14/03/2018 Beyond 100 Days


Download Subtitles

SRT

ASS


14/03/2018

The latest national and international news, exploring the day's events from a global perspective.


Similar Content

Browse content similar to 14/03/2018. Check below for episodes and series from the same categories and more!

Transcript


LineFromTo

You're watching

Beyond One Hundred Days.

0:00:060:00:08

A return to Cold War expulsions.

0:00:080:00:11

23 Russian spies are sent packing

by the British Prime Minister.

0:00:110:00:17

It the biggest number

of diplomats expelled

0:00:170:00:19

by Britain in 30 years,

as Europe and the United States come

0:00:190:00:22

out in support of London's response.

0:00:220:00:29

Poisoning of Sergei Skripal and his

daughter has been formally tied to

0:00:290:00:32

the Kremlin which denied the

deadline for information.

They have

0:00:320:00:38

traded the use of military grade

nerve agent in Europe with contempt.

0:00:380:00:44

Russia says the UK is engaging in a

serious provocation.

0:00:440:00:52

Also on the programme.

0:00:520:00:54

A month on from the school shooting

0:00:540:00:56

in Florida, students stage a 17

minute walk out across America

0:00:560:00:58

in solidarity with the 17 who died.

0:00:580:01:02

Sometime ago I discovered black

holes are not lack after all.

0:01:020:01:08

And tributes to the visionary

0:01:080:01:11

physicist Stephen Hawking,

who's died at the age of 76.

0:01:110:01:13

Get in touch with us

using the hashtag

0:01:130:01:15

'Beyond-One-Hundred-Days'.

0:01:150:01:23

Hello and welcome -

I'm Katty Kay in Washington

0:01:230:01:25

and Christian Fraser is in London.

0:01:250:01:27

Forty per cent of the Russian

diplomats in the UK have just been

0:01:270:01:30

given their marching orders.

0:01:300:01:31

They have a week to leave.

0:01:310:01:34

It's the biggest expulsion of known

intelligence agents since 1985,

0:01:340:01:37

the year Mikhal Gorbachev

came to power.

0:01:370:01:40

And not since the Cold War have

relations between London and Moscow

0:01:400:01:43

sunk to such a level.

0:01:430:01:46

The Russian Ambassador

to London said Britain

0:01:460:01:49

was trying to concoct

'an unfounded

0:01:490:01:50

anti-Russian campaign'.

0:01:500:01:52

'We won't keep you waiting,'

he added 'for our counter measures'.

0:01:520:01:55

All high-level diplomacy

between the two countries

0:01:550:01:57

is forthwith suspended.

0:01:570:02:00

It promises to be a long

confrontation, in which the Prime

0:02:000:02:02

Minister will need every bit of help

from her allies.

0:02:020:02:09

It was right to offer Russia had the

chance to provide an explanation.

0:02:090:02:15

But their response is demonstrated

complete disdain for the gravity of

0:02:150:02:19

these events. They have provided no

credible explanation that could

0:02:190:02:26

suggest they lost control of their

nerve agent. No explanation as to

0:02:260:02:30

how this agent came to be used in

the UK, no explanation as to why

0:02:300:02:36

Russia has an undeclared chemical

weapons programme in contravention

0:02:360:02:40

of international law. Instead they

have traded the use of military

0:02:400:02:45

grade nerve agent in Europe with

sarcasm, contempt and defiance. So

0:02:450:02:52

Mr Speaker is no alternative

conclusion other than that the

0:02:520:02:56

Russian state was culpable for the

attempted murder of Sergei Skripal

0:02:560:03:01

and his daughter. And for

threatening the lives of other which

0:03:010:03:04

is systems in Salisbury including

Detective Sergeant Nick Bailey.

0:03:040:03:09

So here's what the Prime Minister

has set in motion -

0:03:090:03:11

among other measures.

0:03:110:03:12

The expulsion of 23 diplomats -

who have one week

0:03:120:03:15

to leave.

0:03:150:03:16

Increased checks on private

flights, customs

0:03:160:03:17

and freight.

0:03:170:03:18

The freezing of Russian assets

0:03:180:03:20

where there is evidence they may be

used to threaten the life

0:03:200:03:23

or property of UK

nationals or residents.

0:03:230:03:25

And predictably

0:03:250:03:26

ministers and members

of the Royal Family are to boycott

0:03:260:03:28

the Fifa World Cup in

Russia later this year.

0:03:280:03:30

Russia has been crossing red lines,

at home and abroad,

0:03:300:03:33

with growing impunity recently.

0:03:330:03:34

There's Georgia, Crimea,

Ukraine, the interference

0:03:340:03:36

in the American election,

in European elections,

0:03:360:03:39

and the poisoning of not one but two

Russian exiles here in Britain.

0:03:390:03:43

Is that why the West

is taking the attack

0:03:430:03:45

in Salisbury so seriously?

0:03:450:03:47

I have been speaking to the Chair

of the Commons Intelligence and

0:03:470:03:49

Security Committee Dominic Grieve

who says it's time NATO allies woke

0:03:490:03:52

up to the reality of the threat.

0:03:520:03:58

When it comes to the behaviour

of murdering people on other

0:03:580:04:00

people's sovereign territory,

it's very serious indeed.

0:04:000:04:02

But because we live

within a rules-based system,

0:04:020:04:12

we do have a common lawful

and proportionate response

0:04:120:04:14

to what Russia is doing.

0:04:150:04:16

And if we unite in doing it

and sustain it we have the best

0:04:160:04:20

prospect of actually getting them

to change their behaviour.

0:04:200:04:21

But I'm not sure at the moment

that we are succeeding

0:04:210:04:24

in that as much as I would like.

0:04:240:04:26

Can you suggest things that

might be proportionate?

0:04:260:04:28

Well clearly more sanctions

would undoubtedly be proportionate.

0:04:280:04:38

Visa restrictions on Russian

officials can be proportionate.

0:04:410:04:42

In so far as the action

we are taking in expelling Russian

0:04:420:04:45

agents in their embassy

here in London, other countries can

0:04:450:04:48

also do likewise in respect

of Russian agents who are present

0:04:480:04:50

in the embassies in those countries.

0:04:500:04:52

So I think we need to be

acting collectively.

0:04:520:04:56

But you will know that

when the British Government

0:04:560:04:59

was pushing for more sanctions,

tighter sanctions, after the enquiry

0:04:590:05:02

into the Litvenenko poisoning,

the Europeans were dragged really

0:05:020:05:05

kicking and screaming

towards sanctions.

0:05:050:05:09

They have not been

particularly supportive.

0:05:090:05:19

Countries like Italy for instance

get a lot of their gas from Russia.

0:05:190:05:22

Even the Germans who do a lot

of trade with Russia.

0:05:220:05:25

Not particularly keen.

0:05:250:05:26

Yes and I can understand that

but I think that in view

0:05:260:05:28

of the seriousness of the threat

and its brazen nature,

0:05:280:05:31

I think we really do all have

to think very long and hard

0:05:310:05:35

about the collective action we can

take as otherwise it simply

0:05:350:05:37

is going to embolden Mr Putin

and he will do more of it.

