

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Let me put a proposition to do.

Because President Trump is trusted

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by Dan on us, and you are a member

of the NRA, is he actually the

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president who might be able to shift

something when it comes to garner

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laws, particularly around the age

which people can buy guns in the

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country?

Absolutely. The art of the

deal president is all action

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orientated, and a very compelling

session he had both students and

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parents, many who were grieving,

especially one man who played the

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last of his daughter. This signal is

that he is open to bipartisan

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decisions, and the raising of the

minimum wage for AR-15 weapons is

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something that the NRA is pushing

back against, and it is something

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that the White House has signalled

that the president would be open to

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supporting. Additionally, I feel

that he is looking into closing

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those loopholes and efficiencies in

the national instant criminal tax

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system that is used when you buy it

gun, and there is a bipartisan bill,

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and the president is fully behind

this. Additionally, I would be

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remiss if I did not bring up the

blistering attacks, well deserved,

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on the FBI, his command centre,

which is a central call centre in

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West Virginia deal to pass on

details, two text they received that

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Nikolas Cruz had been identified as

a clear and present danger to

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himself and potentially to those

around him. The BIA has an $8.9

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billion budget, it is a bloated

bureaucracy with 35,000 employees,

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56 field offices, and there have

been other deficiencies in the FBI

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pointed out in the past, including

the former supervisor of the

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management division make make man,

who in 2009 reported to his

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supervisors and two assistant at the

idyllic that they were deficiencies

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and failures are political that are

interfering with national security.

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We need to hold agencies like the

FBI are accountable, Donal President

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Trump will do so.

There is no

question there is a different tone

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coming from the president. I want to

take you back to April 20 17th at

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the candidate convention. This is

what he said.

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I will never ever infringe on it the

right of the people to keep and bear

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arms.

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Never ever.

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He has talked about Nix, but he has

also talked about banning public

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stocks, maybe automatic weapons.

LaPeirre did not letting any of

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that. Addy headed for a

confrontation?

I am concerned that

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you can buy an AR-15 weapon when you

are not old enough to buy a beer. DN

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Ali is pushing background as a

raising of the 80s to purchase

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firearms as an infringement on

second Amendment is, but I don't see

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product complements -- brother

compromise interferes with the right

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to buy a gun. I think that President

Trump has the strength of leadership

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to confront this and other tough

issues, especially from the very

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powerful can lobby, with 500 million

members.

Thank you very much for

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joining us.

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Last night, the survivors

of the school shooting took part

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in a nationally televised

town hall event.

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One of the stand out moments

involved 17-year old Cameron Kasky,

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one of the founders

of the #NeverAgain movement,

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who put this question

to Senator Marco Rubio.

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Senator Rubio, can you

tell me right now that

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you will not accept a single

donation from the NRA in the future?

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Well, number one,

the positions I hold on

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this issue of the Second Amendment,

I've held since the day I entered

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office in the city of Western Miami

as an elected official.

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Number two...

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No, the answer to the questions

is that people buy into my

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agenda, and I do support

the second Amendment,

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and I also support

the

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right of you and everyone here to be

able to go to school and be safe.

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Senator reviewer took to $20 million

from the NRA.

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Well, let's get more reaction

from Republican Florida

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State Representative Randy Fine -

he's in Tallahassee.

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-- 2.3 million. Just talk to us

about Marco Rubio there. He is

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talking about maybe being able to

ban high-capacity magazines. There's

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anything that you would accept in

terms of restrictions on gun sales?

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I would like to clear one thing up.

Everyone talks about the legislator

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being bought and paid for by the

NRA. As far as I know, the NRA has

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not given a single dollar to a

candid running for Florida in at

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least 16 years. Those of us to be

lead in the right to keep and bear

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arms, we believe it because we

believe it, not because anybody is

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paying us too.

But do they put the

money in Congress, where the big

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bullet scars that are taken?

I am

just a small representative in

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Florida. I think we are going to

have a comprehensive package of

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reforms. It will come out in the

next few hours. It is really going

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to tackle all of the issues, because

the fact remains we had all the laws

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in place to catch this file killer

before it happened, yet the

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Government failed in its

responsibility to do so, so why do

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we keep giving this same Government

more power to solve the problem, I'm

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not sure.

One change to the lot that

the president has again talked about

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in Washington is raising the age

that you can buy an assault weapon

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from 18 to 21. That would have

changed the situation here. Nikolas

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Cruz was 19. Would you support that

change to the legislation?

Nikolas

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Cruz seems to have been sufficiently

convinced that I believe he would

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have barred and find another weapon.

Just answer the question, which you

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support raising the age?

I am open

to discussing it, but the question

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is not an accurate one. And Florida,

it is already illegal to buy some

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semiautomatic weapons until 21.

There are other magazines where it

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is not. It is a simple matter of

looking at consistencies in our laws

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and Father Almighty 's us transit

should be rather than some of them.

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Would you also support looking at

high-capacity magazine clips, which

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allows tutors to fire something like

30 bullets, are even more before the

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half to pass?

I think we need to be

very careful before the infringe on

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people's second Amendment rights.

And this country, we don't leave you

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punish the matches because of the

mistakes of the few. They are 5

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million AR-15 is in the United

States, only five had been used in

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mass casualties shootings. We have

to keep in mind that the

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overwhelming majority of gun owners

handle them any responsible way, and

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they scared of restricting their

legs because of the actions of a few

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people.

We had from Mr LaPierre that

freedoms are being taken away. What

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freedom is therefore students are

too frightened to go to school are

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being protected by teachers who are

arms or who are locked up behind

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gates?

The fact of the matter is

that we have to protect our kids,

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and whether it is from an AR-15

someone who wants to run people of

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use a pressure cooker filled with

ball bearings as happened in Boston,

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we need to protect our kids. There

are things we are going to be doing.

