06/08/2011 Click


06/08/2011

Technology magazine. Click marks the 20th anniversary of the web, asks if mobile phones are safe to use, and offers tips for making a podcast. Includes tech news and Webscape.


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Transcript


LineFromTo

is time for Click. It's your birthday, it's your birthday, it's

:00:01.:00:11.
:00:11.:00:26.

your birthday. That's all the BBC budget could stretch to. This week,

:00:27.:00:29.

as the World Wide Web reaches a special milestone, Click looks at

:00:30.:00:37.

its future and asks whether it is finally reaching maturity. Mobile

:00:37.:00:42.

phones and cancer. We look at the latest research to find out if

:00:42.:00:45.

children in particular are at risk. And the latest Tech News from

:00:45.:00:48.

around the globe. And if you find this annoying, we have a handy way

:00:48.:00:57.

to connect this to this. Welcome to n

:00:57.:01:03.

important anniversary in the history of the World Wide Web. It

:01:03.:01:06.

was originally conceived in 1989 but it was not until two years

:01:06.:01:16.
:01:16.:01:17.

later that it was launched to the rest of the world. In August of

:01:17.:01:20.

1991, 20 years ago, British scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee

:01:20.:01:23.

sealed his place in history when he posted a summary of his big idea on

:01:23.:01:30.

the internet. It didn't look like much but this summary was about to

:01:30.:01:34.

make the internet a whole lot easier to get around. In the 1960s,

:01:34.:01:40.

the internet was reserved for military and academia. It was

:01:40.:01:50.
:01:50.:01:51.

thought it was difficult to use and not much fun. Tim Berners-Lee

:01:51.:01:55.

decided what the world needed was an easier way to navigate all the

:01:55.:02:01.

data that were stored online. And a quick way to jump from one document

:02:01.:02:11.
:02:11.:02:12.

to another. The World Wide Web was born to a very modest start.

:02:12.:02:16.

fact that a hotchpotch of people came up with this is one of the

:02:16.:02:26.
:02:26.:02:28.

main amazing things. A number of people played different parts.

:02:28.:02:31.

Web has grown since then to billions and now hundreds of

:02:31.:02:33.

billions of pages, where people meet, businesses trade, revolutions

:02:33.:02:43.
:02:43.:02:46.

rise, knowledge grows and animals do the funniest things. But over

:02:46.:02:50.

the years, Tim, now Sir Tim, has high hopes that as the information

:02:50.:02:52.

continues to grow, the scale of solutions will occasionally help us

:02:52.:03:02.
:03:02.:03:04.

make giant leaps forward. The thing explodes when somebody looks at a

:03:04.:03:11.

piece of data and realises it connects with something else. It

:03:11.:03:15.

could lead to the curing of disease or figuring out why this has

:03:15.:03:20.

something to do with Alzheimer's or cancer. Or realise something about

:03:20.:03:23.

global warming because we managed to get all the data about the state

:03:23.:03:30.

of the world out there. continues to nurture his baby which

:03:30.:03:33.

is no longer an infant and has arguably now come through its

:03:33.:03:36.

adolescent years too. He is as excited as anyone about where it

:03:36.:03:42.

goes from here. I have learnt the most exciting thing about this

:03:42.:03:45.

technology is that people do with it things you could never imagine.

:03:45.:03:49.

This week we will look at the next 20 years of the Web. Thinking about

:03:49.:03:52.

what it might look like. With me is the Deputy Editor of Computer

:03:52.:03:59.

Active. Welcome. And a professor who has a CV so long we do not have

:03:59.:04:05.

time for it. He advises the government on all things web. In

:04:05.:04:12.

fact, you are doing that today. Welcome. Starting with the big

:04:12.:04:15.

question, what do you think the biggest change to the Web will be

:04:15.:04:21.

in 20 years? It has got to be languages. The first ten years of

:04:21.:04:24.

the Web, it was a medium mainly involving English and using the

:04:24.:04:32.