0:05:370:05:40

And he will do it selectively

in whatever country he chooses.

0:05:400:05:43

And then trust that with the passage

of time people will want to turn

0:05:430:05:50

over a new leaf, reset

the relationship and he

0:05:500:05:52

can get away with it.

0:05:520:05:53

And seeing that his activities

are extremely dangerous I think

0:05:530:05:56

we just need to try to focus on how

we can meet this threat together.

0:05:560:05:59

Ordinarily you would

expect our closest ally,

0:05:590:06:05

and an American president, to stand

0:06:050:06:08

behind the UK but he is not imposing

the sanctions that have

0:06:080:06:11

been set why Congress.

0:06:110:06:12

And there is not much trust that

President Trump will fall in behind

0:06:120:06:15

the UK in any meaningful way.

0:06:150:06:16

I think it is a reflection

of the curious way in

0:06:160:06:19

which President Trump

conducts his policy.

0:06:190:06:20

I think there's no doubt

there are many around him

0:06:200:06:30

who are very concerned

about what Russia is doing

0:06:310:06:33

but for for a variety of reasons

he doesn't seem to be

0:06:330:06:37

taking a measured response

and there is a sense that whilst

0:06:370:06:39

he is supportive he does not

0:06:390:06:40

seem to have a strategy.

0:06:400:06:42

So of course that is the subject

of anxiety but of course that

0:06:420:06:45

could change with time.

0:06:450:06:46

Well let's pick up

that final thought

0:06:460:06:48

with Matthew Rojansky,

director of the Wilson

0:06:480:06:49

Center's Kennan Institute.

0:06:500:06:55

We are reminded that America matters

in a global response to threat and

0:06:550:07:01

the world is looking to Washington.

Do you agree that perhaps they will

0:07:010:07:06

not get what they want from

Washington when it comes to

0:07:060:07:09

retaliation against Russia.

It is

unlikely Washington will be the tip

0:07:090:07:15

of the sphere in retaliation on this

particular attempted murder because

0:07:150:07:19

it was in the UK and the UK must be

in the lead. I think there will be

0:07:190:07:24

further were coming from Washington

in response to other actions by

0:07:240:07:27

Russia including what we are

learning about ongoing election and

0:07:270:07:32

other political interference.

Russian behaviour in the Ukraine

0:07:320:07:36

etc. The Treasury Secretary

indicated pretty clearly that the

0:07:360:07:41

administration intends to respond in

some meaningful way to the

0:07:410:07:44

Congressional legislation despite

the public report that rightfully

0:07:440:07:48

was cited as being pretty thin.

You

spend a lot of time in Russia and

0:07:480:07:53

you know one thing that could have

an impact is hitting Russian money

0:07:530:07:58

in London. One person that could be

targeted as the Deputy Prime

0:07:580:08:00

Minister who has apartment buildings

in the middle of London web around

0:08:000:08:06

$50 million. If you're Kate wants to

send a message to Putin and those

0:08:060:08:09

who support him would it be smart of

them to go after the money.

I've

0:08:090:08:15

always felt that sanctions are like

any other weapon and you can fire

0:08:150:08:21

that but there is a cost each time.

In the case of the UK we see this

0:08:210:08:25

clearly, the UK has benefited for a

long time from the presence of

0:08:250:08:29

significant amounts of Russian money

in the British banking system, in

0:08:290:08:32

the London real estate market.

Secondary services including

0:08:320:08:37

tailors, lawyers. Some of that is

pro-regime, some of it anti-regime

0:08:370:08:42

and then hangers on who might

literally be assassins. If the UK is

0:08:420:08:47

willing to take on that problem as a

whole and potentially willing to

0:08:470:08:51

scare off some of that money then it

can fire the weapon. But having your

0:08:510:08:57

cake and eating it is probably not

possible.

If the Russian state is

0:08:570:09:01

involved then surely no coincidence

that President Putin has provoked a

0:09:010:09:04

crisis with the West just days ahead

of an election.

I think the election

0:09:040:09:11

cannot not be significant for Putin.

So if he has ordered this and I do

0:09:110:09:15

not say this to indicate that the

Russian state is not behind it but

0:09:150:09:19

remember there are many actors in

the Russian state that may simply

0:09:190:09:25

operate as a matter of course to

take out someone they consider to be

0:09:250:09:29

a traitor, if Putin ordered this and

the question of timing is important

0:09:290:09:32

for him, one week before an election

he is looking for the narrative that

0:09:320:09:39

the West is out to get Russia.

Looking to mobilise his base and to

0:09:390:09:44

build Western leaders essentially

into making exactly the kind of

0:09:440:09:48

provocative and hostile threatening

statements towards Russia that they

0:09:480:09:50

have been doing, even if many

consider them not to be enough, this

0:09:500:09:55

is perfect material for Putin. And

after the election if he needs to

0:09:550:09:59

roll things back and see better

relations he has two or three fields

0:09:590:10:04

of operation. Ukraine, Syria, North

Korea. And the West would have no

0:10:040:10:09

choice but to respond in a tough and

helpful way.

Thank you very much for

0:10:090:10:16

coming in. So interesting speaking

about the domestic politics in

0:10:160:10:20

Russia and what is behind that.

Let's look at domestic politics in

0:10:200:10:25

the UK. It would benefit the UK in

or mislead if the body politic in

0:10:250:10:32

the UK were united on the issue but

it seems to be clear they're not.

0:10:320:10:36

Well a lot of focus today on Jeremy

Corbyn who was loath to criticise

0:10:360:10:41

Putin much like the trap is that he

said he wants evidence of the

0:10:410:10:46

culpability of the Russian state

before he apportions blame. And

0:10:460:10:49

today he added the UK does not have

a good history when it comes to

0:10:490:10:52

weapons of mass destruction, the

intelligence not being accurate. But

0:10:520:10:57

this time WMD has been found in a

cathedral city here in England and

0:10:570:11:02

we are very lucky that more British

people had not been killed. So not a

0:11:020:11:06

happy afternoon amongst Labour MPs.

Our political editor in fact said

0:11:060:11:13

that this motion was put down today

and use the names scribbled at the

0:11:130:11:19

bottom. And I think there is a

possibility that some Labour shadow

0:11:190:11:27

frontbenchers could resign tonight

over the statement today from their

0:11:270:11:29

leader. So a lot of anger and the

uneasy truce within Labour seems to

0:11:290:11:35

have gone. And exactly what Russia

wants. That division within the

0:11:350:11:39

party.

Exactly. And that question

about whether the UK is prepared to

0:11:390:11:46

withstand the possible impact of

sanctions against Moscow.

0:11:460:11:52

Here in the US, students

across the country

0:11:520:11:54

left their classrooms today -

in protest at gun violence and to

0:11:540:11:57

demand restrictions on gun sales.

0:11:570:11:58

The National School Walkout came

on the one month anniversary

0:11:580:12:01

of the school shooting in Parkland,

Florida which left 17 people dead.

0:12:010:12:05

And today's events were scheduled

to last 17 minutes -

0:12:050:12:07

one minute for every life taken

in the attack.