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But more important than protecting

our kids, we need to figure out what

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is going on with their kids that

makes them think this is a good

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idea. The high school that I would

do, we had guns hanging on the racks

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of pick-up trucks 25 years ago, yet

it never occurred to anyone to use

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those to shoot people. We need to

focus on the symptoms. Don't get me

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wrong, but we need to focus on the

underlying issues with what is going

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wrong with their children that is

making some of them believe this is

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acceptable.

Really good of you to

spare us back some time. Thank you

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very much indeed. That speech from

Mr Lucky, it was quite a job link --

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that speech from Mr LaPierre, it was

quite a jaw-dropping. Time and

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again, he kept referring back to

this second Amendment. We have had

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an awful lot about it. It is

interesting, because this second

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Amendment is what is used by people

who support gun rights and the

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country to say that there should be

no restrictions on guns, but

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actually four tent in the past

decade federal appeals court in the

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United States have ruled that

banning assault weapons is legal

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under this second Amendment, so they

have also said that the Supreme

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Court has said that gun rights are

not unlimited, i:e., gone rights are

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limited in the country. So, there is

a debate about these weapons of war,

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one of the file in the definition of

self defence or not, because that is

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what the second Amendment protects,

but that they are just used to cause

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harm, and should not be in people's

hands. It seems like the courts and

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the Supreme Court do think that some

restrictions on assault weapons act

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constitutional, but that is not an

argument duty from the gun lobby.

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The residents of Eastern

Ghouta are living

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without food, water and electricity.

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In one area, 80% of the population

is now living underground.

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Those grim figures come from the UN,

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where the Security Council

is meeting in New York and is right

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now debating a draft resolution

to end the bombing of

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civilians in the enclave.

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The resolution calls

for a month-long truce to get

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emergency supplies into the area.

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But of course Russia has

the power to veto this plan,

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and their ambassador has already

signalled there is no agreement.

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It will not be easy.

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Our Middle East editor Jeremy Bowen

has this report which does contain

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some very distressing images.

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What air strikes, more bombs and

more casualties. It is not letting

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up. Armed rebels in eastern good has

have shelled Damascus, but enormous

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damage is being done by the Syrian

Armed Forces and the Russian Alice,

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deploying much more firepower in

places where civilians live and die.

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Two sisters were in their home...

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Warplanes bombed out building.

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Now, look at home.

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Getting on for 400,000

people terrified by

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the sight and sound of aircraft,

are thought to be in eastern Ghouta,

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which is the size of Manchester.

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The Syrians insist they are

targeting terrorists but it's clear

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many children are among

the wounded and the dead.

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Improvised hospitals have been

set up in cellars and

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basements during the years of war.

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Now, though, the medics

are at full stretch.

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This doctor wanted to send a message

to the people of Britain.

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TRANSLATION:

We never wanted the war

and we don't want to live under it.

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For the sake of our

children who have been

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blown to pieces, for

the

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sake of our children

who have died of hunger,

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what we have seen every day has

caused us to collapse and

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affected psychologically.

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We don't have anything

more to offer, we are

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being bled out.

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She was treating 12-year-old

Mohammed who was dying.

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His mother had been cooking

breakfast for her family when three

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air strikes came in.

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TRANSLATION:

I am here

waiting for my son to die.

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At least he will be free

of pain, I prayed to God

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to end his suffering.

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Do we have to appeal to Azure? When

my boy dies, key will go to heaven,

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but at least he will be able to eat.

I would like to die with him so that

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I can look after him.

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So many Syrians have

died in the war.

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The killing is escalating.

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And once again the world is watching

from a safe distance.

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The situation clearly really

desperate Iniesta and get it at the

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moment.

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We can speak

now to David Ignatius,

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a journalist for

The Washington Post.

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He has just returned

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from reporting in Syria.

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Just looking at what is happening in

the conclave, if the Russians agreed

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to this draft resolution for a 30

day truce, what happens to the

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people?

That was a grand airport.

This early in regime, with Russian

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backing, is trying to eradicate the

rebel opposition in eastern Ghouta,

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just to the east of Damascus. This

has been a stronghold of the

0:18:030:18:07

opposition, this is an area where

CIA backed rebels where strong. My

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fear is that we are watching a

replay of Aleppo, where again, US

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CIA backed forces that were active

were finally destroyed by ruthless

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bombing, barrel bombing, vicious

five inbound civilian areas. That is

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happening in Eastern Ghouta. The

Russian bass blackbelt want to push

0:18:380:18:44

as far as it can. There may be a

ceasefire, as there was often in

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Aleppo, but I think they will want

to keep the momentum going.

I want

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to talk a little bad about the

carotid seen elsewhere in Syria,

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because that is what you have been

looking at. You talked about the

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craziness that is unfolding on the

battlefield, and I just want to give

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our viewers a favourite of that

editorial. You wrote...

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As you say, what we know have is

converging forces with diverging

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interests. What is the policy of the

United States amid all that?

The

0:19:350:19:42

honest answer is that the policy of

the United States is confused. This

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has become even more than before, a

shooting gallery. The Syrian Civil

0:19:460:19:55

War was catastrophic in terms of

loss of life and refugee flow, now

0:19:550:19:58

it is becoming a place where there

is little international proxy

0:19:580:20:05

warfare going on. The US with its

allies currently occupies about one

0:20:050:20:10

third of the country. The US has not

really decided what it wants to do

0:20:100:20:18

with that. This Secretary of State

Rex Tillerson has said the US forces

0:20:180:20:21

will remain the Ansaldi process

leads towards some kind of

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transition, but that is a matter of

years away. What is the US strategy

0:20:270:20:32

for stabilising the situation?

Increasingly, I hear people in

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Washington talking about the

importance of some kind of dialogue

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involving the US, Israel, Russia and

inevitably Syrian regime. I think

0:20:420:20:51

the level of budget, the inability

to make any other approach to

0:20:510:20:59

transitional works comes means that

at some stage, the new stage will be

0:20:590:21:04

a change of policy.