Roman alphabet. Over the last few years we have seen a huge growth of

:04:32.:04:35.

users from people who don't speak English. A move to allow Web

:04:35.:04:45.
:04:45.:04:52.

addresses to be written in other alphabets. Billions can get on the

:04:52.:04:55.

internet through general support for their language. The other thing

:04:55.:04:58.

is mobility. So they will get internet on smartphones or through

:04:58.:05:01.

all sorts of services delivered on a range of devices, not necessarily

:05:01.:05:07.

your standard laptop or desktop. are hearing now of the rise of the

:05:07.:05:11.

app, on smartphones and personal computers. They do not technically

:05:11.:05:14.

use the internet, they access the information on the internet in a

:05:14.:05:18.

different way. Will that be the future? Do you think the Web has

:05:18.:05:24.

had its day? I do not think the two are separate. Some apps, on their

:05:25.:05:28.

own, have no connection to the internet. Most of the really

:05:28.:05:30.

important apps are incredibly reliant on the internet for their

:05:30.:05:37.

data. But they have only come along in the last two years and there is

:05:37.:05:47.

a lot of evolution to go on in the next ten years. Back in 2003,

:05:47.:05:50.

scientists said we have to keep open to the Web so anybody can

:05:50.:05:55.

innovate. Is there a danger big companies are trying to lock down

:05:55.:05:58.

parts of the internet for their own services in order to make money and

:05:58.:06:08.
:06:08.:06:08.

shut their competitors out? There are issues with monopolies but the

:06:08.:06:12.

fact that in order to start up most companies or businesses, you might

:06:12.:06:15.

take a couple of weeks or months of preparation to build machinery and

:06:15.:06:18.

hire people. To start on the Web, you can start immediately and make

:06:18.:06:22.

a product in an hour. That kind of innovation is always a threat to

:06:22.:06:32.
:06:32.:06:34.

the big companies. It may feel like Google is the only game in town

:06:34.:06:38.

here but there are 6 billion pages of Mandarin they have not indexed.

:06:38.:06:42.

Google is not the search engine of choice in China. And the Twitter

:06:42.:06:45.

equivalent in China that put on 14 million users in two months. There

:06:45.:06:49.

is a lot of space for people to enter the market. What we have with

:06:49.:06:52.

the Web is the potential to get anywhere at any time at a price

:06:52.:06:56.

that is marginal. There are the occasional reports you see that

:06:56.:06:59.

suggests the Web is changing the way we think. It is affecting how

:06:59.:07:02.

bothered we are to remember things because you can just go online to

:07:02.:07:06.

check the facts. Is the Web changing the way our brains work or

:07:06.:07:11.

the way we go about our thinking? Technology has always changed us,

:07:11.:07:19.

ever since we developed the first tools. So you can argue the brain

:07:19.:07:23.

has been changed and shaped by the tools available to us. This is not

:07:23.:07:30.

new. Literacy did the same thing. Offloading certain search tasks is

:07:30.:07:38.

exactly what we will do. But do we have the skills and ability to

:07:38.:07:40.

review, create and generate stuff, that is the measure of human

:07:40.:07:50.
:07:50.:07:53.

intelligence. Thank you for your time. Next, this week's Tech News.

:07:53.:07:56.

One security firm says it has uncovered the most sustained and

:07:56.:08:01.

widespread series of hacking attacks on a single source ever. In

:08:01.:08:04.

the report, it says more than 72 institutions, including the UN,

:08:04.:08:06.

defence firms and the International Olympic Committee, were

:08:06.:08:08.

systematically attacked over five years. There is speculation the

:08:08.:08:14.

Chinese government is behind the attacks. But it isn't known who's

:08:14.:08:17.

responsible and the Chinese government refuses to accept any

:08:17.:08:25.

responsibility. It is now OK to mash-up music and videos without

:08:25.:08:29.

asking for permission. If you are in the UK, that is. It is part of

:08:29.:08:34.

the British government's relaxation of copyright laws. Copywriting

:08:34.:08:37.

media for personal use or 'format shifting' is no longer against the

:08:37.:08:44.

law. Even though most of us have been doing it for ages. And the

:08:44.:08:48.

makers of the BlackBerry have launched a new line of smartphones.

:08:49.:08:54.

The first is the updated operating system, BlackBerry 7. It includes

:08:54.:09:04.
:09:04.:09:05.

the all touch-screen Torch. The company's first touch screen phone.

:09:05.:09:13.