0:12:070:12:10

The action came ahead

of an even bigger rally

0:12:100:12:12

in Washington later this month,

that will bring students together

0:12:120:12:14

from all around the country.

0:12:140:12:16

Our North America Editor

Jon Sopel reports.

0:12:160:12:24

The last time we saw children

pouring out of school it was with

0:12:240:12:29

their hands up in terror after the

Florida shooting. Today they came

0:12:290:12:32

out across America at this time with

their fists clenched demanding

0:12:320:12:38

change on gun control. In Washington

at ten o'clock on a bracing cold

0:12:380:12:44

morning with their backs turned on

the White House 's students fell

0:12:440:12:48

silent for 70 minutes, one minute

for each of the people who died at

0:12:480:12:52

the Marjorie Stoneman Douglas school

in Florida last month. There's no

0:12:520:13:01

doubting extraordinary success these

young people have had in changing

0:13:010:13:03

the whole terms of debate on the

subject of gun control. Their

0:13:030:13:10

problem is that the man who lives on

the other side of that offence seems

0:13:100:13:13

to have got cold feet. When Donald

Trump met youngsters on the Florida

0:13:130:13:22

School at the White House he seemed

to offer his support for tougher gun

0:13:220:13:25

control measures like raising to 21

the age at which you can buy a

0:13:250:13:29

rifle. And he later tried it

lawmakers for being frightened of

0:13:290:13:34

the National Rifle Association.

Some

of you people are petrified of the

0:13:340:13:37

NRA.

But he is now backed off those

proposals and so the end people are

0:13:370:13:43

intensifying their campaign.

We want

them to pass common-sense gun

0:13:430:13:48

reforms and ban assault rifles. We

do not want to be scared in school.

0:13:480:13:53

We are tired of being scared. We

want change.

This is a curtain

0:13:530:14:02

raiser to a mass demonstration in

Washington in ten days' time. They

0:14:020:14:05

are a long way from getting what

they want but the power of youth

0:14:050:14:10

protest has got them further than

anyone could have imagined and then

0:14:100:14:13

not in any mood to surrender. Dashed

they are not in any mood.

0:14:130:14:23

Plenty of anger around the country.

0:14:230:14:26

After six months of coalition talks,

Angela Merkel has been

0:14:260:14:29

sworn in for a fourth term

as German chancellor.

0:14:290:14:31

She'll lead a coalition of

conservatives and Social Democrats.

0:14:310:14:41

In Italy, 223,000 people

have been evacuated

0:14:420:14:44

from a town on the east

coast after an unexploded

0:14:440:14:46

World War Two bomb was found

during the construction

0:14:460:14:48

of a drain in Fano.

0:14:480:14:49

Officials say the 225 kilogram

bomb was British-made,

0:14:490:14:51

and there was panic

when it was accidentally activated.

0:14:510:14:53

The device was removed

and dropped into the sea.

0:14:530:15:01

He bridged the gap between academia

0:15:010:15:03

and popular culture -

an extraordinary scientist

0:15:030:15:05

who inspired millions.

0:15:050:15:09

There have been tributes

from all over the world today

0:15:090:15:11

for Professor Stephen Hawking

who has died at the age of 76.

0:15:110:15:14

He was diagnosed with a rare form

of motor neurone disease

0:15:140:15:17

when he was just 22 and told he had

only a few years to live.

0:15:170:15:21

But he defied expectations and went

on to become one of the most famous

0:15:210:15:24

physicists in the world.

0:15:240:15:25

Our Science Editor David Shukman

looks back at his life.

0:15:250:15:29

There is nothing like the Eureka

moment of discovering

0:15:290:15:32

something no one knew before.

0:15:320:15:34

Stephen Hawking had a gift

for inspiration, a powerful spirit

0:15:340:15:38

overcoming an ailing body to allow

a mind to roam the cosmos.

0:15:380:15:44

Earning him a place as the most

famous scientist in the world.

0:15:440:15:47

It has been a glorious time to be

alive and researching and doing

0:15:470:15:50

theoretical physics.

0:15:500:15:55

Who else could draw

crowds like this?

0:15:550:15:58

The man who gazed at the stars

became one himself.

0:15:580:16:04

His story poignant and uplifting,

his career involved concept

0:16:040:16:08

so alien and complicated for most

it was a struggle to keep up

0:16:080:16:13

but he explored the strangest

of features of the universe,

0:16:130:16:16

black holes, drawing together

the science of the largest things

0:16:160:16:20

in space with the science

of the small, part

0:16:200:16:21

of a quest to come up

with a theory for the universe.

0:16:210:16:27

He made these incredibly original

insights that set up the modern

0:16:270:16:31

theory of black holes.

0:16:310:16:35

And made great contributions

to cosmology, and so

0:16:350:16:37

he was a huge figure.

0:16:370:16:42

I was devastated, really upset.

0:16:420:16:46

I met him a couple of times

but he had an impact on my life.

0:16:460:16:50

It is the passing of a great

scientist who will be truly missed.

0:16:500:17:00

As a student his intelligence stood

out but at that moment he was given

0:17:010:17:04

a warning that motor neurone disease

would cut his life short.

0:17:040:17:08

When I was diagnosed at 21,

I was told it would kill me

0:17:080:17:11

in two, three years.

0:17:110:17:12

Somehow he kept going.

0:17:120:17:13

In a high-tech wheelchair

and a synthesised voice.

0:17:130:17:19

Communicating first by touch,

then by twitching a single

0:17:190:17:21

muscle in his cheek,

a daunting burden for anyone.

0:17:210:17:25

His children saw him as an example.

0:17:260:17:30

People who live in extreme

circumstances seem to find something

0:17:300:17:33

inspirational in his example

of perseverance and his ability

0:17:330:17:35

to rise above the suffering

and still want to communicate

0:17:350:17:38

at a higher level.

0:17:380:17:43

Life was not straightforward,

his first marriage ending

0:17:430:17:45

in divorce, as did a second to one

of his nurses.

0:17:450:17:55

Claims emerged that he had been

physically abused, the case dropped

0:17:550:17:58

because of lack of evidence.

0:17:580:17:59

His book sold at least 10 million

copies and everyone wanted

0:17:590:18:02

to meet him from the Pope

in the Vatican, to the Queen.

0:18:020:18:07

To President Obama,

who awarded him a medal of honour.

0:18:070:18:11

His fame reached beyond

the world of science.

0:18:110:18:14

Your theory of a doughnut shaped

universe is intriguing.

0:18:140:18:22

Even appearing in The Simpsons.

0:18:220:18:23

I did not say that.

0:18:230:18:29

In an episode of Star Trek he had

the chance to tease Isaac Newton.

0:18:290:18:32

Not the apple story again!

0:18:320:18:33

Astounding to think the Lord

created this in seven days.

0:18:330:18:37

Incorrect.

0:18:370:18:39

It took 13.8 million years.

0:18:390:18:45

More recently he was happy to play

along for Comic Relief.