Thank you very

much for joining us.

0:21:040:21:19

Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt

have set a deadline

0:21:190:21:21

of the end of the month

to try to resolve a long-running

0:21:210:21:23

dispute over the Blue Nile,

which is threatening relations

0:21:230:21:26

between the three countries.

0:21:260:21:27

Ethiopia has almost

finished building one

0:21:270:21:28

of the biggest dams in Africa,

to produce hydro-electric power,

0:21:280:21:31

but Egypt is worried it

will reduce its water supply.

0:21:310:21:33

Our Africa Correspondent

Alastair Leithead sent this

0:21:330:21:35

special report from Sudan.

0:21:350:21:39

The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

is almost finished.

0:21:390:21:49

Africa's biggest hydro-electric

power station has already bridged

0:21:500:21:51

the Nile.

0:21:510:21:52

And Sudan is waiting expectantly

for the cheap power that

0:21:520:21:54

will soon fizz across its border.

0:21:540:21:56

But that is not all.

0:21:560:21:58

The waters of the Nile transform

the Sudanese desert into a

0:21:580:22:01

land of plenty.

0:22:010:22:02

First it grew cotton,

a century ago, for British

0:22:020:22:05

textile mills, and now

there are vast circles of high

0:22:050:22:07

quality cattle feed,

mostly for export to the Gulf.

0:22:070:22:15

For Sudan, the great

advantage of this

0:22:150:22:20

new dam is to regulate

the flow of the Blue Nile.

0:22:200:22:22

This, at the moment,

is a dry season.

0:22:220:22:25

They're having to dredge just

so the pumping station

0:22:250:22:26

can receive water to

take to the fields.

0:22:260:22:28

In the wet season, the level

is as high as that platform - eight

0:22:280:22:31

metres higher.

0:22:320:22:33

That's what the dam

is going to change.

0:22:330:22:35

These are turbulent times.

0:22:350:22:38

Sudan's had a decade-long

deal with Egypt, but is

0:22:380:22:41

now at odds with its northern

neighbour over how much water the

0:22:410:22:43

country can use.

0:22:440:22:50

This is Sudan's richest man.

0:22:500:22:57

He owns a golf course

as well as the cattle feed farms.

0:22:570:23:00

For Sudan, it's wonderful.

0:23:000:23:01

I mean, it's really

the best thing that has

0:23:010:23:03

happened for a long time.

0:23:030:23:04

And I think the combination

of energy and

0:23:040:23:06

regular water levels

is a great blessing.

0:23:060:23:08

Cheap power to keep his cows

cool and to bring faster

0:23:080:23:14

development to eight Sudan emerging

from decades of crippling

0:23:140:23:16

US sanctions.

0:23:160:23:17

But Egypt is firmly against the dam.

0:23:170:23:24

The regional rivalries go back

as far as the pyramids...

0:23:240:23:26

..the Sudanese pyramids.

0:23:260:23:28

Egypt was once ruled

from here, 2000 years ago.

0:23:280:23:35

Powers on the Nile rise

and fall, and Ethiopia's

0:23:350:23:37

influence is growing.

0:23:370:23:41

Water in general is becoming highly

politicised, not only in this

0:23:410:23:44

region but elsewhere,

0:23:440:23:45

but I think if there is always,

as in our case, between

0:23:450:23:49

the three countries,

if the political will is around

0:23:490:23:53

involving the high-up authorities

in three

0:23:530:23:54

countries, I think it will work out.

0:23:540:23:56

But the diplomatic row

is far from settled.

0:23:560:24:06

Where the river's two great

tributaries meet in Khartoum, the

0:24:080:24:10

blue Nile from Ethiopia

supplies 85% of the water.

0:24:100:24:13

And so the dam, and its ability

to control the flow, is

0:24:130:24:15

making downstream Egypt nervous.

0:24:150:24:25

It is one of the top three places on

the planet most vulnerable to live

0:24:250:24:30

in sea level, and the problem is

that two thirds of the Egyptian

0:24:300:24:34

population live north of Cairo. If

you don't have water washing down

0:24:340:24:39

the river, then you get sallow

nation of that Delta area. So it is

0:24:390:24:43

not just about food, water, it is

about livelihoods. It has become a

0:24:430:24:51

national security issue for Egypt,

and as we have seems to these

0:24:510:24:54

reports, the tension is rising,

because Egypt fears that it is going

0:24:540:24:58

to be made more unstable by the

water that is taking upstream. OK,

0:24:580:25:05

Begu is some good news from Egypt.

0:25:050:25:07

Extraordinary footage has emerged

of the moment a policeman,

0:25:070:25:09

caught a little boy who was dangling

from the third floor of a building

0:25:090:25:12

in the city of Asyut.

0:25:120:25:14

You will see the panic

on the part of the officers,

0:25:140:25:19

as they first tried to position

a rug beneath the five-year-old,

0:25:190:25:22

but it all happened so quick

that he ended up falling into one

0:25:220:25:25

of the policemans arms.

0:25:250:25:26

What a catch.

0:25:260:25:27

Let's just take a look

again at that in slow mo.

0:25:270:25:29

Take a bow, that man.

0:25:330:25:36

The little boy, by all

accounts, was uninjured.

0:25:360:25:37

Here he is afterwards,

safe and sound, with some

0:25:370:25:40

very relieved parents.

0:25:400:25:46

This is Beyond

100 Days from the BBC.

0:25:460:25:51

Coming up for viewers

on the BBC News Channel

0:25:510:25:54

and BBC World News:

bonding in Buckinghamshire

0:25:540:25:58

senior ministers meet at the prime

minister's country residence

0:25:580:26:00

to try to reconcile their

differences over Brexit.

0:26:000:26:02

That's still to come.

0:26:020:26:04

It looks as though we will seek more

sunshine as we head towards the

0:26:150:26:20

weekend. This was the story today.