It's been updated with mobile payments and a digital compass. The

:09:13.:09:15.

popular BlackBerry Messenger is being integrated into some apps,

:09:15.:09:23.

meaning people will not have to leave the application to chat. A

:09:23.:09:26.

couple of weeks ago we talked about podcasting and we asked you what

:09:26.:09:30.

you thought made a good podcast. We got a lot of emails and tweets like

:09:30.:09:38.

this one. This person thinks his podcast is the best. Then we had

:09:38.:09:46.

more insightful feedback as well. Like this one. It says, what makes

:09:46.:09:50.

a good podcast is the same as a good radio station. Content first,

:09:50.:09:58.

then a presenter who is worth listening to. In fact, we have had

:09:58.:10:01.

so much feedback that we invited LJ Rich to come back to give us

:10:01.:10:04.

another sound bite, this time to share some industry secrets on ways

:10:04.:10:09.

to improve the output. Making your broadcast sound better does not

:10:09.:10:16.

have to cost any money. Like programmes, they benefit from some

:10:16.:10:22.

structuring. A few short items with presenters in between. Keep your

:10:22.:10:28.

listeners interested by propping up the show with other voices. We keep

:10:28.:10:31.

it tightly formatted, so we have eight minutes on air and then we

:10:31.:10:41.
:10:41.:10:42.

edit it down. If your voice over is recorded in the studio, it can have

:10:42.:10:47.

little echo. Like this. A few different acoustic backgrounds can

:10:47.:10:51.

also add interest. But do not be afraid to get out and about.

:10:51.:11:01.
:11:01.:11:02.

Natural sound sets the scenery. Once you have sorted your content,

:11:02.:11:05.

there are free programmes on the internet that can give you extra

:11:05.:11:08.

control of the sound. For example, Audacity is free sound editing

:11:08.:11:10.

software that lets you stick your sound together. Professional radio

:11:10.:11:14.

programmes tend to have a constant sound level. There are no overly

:11:14.:11:19.

loud bits that make listeners keep messing with their audio control.

:11:19.:11:29.
:11:29.:11:32.

Free programs can normalise your files for you. Although lots of

:11:32.:11:35.

sites will help you upload and host a podcast, the quick way to get

:11:35.:11:38.

your audience is to upload pre- recorded files and let listeners

:11:38.:11:42.

access them through iTunes or by clicking on the RSS link. With

:11:42.:11:46.

radio broadcasting, you have an on- air audience that can listen to you

:11:46.:11:49.

as it goes out and there is an audience that will download it

:11:49.:11:56.

later. That changes the way you think about radio. Some people may

:11:56.:12:00.

download your podcast after its release date. That does not mean

:12:00.:12:02.

you have to ditch time-sensitive content, just add a bit of

:12:02.:12:05.

background information or context. Be consistent and get your audience

:12:05.:12:10.

used to when they can expect the next episode. These tips are on our

:12:10.:12:15.

website. Follow them and you never know, you may make it to the top of

:12:15.:12:25.
:12:25.:12:28.

Given that we are using these more and more every year and usually

:12:28.:12:31.

close to our heads, it is understandable that mobile phones

:12:31.:12:34.

have been the focus of health concerns ever since we started

:12:34.:12:41.

using them. But now two decades on, what is the truth? Are they a

:12:41.:12:44.

health risk and should we be thinking twice about letting our

:12:44.:12:54.
:12:54.:12:55.

children use them at such an early age?

:12:55.:12:57.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has reclassified

:12:57.:13:03.

mobile phones recently. The UN agency has fallen short of saying

:13:03.:13:07.

mobile phones are definitely hazardous. Instead they have re-

:13:07.:13:11.

classified mobile phones as possibly carcinogenic. The

:13:11.:13:14.

reclassification was the result of a meeting held here at the

:13:14.:13:19.

headquarters in Lyon of the world's leading scientists. They reviewed

:13:19.:13:22.

experimental data on animal research but also the longest

:13:22.:13:25.

running research project into the use of mobile phones by brain

:13:25.:13:34.

cancer sufferers. The strongest evidence came from the evidence of

:13:34.:13:37.

cancer in humans. There was evidence that there may be an

:13:37.:13:40.

association between the use of mobile phones and certain types of

:13:41.:13:49.

brain cancer. The body representing the interests of the mobile

:13:49.:13:52.

industry followed up the findings, saying that the classification

:13:52.:14:00.

suggested that a hazard is possible but not likely. While they

:14:00.:14:03.

acknowledge that some mobile phone users may be concerned, they said

:14:03.:14:06.

that present safety standards remain valid and there was need for

:14:06.:14:16.
:14:16.:14:19.

further research. Research into health and mobile phones has been

:14:19.:14:24.