0:18:450:18:50

He saw himself as an ambassador

for science and in this interview

0:18:500:18:54

told me of his hopes

for the Large Hadron Collider.

0:18:540:18:58

He had a sense of adventure.

0:18:580:19:01

I am very excited.

0:19:010:19:05

I have been wheelchair-bound almost

four decades and the chance to float

0:19:050:19:08

free in zero G will be wonderful.

0:19:080:19:12

Even braving a zero gravity flight.

0:19:120:19:15

No surprise his death

prompted tributes.

0:19:150:19:25

Founder of the world wide web

Tim Berners-Lee tweeted...

0:19:260:19:30

And Nasa said...

0:19:300:19:38

If you reverse time and the universe

is getting smaller.

0:19:380:19:41

Eddie Redmayne played him

in the film The Theory

0:19:410:19:44

of Everything and today said,

we have lost a truly beautiful mind.

0:19:440:19:49

A scientist who delved

into the realm of black holes

0:19:490:19:54

offered an incredibly engaging story

that achieved something remarkable,

0:19:540:19:56

it touched a global audience.

0:19:560:20:03

And joining me now is

theoretical physicist -

0:20:030:20:05

Dr James Gates, Jr.

0:20:050:20:10

You met Stephen Hawking is several

times.

On many occasions. I would

0:20:100:20:14

have loved to be there for these

conversations. Talking about things

0:20:140:20:19

I would not understand? Or just two

men who shared a passion.

It was

0:20:190:20:27

more a conversation of people

sharing the same passion for

0:20:270:20:29

science. Stephen was an amazing

person with a I referred to him once

0:20:290:20:34

is the bravest physicist of all. I

first met him in 1980 and there was

0:20:340:20:38

a conference and I was attending and

we interacted with Stephen and he

0:20:380:20:45

gave a speech and I was amazed that

he rose to the challenge and just

0:20:450:20:50

perform relenting.

What about is

what was that the fact, if Stephen

0:20:500:20:55

Hawking had not been banned to a

wheelchair he would still have been

0:20:550:20:59

one of the greatest physicists ever?

Absolutely. He said the foundations.

0:20:590:21:09

The disease did not stop his mind

from working at the highest levels

0:21:090:21:15

that human minds can work and that

was something to be admired.

His

0:21:150:21:19

body to one extent limited what he

could do. He could not set out like

0:21:190:21:25

other scientists mathematical

derivations and equations and long

0:21:250:21:31

form explanations so we had to be

more concise and abstract in the way

0:21:310:21:35

he explain things. Is that what

ought to the masses, you think?

I

0:21:350:21:40

think it is a story for the ages. It

is the prototypical story of a hero,

0:21:400:21:48

enormous odds against success,

succeeding and then retaining his

0:21:480:21:53

humanity and reaching out to people.

Something I think is a universal

0:21:530:21:58

story.

Lots of people have got in

touch saying could you explain what

0:21:580:22:03

he actually did for the common man,

what he did that was so good for

0:22:030:22:08

mankind. I know you are made of the

same matter Stephen Hawking so I

0:22:080:22:13

brought along my son and I will set

you a little challenge. Can you as

0:22:130:22:18

concisely as he did in say 45

seconds explain the 1971 black hole

0:22:180:22:24

mechanics.

Can you do that? I will

make the attempt. So in the 1971

0:22:240:22:34

paper Stephen pointed out something

no one thought about before, there

0:22:340:22:37

are these things, black holes, come

the Einstein theory of general with

0:22:370:22:44

Nativity and Stephen looked at those

and other physicists did as well. -

0:22:440:22:54

dashed general relativity. And they

figured out that these things are

0:22:540:22:57

not exactly black. Stephen figured

out if you believe in a quantum

0:22:570:23:02

mechanical universe that it has got

to spit something out a bit like the

0:23:020:23:09

sizzle of bacon or the sizzle of

space time if you like.

I was

0:23:090:23:13

getting stressed with the clock

ticking, you handled it brilliantly.

0:23:130:23:19

Doctor Gates is a great mind but I'm

not. But it sounded really good to

0:23:190:23:26

me. We did not even managed to get

the clock ticking, that is how

0:23:260:23:35

limited we are! If you were to say

there was one thing that the world

0:23:350:23:42

understands now that it did not

understand because of Stephen

0:23:420:23:45

Hawking, if he had not lived amongst

us, what would it be.

I like to call

0:23:450:23:51

them the black hole whisperer. He

brought this piece of madness into

0:23:510:23:56

the realm of reality and when it is

finds it means that perhaps someday

0:23:560:24:03

humanity will use these strange

objects perhaps to our benefit.

0:24:030:24:09

Thank you very much. He gave a

something that we might be able to

0:24:090:24:14

use in the future, not necessarily

today because we do not yet have the

0:24:140:24:18

technology but if we can develop

that one day we may be able to use

0:24:180:24:22

these things for the benefit of

mankind.

Extraordinary how many

0:24:220:24:27

tributes have come forward today

especially in a society that does

0:24:270:24:31

not easily celebrate its finders. It

is not something you talk about

0:24:310:24:33

often. But he certainly crossed the

divide. A man with such unbounded

0:24:330:24:39

imagination.

0:24:390:24:41

This is Beyond 100

Days from the BBC.

0:24:410:24:49

My timing is all over the place

today! We still have one minute

0:24:490:24:55

until the break so let's just keep

talking about Stephen Hawking!

It is

0:24:550:25:00

rare that I get extra time from you

so I will use it all up. What is

0:25:000:25:09

remarkable about him coming here

this interesting persona, clearly he

0:25:090:25:13

was very humble about the work he

did and everyone described in in

0:25:130:25:16

terms of that humility. But also he

was someone had clearly liked

0:25:160:25:21

celebrity readings and none that

respect he became an ambassador for

0:25:210:25:24

science. We have a different view of

physics, even if we do not

0:25:240:25:29

understand it, he gave us something

by popularising complicated notions

0:25:290:25:33

of physics. 45 seconds!

A pretty

good explanation, well done.

0:25:330:25:41

Coming up for viewers

on the BBC News Channel

0:25:410:25:44

and BBC World News -

the Democrats are claiming victory

0:25:440:25:46

in a special congressional election

seen as a referendum

0:25:460:25:48

on President Trump's performance -

should he be worried?

0:25:480:25:52

And one of the founders of Facebook

thinks super-rich people

0:25:520:25:55

like him should pay working people

a guaranteed income.

0:25:550:25:57

We'll be asking him why he wants

to give his money away.

0:25:570:26:04

Once again it has been a day of

mixed weather fortunes across the

0:26:080:26:15

UK. Across the western side you have

had some pretty wet and that times

0:26:150:26:20

windy weather as well. Thanks to the

area of low pressure the rain has

0:26:200:26:26

come as this weather front has

gradually come to dominate many of

0:26:260:26:29

those western areas. But eased it

has been a much more acceptable sort

0:26:290:26:33

of day, quite breezy but at the same

time some sunshine and some spring

0:26:330:26:39

one. Through the evening the weather

front still all over the South West,

0:26:390:26:43

accompanied by gale force wind. The

rain just keeps on coming into

0:26:430:26:49

Northern Ireland and becomes a

little bit more of a feature perhaps

0:26:490:26:53

across the western side of Scotland.