As you can see by the pictures sent

0:26:200:26:26

in from the Scottish Borders.

0:26:260:26:28

As you can see by the pictures sent

in from the Scottish Borders. After

0:26:280:26:29

a dreary start, the clouds broke up

from that caused, and they will have

0:26:290:26:33

spells of sunshine, and will

continue to take clear skies through

0:26:330:26:37

the evening, with the exception

being the father was. Under clear

0:26:370:26:40

skies and this time of year, that

only leads to one thing- a

0:26:400:26:44

widespread frost. Temperatures in

Northern Ireland perhaps holding up

0:26:440:26:53

slightly above freezing. It will be

a cloudy, grey start to Northern

0:26:530:26:57

Ireland and parts of Scotland. We

will also see a little bit of cloud

0:26:570:27:00

coming and all the deep north sea.

You can see below the cloud will

0:27:000:27:06

turn to linger, and also to the

Western Isles and into Northern

0:27:060:27:11

Ireland. For much of Wales, Central

and southern England, just a little

0:27:110:27:15

bit of cloud and they will seek murk

sunshine coming through. Still not a

0:27:150:27:24

particularly one day, but it is

going to get even colder, at this

0:27:240:27:29

high pressure across Scandinavia

really in the driving seat at the

0:27:290:27:31

moment. As we move into Saturday,

there will be more of a breeze,

0:27:310:27:41

particularly on the exposed coast,

that will make it feel quite fresh

0:27:410:27:45

out there. Hopefully, some sunshine

to compensate. And again, perhaps

0:27:450:27:51

Northern Ireland will have more

cloud. It'll be chilly on Saturday.

0:27:510:27:55

Into Sunday, almost a repeat

performance. A stronger breeze down

0:27:550:28:01

into East Anglia and the south-east,

making it feel much colder than the

0:28:010:28:06

temperatures suggest. Temperatures

around five to 7 degrees. You have

0:28:060:28:11

probably had that it is going to get

even colder still, with the air

0:28:110:28:16

originating all the way from

Siberia. Over the next few days, it

0:28:160:28:20

really looks as though the

temperatures and set to fall. You

0:28:200:28:26

can see that in the outlook.

Temperatures really struggling to

0:28:260:28:30

climb. You have been warned.

0:28:300:28:36

This is Beyond One

Hundred Days, with me

0:30:090:30:11

Katty Kay in New York -

Christian Fraser's in London.

0:30:110:30:13

Our top stories.

0:30:130:30:14

America's all-powerful

National Rifle Association backs

0:30:140:30:16

the president's call for armed

security at schools

0:30:160:30:18

across the United States.

0:30:180:30:20

The UN struggles to agree

on a ceasefire in Syria -

0:30:200:30:23

as government forces

continue their intense bombardment

0:30:230:30:26

of Eastern Ghouta for a 5th day.

0:30:270:30:29

Coming up in the next half hour.

0:30:290:30:31

Theresa May holds a war

cabinet at the prime

0:30:310:30:33

minister's country residence,

Chequers - to try to agree

0:30:330:30:35

the government's goals -

in the Brexit process.

0:30:350:30:41

And the secrets of success,

why no one can touch Norway

0:30:410:30:43

at the Winter Olympics.

0:30:430:30:44

Let us know your thoughts

by using the hashtag...

0:30:440:30:46

'Beyond-One-Hundred-Days'

0:30:470:30:56

Crucial, decisive,

momentous, urgent -

0:30:560:30:57

pick any of those words

and they would probably

0:30:570:30:59

apply to what's going

on the Prime Minister's country

0:30:590:31:02

retreat right now.

0:31:020:31:03

Theresa May is surrounded

by her closest ministers

0:31:030:31:05

at a meeting at Chequers.

0:31:050:31:06

She wants unity - and a common

approach to Britain's

0:31:060:31:11

negotiating position with the EU.

0:31:110:31:13

But THOSE words - unity,

conservative, and Europe very rarely

0:31:130:31:15

appear in the same sentence.

0:31:150:31:17

Theresa May has a long

day ahead of her -

0:31:170:31:19

and already we're being told

the meeting could go

0:31:190:31:21

well into tonight.

0:31:210:31:22

Our political correspondent

Alex Forsyth is at Chequers

0:31:220:31:24

and we can speak to her now.

0:31:240:31:32

The consequences of not finding an

agreement has been spilled out to

0:31:320:31:37

everyone in the Conservative Party.

Yes there has been a growing call

0:31:370:31:43

for clarity, not just from MPs in

Westminster or people in the UK but

0:31:430:31:48

crucially also from the other 27 EU

countries. What we want and what

0:31:480:31:54

Theresa May's top team is here for

is to work out the more detail about

0:31:540:31:59

what the UK believes is a long-term

relationship with the European

0:31:590:32:04

Union. Joined any chance -ish in

period, the tricky part is the

0:32:040:32:09

trading relationship. The question

is what will replace the customs

0:32:090:32:17

union and single market. How closely

will the EU -- the UK be aligned to

0:32:170:32:24

the EU beyond Brexit and what will

some people see as what we are

0:32:240:32:28

prepared to trade off regarding

sovereignty to get access to these

0:32:280:32:32

markets. These are the kind of thing

is the senior ministers will be

0:32:320:32:36

discussing and continue discussing

for the next few hours, to try and

0:32:360:32:40

provide the clarity so many people

are calling forth.

It sounds like

0:32:400:32:45

they are holed up in a confined area

and have to come out with an

0:32:450:32:50

agreement. Given that no secret

about divisions between ministers on

0:32:500:32:55

these issues, if you had to stake

your fortune on some of them coming

0:32:550:33:00

out with something after this

meeting, we would you point it?