beset with difficulties. We have been using them for a relatively

:14:24.:14:29.

short time. Cancers can take decades to develop. It is an area

:14:29.:14:32.

replete with debate. Most scientists seem to agree about one

:14:32.:14:36.

thing. If mobile phones are hazardous, children may be more

:14:36.:14:45.

vulnerable than the rest of us to their possible ill-effects. If the

:14:45.:14:47.

penetration of the electromagnetic waves goes four centimetres into

:14:47.:14:51.

the brain, four centimetres in an adult brain is just the temporal

:14:51.:15:01.
:15:01.:15:02.

lobe. Not many important functions there. In a child, the more central

:15:02.:15:08.

brain structures are going to be exposed. In addition, kids have a

:15:08.:15:14.

skull which is thinner and less protected. There are many reasons

:15:14.:15:23.

that make them absorb more radiation.

:15:23.:15:26.

European research just published in America's Journal of the National

:15:26.:15:29.

Cancer Institute has concluded children who use mobile phones are

:15:29.:15:34.

at no greater risk of developing brain cancer than those who don't.

:15:34.:15:38.

Critics say the research is too short-term and the data it used out

:15:38.:15:46.

of date. Certainly for parents giving their children mobile phones

:15:46.:15:50.

helps to keep tabs on them when they are out and about in a world

:15:50.:15:54.

full of hazards. But if the hazard is the mobile phone itself, we

:15:54.:15:58.

would be well advised to take precautions. Text, hands-free, use

:15:58.:16:02.

a landline, the sort of advice that many would like to see passed on to

:16:02.:16:12.
:16:12.:16:18.

customers. After 20 or so years with mobile

:16:18.:16:23.

phones, some experts say there is nothing to worry about. The UN said

:16:23.:16:26.

there might be a problem. Others believe there is definitely an

:16:26.:16:31.

issue. It is up to us whether to decide to dismiss the warnings or

:16:31.:16:34.

to take minor precautions to make sure those most vulnerable do not

:16:34.:16:44.
:16:44.:16:45.

blame us if the most dire predictions turn out to be correct.

:16:45.:16:47.

Another thing about modern smartphones is that many of them do

:16:48.:16:52.

not have physical buttons. When you are typing e-mails or texts you

:16:52.:16:56.

have to use the on-screen keyboards with the tiny keys. I don't know

:16:56.:16:59.

about you but sometimes I miss having a full-size physical

:16:59.:17:09.
:17:09.:17:11.

keyboard. Kate Russell has a solution to my fat fingers.

:17:11.:17:15.

If you are all fingers and thumbs when it comes to touch screen

:17:15.:17:18.

keyboards, Android owners can find some relief when connected to a

:17:18.:17:24.

desktop machine through wi-fi. The wi-fi keyboard application is free

:17:24.:17:27.

to download unless you change your input method to hook up with your

:17:27.:17:34.

computer's keyboard. Then you can input text through your browser.

:17:34.:17:37.

You can also connect to your computer using a USB cable. This

:17:37.:17:41.

works best in terms of latency. It takes a little more technical know-

:17:41.:17:44.

how to set up. Launch the application icon for full

:17:44.:17:54.
:17:54.:18:02.

instructions. It is worth noting that any text you input through

:18:02.:18:05.

your browser could potentially be recorded, so don't do your internet

:18:05.:18:10.

banking. If you have a lot of text to reply to, I can see this saving

:18:10.:18:14.

a lot of frustration and random auto corrects.

:18:14.:18:17.

You, dear viewer, are such an interesting person with so many

:18:17.:18:26.

fascinating friends. You should have a museum dedicated to you. Now

:18:26.:18:31.

you can at Intel. By linking your Facebook account the account

:18:31.:18:34.

creates a visualisation of all the texts, videos, images and connects

:18:35.:18:44.

them. This three-minute sequence is built using a snapshot of the media

:18:44.:18:52.

that is connected to your account. All accompanied by piano music. My

:18:52.:18:56.

favourite is the end room where you see pictures of your friends and

:18:56.:19:06.
:19:06.:19:11.

family being sorted by robotic arms. When you are complete you can share

:19:11.:19:16.

the exhibition on your wall with a series of stills. It is a shame you

:19:16.:19:25.

cannot share the whole animation sequence.

:19:25.:19:28.