Further east underneath those clear

0:26:530:26:58

skies and for some in the Far East,

the greater part of the night

0:26:580:27:02

temperatures will fall away. Down to

three or 4 degrees or so. Up towards

0:27:020:27:08

the West rain just keeps on coming

in Northern Ireland, becoming ever

0:27:080:27:10

more present through Wales and into

the Midlands and South East. Making

0:27:100:27:15

for a pretty miserable start to the

day. The weather front makes

0:27:150:27:20

progress further north, and

following on behind we have brighter

0:27:200:27:25

skies but there will be occasionally

some sharp showers. Underneath that

0:27:250:27:33

front temperatures struggling.

Around six, 7 degrees or so. Through

0:27:330:27:41

into Friday the onshore flow keeping

things cool and we could see some

0:27:410:27:47

wintry showers overnight on the

hills of northern Britain. And

0:27:470:27:54

following on behind still relatively

mild at this stage but still the

0:27:540:27:56

prospect of some sharp showers and

even a rumble of thunder. If you're

0:27:560:28:02

getting used to this relatively mild

spell of weather I urge you to

0:28:020:28:05

cherish it because as we get towards

the weekend as the passion starts to

0:28:050:28:11

look familiar, feeding in much

colder weather across all parts of

0:28:110:28:17

the British Isles eventually. You

can imagine if you fully exposed to

0:28:170:28:21

that easterly wind it is going to be

one of those and there will be more

0:28:210:28:29

snow.

0:28:290:28:30

Archive stores. The British premise

or expels 23 Russian diplomats after

0:30:140:30:19

blaming them for the poisoning of a

former agent and his daughter.

0:30:190:30:23

Russia denounced pushed denounces

the expulsions, calling the move

0:30:230:30:27

hostile and short-sighted.

Coming

up, an emergency meeting of the UN

0:30:270:30:34

Security Council is being called,

will be live there in just a moment.

0:30:340:30:38

And what President Trump's choice of

the next Secretary of State tells us

0:30:380:30:42

about American foreign policy going

forward. Democrats declare victory

0:30:420:30:46

in Pennsylvania, and should

Republicans be nervous?

0:30:460:30:53

Let us know your thoughts

by using the hashtag #Beyond100Days.

0:30:530:31:00

More on our top story now,

the state of relations

0:31:000:31:03

between London on Moscow.

0:31:030:31:04

Arguably Theresa May's best hope

for hitting Russia in a way that

0:31:040:31:07

actually hurts is to make this

an international issue.

0:31:070:31:09

IF she can get the US,

the EU, even NATO on board

0:31:090:31:12

the power of the response

will be much stronger.

0:31:120:31:16

One forum for making this global

is of course the United Nations,

0:31:160:31:19

which upholds that the use of nerve

agents is unlawful.

0:31:190:31:21

Today the UN Secretary General

called the attack on Sergei Skripal

0:31:210:31:24

an unacceptable violation

of international law.

0:31:240:31:28

So, what's the UN actually

going to do about it given that

0:31:280:31:31

Russia sits on the security council?

0:31:310:31:35

Nick Bryant is at the UN for us.

0:31:350:31:42

What kind of discussions of the

having there, and what action will

0:31:420:31:45

that lead to?

The discussions had

just gotten under way, they were

0:31:450:31:49

delayed for an -- 30 minutes, the

Russians were involved in some

0:31:490:31:56

wrangling time wasting, and the

ambassador here has just started his

0:31:560:31:59

speech in front of this global

forum. The British are trying to

0:31:590:32:04

internationalize this, looking for

solidarity from other members of the

0:32:040:32:10

Security Council, not least are the

European here -- European Union

0:32:100:32:13

members and the United States. We

understand the key Haley will be

0:32:130:32:17

delivering a very hard-hitting

speech. -- Nikki Haley. I'm just

0:32:170:32:21

struck by how extraordinary this is.

Here the United Nations, what I

0:32:210:32:26

normally talk to you both, we are

talking about Syria and places like

0:32:260:32:31

North Korea. But today we are

talking about Salisbury, an English

0:32:310:32:37

cathedral town, and Salisbury being

linked with a chemical weapons

0:32:370:32:40

attack. Again, something we normally

talk about only in connection with

0:32:400:32:44

places like Syria. This is an

extraordinary event at the United

0:32:440:32:47

Nations.

We will talk to Jonathan

Allen, the UK Deputy permanent

0:32:470:32:52

Representative to the security

council, and he is talking, as you

0:32:520:32:57

can see.

We can conclude that Russia

is in serious breach of the Amoco

0:32:570:32:59

weapons convention. This fact alone

means you should discount any

0:32:590:33:06

arguments you hear about the

possibility of other companies --

0:33:060:33:08

countries having access to this

technology. At Russia at -- declared

0:33:080:33:14

and destroyed their own programme,

there may have been some truth to

0:33:140:33:17

this. Mr President, on the 4th of

March, a weapon so horrific that it

0:33:170:33:23

is banned from use in war, was used

in a peaceful city and my country.

0:33:230:33:29

This was a reckless act, carried out

by people who disregard the sanctity

0:33:290:33:34

of human life, who are indifferent

to where this whether innocents are

0:33:340:33:39

caught up in their attacks. They

either did not care that the weapon

0:33:390:33:42

used would be tracked back to them,

or mistakenly believed that they

0:33:420:33:45

could cover their traces. Russian

officials and media channels have

0:33:450:33:50

repeatedly threatened those they

consider traitors, even after the

0:33:500:33:56

fall -- March four attack. Russia

has a history of state-sponsored

0:33:560:33:59

attack -- assassinations, including

that of Alexander lived up...

0:33:590:34:06

Poisoned by radioactive materials in

my country a decade ago. Russia has

0:34:060:34:09

a history of interfering in other

countries, whether the botched coup

0:34:090:34:14

in Montenegro, repeated cyber

attacks on other states, or seeking

0:34:140:34:17

to influence others's Democratic

processes. Russia has a history of

0:34:170:34:24

flouting international law, most

egregiously in Crimea, eastern UK,

0:34:240:34:27

and Georgia. Russia shows disregard

for civilian life, we all remember

0:34:270:34:36

flight MH 17, shutdown but the shot

down by Russian proxies supplied

0:34:360:34:39

with weapons. Russia has shown in

its repeated protection of Asad's

0:34:390:34:43

chemical weapons use that it has

different standards when it comes to

0:34:430:34:48

the use of these terrible

substances. We have not jumped to

0:34:480:34:54

conclusions, we have carried out a

thorough, careful investigation

0:34:540:34:59

which continues. We are asking the

OPC W to independently verify the

0:34:590:35:03

nerve agent used. We have offered

Russia the chance to explain, but

0:35:030:35:10

Russia has refused. We have

therefore concluded that the Russian

0:35:100:35:13

state was involved, and we have

taken certain measures in response.