My

0:33:000:33:06

fortune is not that sizeable but

what we can expect from to date is

0:33:060:33:11

not fine detail. Firstly, the

British Prime Minister has to be

0:33:110:33:15

clear she does not want to conduct

these negotiations in public. She

0:33:150:33:20

thinks it would be damaging to give

too much away in terms of public

0:33:200:33:25

discourse. I think what we will

0:33:250:33:28

too much away in terms of public

discourse. I think what we will get

0:33:280:33:28

is some broad statements, perhaps

not to date but in the next week or

0:33:280:33:33

so when we expect Theresa

0:33:330:33:35

not to date but in the next week or

so when we expect Theresa May to

0:33:350:33:36

give more detail, fleshing out the

endgame. This is the senior level

0:33:360:33:42

ministers trying to work out what

they want for Brexit long term. That

0:33:420:33:48

is just a starting position. It then

has to be negotiated with Brussels.

0:33:480:33:53

Once again we hear from the EU there

can be no cherry picking. The UK

0:33:530:33:58

cannot have all the benefits without

the rights and obligations of the

0:33:580:34:03

EU. The balancing act the Prime

Minister is conducting right now,

0:34:030:34:07

will continue for some time.

Thank

you very much indeed. Not many

0:34:070:34:14

lights on inside checkers. Indeed.

Maybe it is one of those episodes of

0:34:140:34:21

Cluedo. Anyway....

0:34:210:34:31

Over the past few years there is no

doubt that institutions

0:34:310:34:33

in America and around the globe have

taken a beating.

0:34:330:34:36

Government, banks,

charities and corporations -

0:34:360:34:37

all don't hold the same trust

they used to.

0:34:370:34:39

According to former US

Labor Secretary Robert Reich its led

0:34:390:34:42

to America losing its national

identity and sense of Common Good.

0:34:420:34:44

So can it be regained?

0:34:440:34:46

That's the topic of Mr Reich's

new book and he joins us

0:34:460:34:48

now from Washington.

0:34:480:34:51

Thank you for joining us. One of the

things Europeans have admired about

0:34:510:34:57

the United States is that people

feel American first. American

0:34:570:35:01

Muslims, American Christians,

American Swedes, Americans first and

0:35:010:35:08

foremost. Are you suggesting that

model is disappearing?

I think it is

0:35:080:35:14

unfortunately. The kind of

xenophobia we have seen, especially

0:35:140:35:20

under this administration, is the

culmination of years of decline in

0:35:200:35:24

the sense of we, the people. I am

not trying to exclude the rest of

0:35:240:35:31

the world. America was always

defined by ideals, not by the colour

0:35:310:35:37

of our skin or creed. America was a

set of principles and protection of

0:35:370:35:42

laws, freedom of the press but also

rule of law. Preciousness of

0:35:420:35:49

democracy. The notion that the type

-- truth was a public good. We have

0:35:490:35:55

seen increasingly the decline of

those norms over the years. We are

0:35:550:36:00

talking about public morality year.

We have to get back. The book is

0:36:000:36:08

about re-establishing those

fundamental norms.

As those norms

0:36:080:36:14

have declined, we have also seen a

rise in income inequality in this

0:36:140:36:20

country, stagnation for many people,

either two related?

They are

0:36:200:36:26

intimately related. As more and more

of the nation's wealth and income go

0:36:260:36:33

to the top, most people begin

believing the game is rigged against

0:36:330:36:35

them. Partly because it is. People

are great wealth, large corporations

0:36:350:36:41

have power to get deals and

regulations which helped them but

0:36:410:36:45

not the average person so wages have

stagnated in the United States for

0:36:450:36:49

many years. 35 years in fact, even

though the economy has grown, most

0:36:490:36:58

of has gone to the very top. That

sense that the game is rigged, we

0:36:580:37:02

see it all so in Europe, it was

behind Brexit and some of the for

0:37:020:37:07

Brexit. In the United States it took

the form of a 2016 election which

0:37:070:37:15

was anti establishment which put

Donald Trump in the White House and

0:37:150:37:19

cause the Democratic nomination to

go to Bernie Sanders almost.

There

0:37:190:37:28

is a phenomenon to both our

countries, when it comes to trump

0:37:280:37:33

and Brexit, people do not shift from

whatever position needs it. If you

0:37:330:37:38

believed in President Trump, you

will not see eye to eye with the

0:37:380:37:41

other side. This is bringing

something new to politics?

It has

0:37:410:37:48

become used to politics, we have now

a kind of tribal politics. It used

0:37:480:37:54

to be left versus right. Most people

were in the middle. Republicans

0:37:540:38:00

versus Democrats. Now you have

people who are very anti

0:38:000:38:05

establishment, anti-ruling class

that are both on the left and right.

0:38:050:38:11

You also have, and again Donald

Trump has brought this to the fore,

0:38:110:38:15

a deep anger between, from the

middle part of the country, many of

0:38:150:38:26

them white voters, not college

educated, not all of them but not

0:38:260:38:32

college educated tends to describe

most of them, anger what they call

0:38:320:38:38

the elites. People who are more

educated and more diverse in many

0:38:380:38:43

respects. That anger has seeped into

almost everything. People do not

0:38:430:38:48

change their positions, they are

digging in.

Thank you very much for

0:38:480:38:52

joining us. He joined -- he worked

in the Clinton administration. There

0:38:520:39:04

was probably more of homogeneity in

the country. It is really from 1990

0:39:040:39:10

onwards we see this rising distrust,

along with the rise in income

0:39:100:39:14

inequality. As he said, it is

impossible not to believe they are

0:39:140:39:19

related. The debate is whether the

institutions in this country are

0:39:190:39:24

strong enough to keep the country

together.

That was the question

0:39:240:39:30

around their trump election. He has

criticised the law agencies, courts

0:39:300:39:35

and the press but most people would

say those agencies are resilient.