If you have trouble understanding the drivel posted on Twitter, this

:19:28.:19:36.

next site will not help you. It might make you laugh. The URL is a

:19:36.:19:45.

little complicated. And yes, dot, that can be dot...slash.. Don't

:19:45.:19:53.

worry, it is on the website. You just enteryour Twitter handle and

:19:53.:19:56.

the application will draw a random selection of its words and phrases

:19:56.:20:06.

that you have used to suggest what your next tweet might be. I found

:20:06.:20:09.

it more fun putting in the user names of some of Twitter's biggest

:20:09.:20:17.

personalities, comedians, and some of the more outspoken celebrities.

:20:17.:20:22.

It is a fascinating and random glimpse inside their minds. The

:20:22.:20:26.

results can be surreal to say the least. But entertaining enough to

:20:26.:20:36.
:20:36.:20:41.

pass a few minutes at lunchtime. With the school holidays in full

:20:41.:20:43.

swing the children are running around everywhere, fighting over

:20:43.:20:50.

the best toys, waggling their tails. I am of course talking about the

:20:50.:20:55.

kind with four legs. You can watch them to your heart's content on the

:20:55.:21:05.
:21:05.:21:05.

Mead Open farm GoatCam. The Webcam shows their seven nanny goats and

:21:05.:21:12.

two kids rambling about enjoying their first summer. Tune in quick

:21:12.:21:18.

because the camera only feeds live until the beginning of September.

:21:18.:21:28.
:21:28.:21:31.

Don't you hate it when you have got an itch you cannot scratch?

:21:32.:21:36.

If you have any suggestions for a future Webscape get in touch. You

:21:36.:21:40.

can e-mail us or tweet us. Those are the contact details if you have

:21:41.:21:47.

any ideas about the future of the web. Don't forget, everything from

:21:47.:21:53.

the programme is on the website. That includes a link to Click on

:21:53.:21:58.

the radio. The Web is not the only technology

:21:58.:22:01.

celebrating an anniversary this week. The click radio team is

:22:01.:22:11.

celebrating the 30th birthday of MS dos. That's it. Thank you For

:22:11.:22:21.
:22:21.:22:37.

A week ago, we were suffering for with an uncomfortably warm night.

:22:38.:22:42.

But at the moment it is much pressure. It is going to be a cool

:22:42.:22:46.

day. Temperatures are rather disappointing for August and

:22:46.:22:49.

feeling even fresher because of the strength of the wind. It is kind to

:22:49.:22:54.

be wet in places as well. Bands of Shari rain also tracking their way

:22:55.:22:59.

southwards. Before they arrive, parts of north-east England and the

:22:59.:23:02.

Midlands will hate this might well have some sunshine. Blue skies for

:23:02.:23:09.

East England it -- a East Anglia and the south-east. Sunny spells

:23:09.:23:13.

for much of the south coast of England. Shell was not too far away

:23:13.:23:16.

from the south-west. Some of them get blown through here on a fairly

:23:16.:23:21.

brisk wind. Also most of Wales. Much of the south-east of Wales and

:23:21.:23:25.

the West Midlands will start with some more cloudy in north Wales and

:23:25.:23:32.

a cloudy start in Northern Ireland. The breeze is going to make it feel

:23:32.:23:36.

particularly miserable on the Moray coastline. Temperatures struggling

:23:36.:23:43.

through the day. The wind is making it feel really quite chilly. Some

:23:43.:23:46.

sunny spells in south-west Scotland. It will disappear from southern

:23:46.:23:52.

areas as the cloud develops more widely. Some places will stay dry.

:23:52.:23:56.

But nowhere is going to be particularly one. Temperatures at

:23:56.:24:04.

very best, 20 Celsius. The rain does peter out, it makes it through

:24:04.:24:08.

the evening, but one of two are scattered showers, most of us will

:24:08.:24:17.

have a dry night. It will bring cooler air. It will -- it will be a

:24:17.:24:21.

chilly night again. Temperatures down to single digits. Tuesday

:24:21.:24:26.

looks like being a largely dry day. The area of high pressure keeping

:24:26.:24:29.

things settled. A weather front will arrive on Wednesday. On

:24:29.:24:38.

Tuesday, most of us will be dry. Temperatures nothing spectacular.

:24:38.:24:42.

Click marks the 20th anniversary of the web, asks if mobile phones are safe to use, and offers professional tips for making a podcast. Includes tech news and Webscape.


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