0:35:130:35:17

In taking these measures, we have

been clear that we have no

0:35:170:35:21

disagreement with the people of

Russia, who have been responsible

0:35:210:35:25

for so many great achievements

throughout history. It is the

0:35:250:35:29

reckless acts of their government

that we oppose.

Jonathan Allen

0:35:290:35:36

making his opening remarks at the UN

Security Council. Let's bring in

0:35:360:35:38

that pride again. There is the

chemical weapons convention, I

0:35:380:35:44

suppose with the Security Council

would like is for the organisation

0:35:440:35:47

to go into Russia, so the load test

laboratory, which we are told is in

0:35:470:35:53

central Russia, and see what

happened?

The British were talking

0:35:530:35:56

about giving the OPC W some of the

substance use, so they can

0:35:560:36:04

independently verify what the

British have found. Of course the

0:36:040:36:07

UN's hands are tied on this, because

to take action would require a vote,

0:36:070:36:13

and the British will not vote

through the Security Council while

0:36:130:36:17

the Russians have their veto. So

with the British are looking for,

0:36:170:36:22

not sanctions today, they're not

necessarily looking for action. What

0:36:220:36:25

they're looking for is a show of

solidarity, and international

0:36:250:36:29

shaming of the Russian Federation on

the world's biggest diplomatic

0:36:290:36:31

stage.

Thank you. That is one issue

that will land on the desk of the

0:36:310:36:41

new Secretary of State.

0:36:410:36:45

What will the appointment

of Mike Pompeo as secretary of state

0:36:450:36:48

mean for US Foreign Policy

in the Trump administration?

0:36:480:36:50

As CIA Director he aligned

himself with the President

0:36:500:36:52

and earned his trust.

0:36:520:36:53

He is tougher on Moscow

than Mr Trump but on other issues

0:36:530:36:56

has shown he is in lockstep

with the President and,

0:36:560:36:58

critically, he has his ear.

0:36:580:37:00

He's confrontational on Iran,

unlike Tillerson, and on North Korea

0:37:000:37:02

he is also more hawkish

than his predecessor.

0:37:020:37:06

It's a topic that Robin Wright has

written about in the New Yorker

0:37:060:37:09

and she joins us now.

0:37:090:37:15

I want to get your reactions to what

we just heard in the United Nations

0:37:150:37:18

from the deputy Burnet

representative of the United Kingdom

0:37:180:37:23

there. Very tough language coming

out of the United Kingdom, will they

0:37:230:37:27

get back up from a Pompeo and the

new Secretary of State?

Will be very

0:37:270:37:33

hard for the trumpet administration

not to go along with its British

0:37:330:37:37

ally. The question is, what will the

United States do in the product --

0:37:370:37:41

broader issue of its own problems

with Russia? Neither the president

0:37:410:37:45

nor his new Secretary of State had

indicated they will take a tougher

0:37:450:37:48

line or follow on sanctions voted on

by our own Congress. So this is an

0:37:480:37:55

extraordinary development, to have

this play out in the West, the use

0:37:550:38:00

of chemical weapons. It will put

extra nerve pressure on the

0:38:000:38:03

administration to at least be seen

to say something, if not do

0:38:030:38:06

something.

Say something, not do

something, that maybe you where the

0:38:060:38:11

appear on the issue of Mike Pompeo,

at various points, Rex Tillerson has

0:38:110:38:17

acted as a buffer for some of the

President's more radical

0:38:170:38:20

foreign-policy on the states. But

Mike Bob -- Mike Pompeo Lisicki will

0:38:200:38:24

not play the same role?

No, these

are two men and a policy pot. They

0:38:240:38:32

think a lot alike on similar issues.

When he was in Congress, he called

0:38:320:38:39

for a regime change in Iran, not

just the scrapping of the nuclear

0:38:390:38:42

deal. Last summer at the security

forum, he talked quite openly in

0:38:420:38:47

front of a group, and I was there,

about the need for a regime change

0:38:470:38:52

in North Korea. So it will be very

interesting to see not only him

0:38:520:38:58

backing of the president, but what

he suggests after the Iran nuclear

0:38:580:39:03

dear -- nuclear deal is scrapped and

made.

You have to look at the whole

0:39:030:39:09

national security team, and the

president is deftly shaking it up.

0:39:090:39:12

The word on the Hill is that HR

McMaster might not be long for that

0:39:120:39:18

job, and we don't know yet who will

replace them. But it is obviously

0:39:180:39:22

someone who will be in lockstep with

the president. So what do you think

0:39:220:39:25

that means? Is it going to isolate

Secretary Matus, the defence

0:39:250:39:32

secretary, who has at times been a

break on some of the more hardline

0:39:320:39:36

approaches by the president?

He was

one of the adults in the room, the

0:39:360:39:43

rumours that John Bolton, the former

hardline UN ambassador, is likely to

0:39:430:39:49

replace HR McMaster. The striking

thing about this shake-up is that

0:39:490:39:51

the president now seems very self

confident about making those

0:39:510:39:55

decisions himself. He brought in a

lot of establishment figures to give

0:39:550:39:59

him advice, and they warned him

against things like declaring julep

0:39:590:40:04

-- Jerusalem the capital of the

Israeli state and moving the US

0:40:040:40:10

Embassy there, and when there was

not a reaction in the Arab world, he

0:40:100:40:13

felt he was right. So he is feeling

very much that he wants people who

0:40:130:40:17

think like him, not wanting to

challenge him or offer alternative

0:40:170:40:21

ideas.

Thank you very much for

joining us. A lot going on in

0:40:210:40:27

Washington and in the White House,

as well as the country.

Special

0:40:270:40:32

election on Tuesday.

0:40:320:40:35

Pennsylvania's 18th Congressional

District was the bellweather

0:40:350:40:37

in a bellweather state.

0:40:370:40:38

And Democrats are giddy

with excitement today

0:40:380:40:39

because they say they have

just taken it.

0:40:390:40:41

The special election

on Tuesday became a symbol

0:40:410:40:43

of opposition to Donald Trump.

0:40:430:40:44

And the reason they are so happy,

is because this district was one

0:40:440:40:47

of the most conservative

in the country.

0:40:470:40:49

The Democrat Conor Lamb looks

like he has snatched an area

0:40:490:40:52

of the country which Trump won

in 2016 by a whopping 20 points.

0:40:520:40:58

Mr Lamb's opponent has yet

to concede but Republicans

0:40:580:41:01

are calling this a wake up call

for their party as they head

0:41:010:41:06

into mid term elections in November.

0:41:060:41:08

Here to help us break it

down is Ron Christie,

0:41:080:41:10

former advisor to George W Bush.

0:41:110:41:15

How do Republicans go in the space

of a year and a bit, from winning a

0:41:150:41:21

district in the country by 20 points

to losing it?

I will break from

0:41:210:41:30

conventional wisdom here and say

this is not that big of a deal.