0:39:350:39:42

The investigating are probably doing

their job as well. The institutions

0:39:420:39:47

are holding up. The long-term trend

of fragmentation on the side of the

0:39:470:39:52

Atlantic and your side, it is hard

to see how that ends. Talking of

0:39:520:40:09

fragmentation dot-mac

0:40:090:40:11

Here in the US, the legacy

of the Black Panther

0:40:110:40:13

movement of the 1960s and 70s is one

of racial injustice, black

0:40:130:40:16

empowerment, and armed struggle.

0:40:160:40:17

These were mostly young,

African-American men who made

0:40:170:40:19

headlines with their calls for black

liberation, and their violent

0:40:190:40:21

clashes with police.

0:40:220:40:23

Now, a new exhibit in New York

focuses on 20 former

0:40:230:40:25

Black Panther members -

many who remain incarcerated.

0:40:250:40:27

The BBC's Nada Tawfik

went for a look.

0:40:270:40:29

It's been half a century

since the Black Panthers marched

0:40:290:40:31

through the streets,

with upraised fists,

0:40:310:40:33

crying out power to

0:40:330:40:34

the people in their black

berets and jackets.

0:40:340:40:36

Many of the black

nationalist movement's most

0:40:360:40:38

controversial figures

remain in prison today.

0:40:380:40:39

They are the subjects of this

new exhibition by Sophia Dawson.

0:40:390:40:42

I think it is really powerful

to have somebody whose

0:40:420:40:44

story was supposed to be forgotten

or buried under a rug, to have them

0:40:440:40:48

on the outside larger-than-life

in front of the people

0:40:480:40:50

who may be encountering

0:40:500:40:54

their story for the first time.

0:40:540:40:55

Sophia says this is a project

of both passion and protest.

0:40:550:41:04

For the last eight years

she has written and visited

0:41:040:41:07

former Black Panthers

still incarcerated.

0:41:070:41:08

Those letters feature

in many of the portraits.

0:41:080:41:10

Even the technique is a nod

to black empowerment.

0:41:100:41:12

I start off all in black.

0:41:120:41:13

It is actually an act

of protest, a political

0:41:130:41:16

statement and solidarity

with the Panther

0:41:160:41:21

and embracing that

the

0:41:210:41:22

colour black is beautiful.

0:41:220:41:31

I thnk it's really fun to have these

colours on a black surface.

0:41:310:41:34

Power to the people.

0:41:340:41:35

They were black revolutionaries

who openly carried weapons.

0:41:350:41:37

They said it was for armed self

defence against police brutality.

0:41:370:41:41

To the FBI the Panthers

were armed militants.

0:41:410:41:43

To others they were

freedom fighters.

0:41:430:41:44

I did not know that

free health clinics in

0:41:440:41:47

this country did not exist before

the Panther movement.

0:41:470:41:51

I did not know of the free

breakfast clubs did not

0:41:510:41:54

exist before the Panther movement.

0:41:540:41:55

Under constant pressure from law

enforcement, the movement faded.

0:41:550:41:57

This exhibition weaves very personal

stories with the larger societal

0:41:570:42:00

issues the Panthers were fighting.

0:42:000:42:01

Since Sophia started

painting her subjects, a number have

0:42:010:42:03

actually been released.

0:42:030:42:04

They say that the same

injustices they saw so many

0:42:040:42:07

years ago remain.

0:42:070:42:09

Sekou Odinga was a leader

of the Black Panthers in New York.

0:42:090:42:14

He served his time for charges

of attempted murder.

0:42:140:42:24

He maintains he was given a heftier

sentence for his ativism

0:42:290:42:32

and political beliefs.

0:42:320:42:33

The media always projected us

as being some kind of terrorists,

0:42:330:42:36

some kind of wild, violent bunch.

0:42:360:42:37

Unprovoked attacks on police.

0:42:370:42:38

They never talked

about how many black

0:42:380:42:40

men, women and children were dying

at the hands of the police every day

0:42:400:42:43

and still do.

0:42:430:42:44

The fight against racism

and inequality is once again

0:42:440:42:47

demanding public attention.

0:42:470:42:57

The upraised fists,

athletes taking the knee,

0:43:040:43:05

the Black Lives Matter movement.

0:43:060:43:07

Sophia believes understanding of how

past activists fought will help

0:43:070:43:10

today's activists pave

the way forward.

0:43:100:43:11

Anti-depressants do

work and more people

0:43:110:43:12

could benefit from taking them -

that's the verdict of a major

0:43:120:43:15

study led by Oxford

University here in the UK.

0:43:150:43:17

Scientists analysed data from more

than 500 trials and looked

0:43:170:43:19

at more than 20 drugs -

and found they all helped patients

0:43:190:43:22

manage their condition.

0:43:220:43:29

Our correspondent

Sima Kotecha reports.

0:43:290:43:31

There were times, you know, I felt

really low, to the point I didn't

0:43:310:43:34

want to be around anyone or anybody

or have any interaction

0:43:340:43:37

with family or friends.

0:43:370:43:40

There were times when I didn't

understand my position in life.

0:43:400:43:49

Jon needed help.

0:43:490:43:51

He was struggling to cope.

0:43:510:43:52

His doctor prescribed

antidepressants.

0:43:520:43:56

I still think there's a lot

of stigma around it, as to,

0:43:560:43:59

you know, are you weak

because you take them?

0:43:590:44:04

Are you are a nut-nut

because you take them.

0:44:040:44:06

I had an image of Jack Nicholson

in One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest

0:44:060:44:09

at the end when he's a complete

and utter zombie and you lose

0:44:090:44:13

something about yourself,

something that makes you you.

0:44:130:44:16

And that's what I was concerned

about, you'd turn into zombie

0:44:160:44:18

without any feeling.

0:44:180:44:22

But the only way I can describe

it is that it gives you a kind

0:44:220:44:26

of buffer around some

of the negative thoughts

0:44:260:44:27

and your mind racing.

0:44:270:44:29

Today's report found that 21 of some

of the most common antidepressants

0:44:290:44:33

were more effective at treating

anxiety and depression

0:44:330:44:35

than dummy pills.

0:44:350:44:38

Those behind the report

as well as other GPs say the results

0:44:380:44:41

show that these tablets could help

more people cope with low moods.

0:44:410:44:46

For too long, healthcare

professionals have been denigrated

0:44:460:44:48

and slated for prescribing drugs

that they know will work.

0:44:480:44:52

So many patients tell us they work.

0:44:520:44:54

We only want to do this

for the best of our patients.

0:44:540:44:57

It is not about fobbing people off,

it is genuinely trying to help them.

0:44:570:45:00

In 2016, 65 million prescriptions

for antidepressants were issued

0:45:000:45:02

and the numbers are rising.

0:45:020:45:04

But some critics say

depression can be solved

0:45:040:45:07

through positive mental attitude.

0:45:070:45:12

You say you've been

on them for five years...

0:45:120:45:14

The research also outlines

which pills work best.

0:45:140:45:17

However, the authors are urging

people not to switch medication

0:45:170:45:20

before getting advice.

0:45:200:45:30

This is Beyond

One Hundred Days.

0:45:330:45:37

Still to come - A leap

into the future for the world's

0:45:370:45:40

oldest commercial satellite station

- as the English County of Cornwall

0:45:400:45:43

turns its attention to Mars.

0:45:430:45:47

More than a million university

students face massive

0:45:470:45:49

disruption for the next month

after lecturers walked out

0:45:490:45:51

over a pensions dispute.

0:45:510:45:56

They say proposed changes

could leave them £10,000

0:45:560:45:58

worse off every year in retirement.

0:45:580:46:02

But thousands of students -

who pay more than £9,000

0:46:020:46:05

in fees a year - say

they'll demand compensation

0:46:050:46:07

if their studies are disrupted.

0:46:070:46:08

Our Education Correspondent

Elaine Dunkley reports.

0:46:080:46:16

at Leeds University, lecturers out

on the picket line. Thousands of

0:46:160:46:21

lectures have been cancelled across

the UK, the message, give us the

0:46:210:46:25

pension be paid into or there will

be massive disruption.

We are likely

0:46:250:46:31

to lose about £10,000 a year. Vice

chancellors are earning £250,000 a

0:46:310:46:37

year so I have questions about why

the money should not be coming out

0:46:370:46:42

of their salaries and not out of her

pension.

The University say a £6

0:46:420:46:48

billion deficit in the scheme means

it is unsustainable and could only

0:46:480:46:53

be maintained by making cuts to jobs

and research. University say they

0:46:530:46:56

have offered a good deal but

lecturers are not convinced. The

0:46:560:47:06

student support the lecturers but

also worried about their future.

0:47:060:47:10

More than 80,000 students have

signed petitions calling for a fees

0:47:100:47:13

to be reimbursed.

When we signed up

to university, it was specified in

0:47:130:47:19

the cubicle and we would have a

certain number of hours of contact

0:47:190:47:23

time with our lecturers. Anything

short of that is a breach of the

0:47:230:47:27

contract and a breach of the £9,000.

We should be compensated for that.

I

0:47:270:47:35

think out of our £1150 loss of

contact time.

This dispute is being

0:47:350:47:40

fought on campuses across the UK.

How it is resolved will have a

0:47:400:47:45

significant impact on the retirement

of thousands of lecturers and the

0:47:450:47:48

future of millions of students.

0:47:480:47:54

You're watching Beyond

One Hundred Days...

0:47:540:47:56

It's a nation of only 5 million

people but right now Norway

0:47:560:47:59

is flexing its muscle

at the Winter Games in Pyongchang.

0:47:590:48:08

Look at that ex-mac

0:48:080:48:16

With 35 medals it is leading

the pack - besting both

0:48:160:48:18

Germany and Canada.

0:48:190:48:20

So what is the secret

to their success?

0:48:200:48:21

The long winters, plentiful snow

or the folk saying that in Norway

0:48:210:48:24

people are just born with skis

on their feet?

0:48:240:48:27

A brief time ago I spoke

with Norway's Ambassador

0:48:270:48:29

to the US to find out.

0:48:290:48:38

ambassador, congratulations, Norway

is doing fantastically at the

0:48:380:48:40

Olympics. How is it that a country

of little more than 5 million people

0:48:400:48:44

is sweeping South Korea at the

moment?

First of all, thank you for

0:48:440:48:50

the congratulations. It is very nice

these days to be a Norwegian. I

0:48:500:48:56

think also the reason we're doing so

well has to do with the

0:48:560:49:00

preparations. Prior to the Olympics.

Also that skiing in Norway,

0:49:000:49:08

cross-country or downhill is really

popular and part of the Norwegian

0:49:080:49:14

culture and history and traditions.

That is also infrastructure in

0:49:140:49:22

Norway. This has had an important

impact on the results were seeing.

0:49:220:49:26

You have long winters and a lot of

snow but it has not always indicate

0:49:260:49:31

you have done so well. In the 2006

Olympics you were beaten by Sweden

0:49:310:49:36

in terms of medals. Did that cause a

moment of national introspection?

0:49:360:49:42

No, I don't think so. This year

Norway is doing very well and we

0:49:420:49:49

have been doing well also in the

past. There have also been Olympic

0:49:490:49:54

tournaments where we have not done

so well but this year we have won so

0:49:540:50:00

many medals, which really is

fantastic. That can change in the

0:50:000:50:08

future but now we have to be pleased

with the results so far.

Is there a

0:50:080:50:13

sport you have been particularly

pleased with?

I think the skating

0:50:130:50:20

was something which we hoped would

happen, the 500 metres. And it did.

0:50:200:50:29

I mention that because we have not

one that competition in 70 years so

0:50:290:50:34

that was very very nice that he was

able to win the gold medal. But in

0:50:340:50:39

general, I would say their Norwegian

athletes are doing fantastic. We

0:50:390:50:45

have to recognise what they are

doing but also to recognise the

0:50:450:50:50

support team around them. But

skiers, the waxing experts are also

0:50:500:50:57

vital in the success.