0:41:300:41:33

Connor Lamb ran as trouble light, as

a Democrat. He is pro-life, which

0:41:330:41:38

many Democrats are, he said he

opposed Nato policy being the

0:41:380:41:42

leader, he came out and supported

President Trump on tariffs. In a

0:41:420:41:47

race that many Republicans thought

they might actually lose by five

0:41:470:41:49

points, if we lose it by one point,

that is not such a bad deal, but it

0:41:490:41:54

is a wake-up call and indicates that

many people are looking at this as

0:41:540:41:59

the first referendum on President

Trump.

It also suggests that if

0:41:590:42:03

Democrats can find candidates who

are matched to the districts, and in

0:42:030:42:07

this case, they needed someone who

was conservative, although he is

0:42:070:42:11

prounion, prolabor, he has some very

early classic Democratic positions

0:42:110:42:15

as well, but if they can find the

right candidates for the district,

0:42:150:42:19

they can overturn a 20 point

majority, that is still a pretty

0:42:190:42:23

important indication for what

Democrats can do around the country?

0:42:230:42:26

No question about that. People I

spoke to earlier this morning, they

0:42:260:42:32

are worried, the Democrats only need

23 or 24 seats to flip the House of

0:42:320:42:37

Representatives, and we already have

40 -- 30 members who have indicated

0:42:370:42:43

they will not run for reelection,

Republicans. Don't let any

0:42:430:42:47

Republicans flew by saying this will

be locked up and in the majority

0:42:470:42:50

after the November election, there

is lots for them to worry about and

0:42:500:42:53

lots of time for the Democrats to

raise the money to be competitive.

I

0:42:530:42:59

will put my pen down and challenge

Ron Christie's unorthodoxy on the

0:42:590:43:05

selection. I get that we lost to by

one point, but they spent $10

0:43:050:43:09

million in this district to a seat

which he will not do it -- be there,

0:43:090:43:14

because they will redraw the

electoral map and Pennsylvania. And

0:43:140:43:17

now surely, when you are circulating

among friends on the Hill saying

0:43:170:43:20

that they will have to spend a lot

of that war chest defending suburban

0:43:200:43:24

districts, we would have to defend?

Several astute observations, let me

0:43:240:43:30

unpack them for viewers and

listeners. One thing as absolute

0:43:300:43:36

certain, to spend $10 million on a

seat at the Pennsylvania legislator

0:43:360:43:41

is going to drop out again is a body

blow to Republicans. Now you have

0:43:410:43:45

the prospect of not only having to

find another candidate to run in

0:43:450:43:49

several months, but that is millions

of dollars that Murphy, the

0:43:490:43:53

candidate who was the representative

that left in scandal, he won the

0:43:530:43:55

district by 20 plus points. Now we

need to spend more money, get more

0:43:550:44:00

candidates, and we should be on the

offence and not defence. And this

0:44:000:44:03

will be seen across United States

instantly districts, Republicans

0:44:030:44:08

were feeling confident that now

they're looking over their shoulder,

0:44:080:44:10

the object in the rear-view mirror

seems a bit closer, and that is a

0:44:100:44:15

Democrat winning that seat.

Not to

get to technological about this, but

0:44:150:44:19

if Connor Lamb scares the goodness

out of the party because he is

0:44:190:44:27

conservative, they can also breathe

a sigh of relief to some extent

0:44:270:44:29

because he did not have to go

through a Democratic primary

0:44:290:44:32

process. So he was not pulled to the

left by ten other Democrats wanting

0:44:320:44:34

to win and prove their left wing

liberal bona fides, he could just be

0:44:340:44:41

appointed. So they could tailor make

the candidate for the district, they

0:44:410:44:44

will not have a Democrat with a

luxury -- luxury with the Democrats

0:44:440:44:47

and other races?

They will not, and

that is something that gives

0:44:470:44:53

Republicans confident that this was

a blip, and aberration. We see the

0:44:530:44:59

press trying to receive an pub --

Republicans, but they will have to

0:44:590:45:01

run in a very crowded primary,

spending lots of resources. And one

0:45:010:45:06

thing important to realise is

incumbent members of Congress do not

0:45:060:45:10

like supporting candidates in a

jumbled primary, so these folks will

0:45:100:45:13

have to battle it out on the own and

raise money on their own until they

0:45:130:45:16

become the eventual Democratic

nominee. To a Republican in many

0:45:160:45:19

cases that is running unopposed in

the primary.

Thank you. Quickly

0:45:190:45:27

before we get onto the next Tory,

there is press this news coming out

0:45:270:45:32

of the UN, Nicolet -- Nikki Haley

has said that Russia's crime is

0:45:320:45:35

worthy of United Nations Security

Council action, and C but she

0:45:350:45:40

actually means by that action. That

is coming out of the UN.

0:45:400:45:53

One of those people is Chris Hughes.

0:45:570:46:00

What if the solution to income

inequality was very simple,

0:46:000:46:03

give poorer people cash?

0:46:030:46:04

It's an idea that's

gaining traction.

0:46:040:46:05

The gap between rich and poor

is growing throughout the West

0:46:050:46:08

as the wealthy make more and more

money from investments.

0:46:080:46:10

One of those people is Chris Hughes.

0:46:100:46:12

His life was changed when he went

to Harvard and became room mates

0:46:120:46:15

with a young man called Mark

Zuckerberg.

0:46:150:46:17

Together, they founded Facebook

and made their fortunes.

0:46:170:46:19

Now Mr Hughes is working

on a project to redistribute that

0:46:190:46:21

wealth, he writes about it

in his new book Fair Shot,

0:46:210:46:24

and spoke to me a short

time ago from New York.

0:46:240:46:26

I started by asking him how

he made his fortune.

0:46:260:46:29

I was one of the co-founders of

Facebook, alongside Mark Zucker

0:46:290:46:31

Bernard. We started in 2004, and the

company took off, I was the

0:46:310:46:34

nontechnical co-founder responsible

for things like marketing and

0:46:340:46:35

product, communications. For three

years worth of work, I ended not

0:46:350:46:38

making nearly half $1 billion, which

is indicative of a fundamental

0:46:380:46:43

unfairness in the economy, in a

economy that we have created that is

0:46:430:46:47

about winner take all economics,

where a small group of people are

0:46:470:46:50

getting very fortunate, while

everyone else really struggles to

0:46:500:46:55

make ends meet. I think it is

historically without precedent, we

0:46:550:46:59

have a responsibility to fix that.

You have become interested in this

0:46:590:47:03

issue of income inequality, and you

have come up with a plan to give

0:47:030:47:07

people earning under $50,000 a year

$500 a month. Had with the plan

0:47:070:47:14

worked, and is it politically

feasible, given we just had a huge

0:47:140:47:18

tax cut reform in this country,

which has given the wealthiest

0:47:180:47:20

people a tax cut, not an increase,

which is what you are proposing is

0:47:200:47:26

blue I think it is feasible because

of that. But let me step back, here

0:47:260:47:30

is what we know.