I have seen

the wonderful stories about waxing

0:50:570:51:04

experts, who knew the research are

critically important national

0:51:040:51:09

profession? You of course are

ambassador to the United States, the

0:51:090:51:12

US has not done so well in these

Olympics as many Americans might

0:51:120:51:18

have anticipated, does this put you

in a not quite position?

No, it is

0:51:180:51:23

not. We are friends and allies. It

is a healthy competition. Being the

0:51:230:51:29

Norwegian ambassador is great. My

colleague is having a harder time

0:51:290:51:35

than I am having for the time being.

Do you wish you were back home, what

0:51:350:51:40

is the atmosphere like?

People are

very satisfied with the results but

0:51:400:51:45

it is also important to say that,

this is a friendly competition. It

0:51:450:51:51

is about sports activities. One of

the team leaders of the Norwegian

0:51:510:51:59

team said that, we are going to

quote here to have fun and to make

0:51:590:52:05

friendship and relations with other

nations. That is also an important

0:52:050:52:08

part of why they are competing and

an important part of the Olympic

0:52:080:52:13

spirit.

Norway has also gone to the

Olympics to win, you did not have to

0:52:130:52:22

see it but thank you very much.

Thank you. Christian, you're very

0:52:220:52:31

smart, and instant maths. 5 million

people, they have won 35 medals, how

0:52:310:52:40

many medals as that per person.

I am

clearly not very smart at all.

Hold

0:52:400:52:48

on a second, that is one that medal

for every 140,000 Norwegians. That

0:52:480:52:56

is phenomenal. Even we could get a

medal at that rate.

Yes, I could get

0:52:560:53:03

a medal in cross-country. I was

doing that in Andorra last week

0:53:030:53:07

without skis.

I would like to see

you speed skating.

No, the best

0:53:070:53:18

performance since 1994. The UK is

currently 17th so maybe the Norway

0:53:180:53:25

model is the one to fall.

They have

a population much smaller than us.

0:53:250:53:32

We're used to hearing

about rocket launches controlled

0:53:320:53:34

by NASA from Houston,

but what about missions into space

0:53:340:53:37

directed from in south-west England?

0:53:370:53:39

Well, multi-million dollar plans

have been announced to upgrade

0:53:390:53:41

a huge satellite dish

on the Lizard Peninsula in Cornwall

0:53:410:53:44

to direct missions into deep space.

0:53:440:53:47

It coincides with a bid

by Newquay Airport

0:53:470:53:49

to become an official "space hub"

for satellite launches -

0:53:490:53:52

putting the region firmly

on the space map, as Jon Kay has

0:53:520:53:55

been finding out.

0:53:550:53:56
0:53:560:54:02

NEWSREEL: Upon the fantastic dish

aerial of Cornwall's

0:54:020:54:04

Goonhilly Downs...

0:54:040:54:05

Since the 1960s, Goonhilly has

been making history,

0:54:050:54:07

like receiving the first pictures

from the Telstar satellite.

0:54:070:54:10

..Goonhilly marks an

impressive step forward in

0:54:100:54:12

international communication.

0:54:120:54:16

And now this Earth Station will be

the first place in Britain

0:54:160:54:19

which can direct missions

into deep space.

0:54:190:54:22

This is Goonhilly dish number six.

0:54:230:54:27

This antenna is 32

metres in diameter...

0:54:270:54:29

Also known as Merlin.

0:54:290:54:30

It rotates 360 degrees...

0:54:300:54:33

This one was built in the 1980s.

0:54:330:54:37

It beamed Live Aid around the world,

but now an £8 million upgrade means

0:54:370:54:41

it will be able to do

much, much more.

0:54:410:54:45

We will be able to send commands

to spacecraft around the moon

0:54:450:54:48

and around Mars, and also receive

data coming back from

0:54:480:54:52

the moon and Mars.

0:54:520:54:55

So in 2020 when a Mars

rover is on the surface

0:54:550:55:00

of Mars and detects life,

we could send that data back and be

0:55:000:55:03

received by this antenna here.

0:55:030:55:05

Direct to Cornwall?

Direct to Cornwall.

0:55:050:55:06

And Cornwall's ambitions to join

the space race don't end here.

0:55:060:55:10

Newquay airport.

0:55:100:55:11

Today passengers were flying to

Dublin and Manchester, but soon it

0:55:110:55:14

could be much further.

0:55:140:55:18

Because this county, which relies

on tourism, wants to take

0:55:180:55:20

things to the next level.

0:55:200:55:26

The airport is bidding

to turn its two-mile runway

0:55:260:55:28

into a commercial spaceport,

hoping for a share of

0:55:280:55:32

a multi-billion pound industry.

0:55:320:55:35

The millions for Goonhilly

are coming from the local enterprise

0:55:350:55:38

partnership, and some ask

if it's the best use

0:55:380:55:42

of public money right now.

0:55:420:55:45

One local baker delivering

space-themed pasties

0:55:450:55:48

today believes this poor county

needs to aim for the stars.

0:55:480:55:53

The perception of Cornwall

from a lot of people

0:55:530:55:55

is that it's a beautiful

0:55:550:55:56

place, which it undoubtedly

is, but we also need

0:55:560:55:58

a thriving future for people.

0:55:580:56:01

It would be great to see better

high-tech jobs being created

0:56:010:56:03

in a very much a long-term project.

0:56:030:56:05

More customers for you.

0:56:050:56:06

That would be nice.

0:56:060:56:07

Pasties and a giant dish.

0:56:070:56:08

The new Cornwall.

0:56:080:56:10

John Kay, BBC News, Goonhilly.

0:56:100:56:20

Coming up next on BBC World News -

0:56:310:56:32

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