The most powerful

way that lift people out of poverty

0:47:300:47:35

and stabilise the lives of the

middle-class is through cash. With

0:47:350:47:39

no strings attached, we have

enormous programmes and our country

0:47:390:47:42

called the earned income tax credit,

which provides tens of billions of

0:47:420:47:46

dollars to tens of millions of

families to use that money smartly,

0:47:460:47:49

to invest in themselves, kids, their

health outcomes, education outcomes

0:47:490:47:55

improve, etc. We know that when you

give people money, they user

0:47:550:48:00

smartly. In my view, it also is a

promise for a much more efficient

0:48:000:48:06

way to provide economic mobility to

people who need it. So I think if

0:48:060:48:10

you are making less than $50,000 in

the United States and you are

0:48:100:48:13

working in some way for your family

or community, then a guaranteed

0:48:130:48:18

income of $500 a month every single

month is one of the most powerful,

0:48:180:48:24

if not the most powerful way to

combat income inequality and

0:48:240:48:27

stabilise...

The counter argument

would be supporters of the welfare

0:48:270:48:33

state saying let's boost the welfare

state. You don't give them access,

0:48:330:48:36

you give them better access to

health care and education, so they

0:48:360:48:39

don't have to spend so much?

That is

the older traditional idea, and the

0:48:390:48:45

research base over the past few

decades has suggested something

0:48:450:48:49

different. People can be trusted

with cash, and once more, if it is

0:48:490:48:54

much more efficient than creating

new government bureaucracy and an

0:48:540:48:58

new administration to adopt a

paternalistic system that forces so

0:48:580:49:01

many people to go here and there to

qualify for a particular government

0:49:010:49:06

-- government benefit. But instead

if we provide people with cash that

0:49:060:49:08

they can choose how to spend, what

we know is that they go out and they

0:49:080:49:13

work just as much as they work

before, and their kids do better.

0:49:130:49:19

Dizzy to the political question, I

think we're in a transitional moment

0:49:190:49:24

when we have the opportunity to make

a very different case than the one

0:49:240:49:27

that was made by Trump and

congressional Republicans to pass

0:49:270:49:30

last year's tax bill. That bill gave

cuts as we know on corporations in

0:49:300:49:35

the 1%, but there is an -- another

way. As the movement grows to repeal

0:49:350:49:40

and replace, I think a modernisation

of the entered the earned income tax

0:49:400:49:44

credit cannot just help the poor,

but also help tens of them -- tens

0:49:440:49:49

of millions of American families. I

don't know if you'll be next year,

0:49:490:49:53

but I think it will come.

You

answered by blood question. Thank

0:49:530:49:55

you very much.

Thank you for having

me.

That is the question, whether

0:49:550:50:02

Republicans would be prepared to see

a hike in taxes on the wealthy in

0:50:020:50:07

order to give hard cash to people

who are poorer, given that there has

0:50:070:50:11

been quite a lot of suspicion among

some Conservatives about what

0:50:110:50:15

happens to money when he just handed

over to him at this idea of trust in

0:50:150:50:19

people to spend their money well

that Chris Hughes talks about so

0:50:190:50:23

clearly, that is something that is

missing from people who are in

0:50:230:50:27

control that might have to give

their money away.

The problem is

0:50:270:50:30

when it goes against the orthodoxy

of any financial ministries, but

0:50:300:50:35

when you tax the Ritz -- Rich, when

in France they put a higher tax on

0:50:350:50:42

rich people, the wealth left the

country. That is the fear, if you

0:50:420:50:45

tax the whip -- Rich people, they

simply disappear, not everyone wants

0:50:450:50:48

to be a benefactor, and that is the

problem.

Half $1 billion in three

0:50:480:50:53

years, we should have done that.

We

are in the wrong job, aren't we?

0:50:530:50:59

Talking adopt that would be suited

to us, Stephen Hawking had a

0:50:590:51:04

singular galaxy sized intellect.

0:51:040:51:12

They prove that all matter within a

black hole collapses to a gendered

0:51:120:51:17

-- geometric point in space and zero

volume.

Nine easy concept airhead

0:51:170:51:24

around, but Sir Roger Penrose is

here to suggest -- explain what

0:51:240:51:29

happens. In 1965 he came up with

this mathematical theorem on black

0:51:290:51:34

holes, and you collaborated with

Stephen Hawking at a time when his

0:51:340:51:40

disability was starting to take

over?

It was not taking over that

0:51:400:51:44

time, it was known that he had it,

but we can still communicate. He was

0:51:440:51:48

like a normal person at that time...

Well, normal in that respect.

Why

0:51:480:51:57

would you collaborate? You obviously

make giant strides on this theory

0:51:570:52:01

about black holes, what was it about

Stephen Hawking that made you want

0:52:010:52:04

to share?

The thing was that the

idea of black holes came about from

0:52:040:52:13

spherically symmetrical model

studied in the area, and you know

0:52:130:52:16

they have a single point where

densities and everything are

0:52:160:52:19

infinite right at the centre. But

everything focuses to that point, is

0:52:190:52:23

also surprising. People argue that

-- my theory showed that even if it

0:52:230:52:29

was irregular, it would still become

singular, so that was the result. I

0:52:290:52:34

did a talk on this, it was in

London, and according to the film,

0:52:340:52:42

Stephen got Sparks coming out of his

head, but he was not actually there.

0:52:420:52:46

But it's not so far off because I

gave a repeat in Cambridge where he

0:52:460:52:52

was. I talked privately with George

Ellis about the techniques that I

0:52:520:52:59

was using, and he did something

similar but more general than George

0:52:590:53:06

Ellis. Very quickly, he even showed

how you could apply the result that

0:53:060:53:12

I have the cosmological situations.

He adopted it very quickly, and we

0:53:120:53:18

collaborated on a much more complete

result.

I have a question for you,

0:53:180:53:24

it is obviously not easy for two

geniuses to work together, but is

0:53:240:53:30

not a problem that Christian and I

have. But I can imagine you have two

0:53:300:53:34

people of the calibre of you and

Stephen Hawking can have a

0:53:340:53:37

competitive relationship. As a

person, what was he like to work

0:53:370:53:39

with?

You won't believe this, but

the collaboration in detail was done

0:53:390:53:45

almost entirely over the telephone.

We got along very well, I don't

0:53:450:53:51

think it was competitive in that

respect at all. The thing we did

0:53:510:53:55

later was mainly independent. We

proved an extension of what was

0:53:550:54:00

known before, and in week

communicated and found we did the

0:54:000:54:05

same thing. We wrote a paper

together which we got published in

0:54:050:54:09

the Royal Society.

Do you miss him?

That was a long time ago, and we

0:54:090:54:17

were friends for a long time. And we

parted our ways, we that we

0:54:170:54:23

separated, we just got different

views about things.

I wish we could

0:54:230:54:29

talk longer, but we are always out

of time. We will leave you with some

0:54:290:54:33

of Stephen Hawking's more memorable

moments. Goodbye.

Theoretical

0:54:330:54:44

physics is one of the few fields in

which being disabled is no handicap.

0:54:440:54:51

It is all in the mind.

0:54:510:54:56

I hope my example will give

encouragement and hope to others in

0:55:070:55:10

similar situations.

0:55:100:55:20

I hope my example will show

disability can be no barrier. One

0:55:250:55:32

can achieve anything if one is

determined enough.

0:55:320:55:43

Never give up.

0:55:460:55:55