22/02/2014 Click


22/02/2014

Click visits the visual effects company behind hit film Gravity and finds out how performance and facial capture technology is changing the film industry.


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Transcript


LineFromTo

They sat me in the chair for ages.

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They said it was all right, but can I at least have a mirror?

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Anybody?

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If you're feeling a little blue, join the club.

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This week, Click dons the Lycra to see how, in the movies,

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you really can be anything you want to be.

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Yes, with the Oscars just around the corner, we are

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celebrating the cool tech that keeps us glued to our seats at the cinema.

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We find out how you send Sandra Bullock

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and George Clooney into space without an actual rocket,

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and we'll put our ears to the speaker and turn up to 11

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for the very latest in sound.

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Plus, we have the latest news

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and handy apps for any budding Spielbergs in Webscape.

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Welcome to Click.

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I'm Beppe the blue alien, and if you're not keen on my new look,

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let me assure you that my real appearance right now...

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is even more disturbing.

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If you haven't seen this before,

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this is how computer-generated characters in movies and video games

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are created. A real actor will wear

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a motion-capture - or Mocap - suit like this,

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covered in these highly reflective dots.

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And it's the movement of these dots around this virtual stage

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which is all-important.

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There are 66 special cameras around me,

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which are registering the movement of the dots,

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which become joints and body parts

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onto which you can drop any kind of body you fancy -

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from a humanoid to a crazy cartoon character.

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Today we're at the studios of Audiomotion, just outside Oxford,

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and while the set may look rather empty, the tech around it

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not only gives the postproduction team complete freedom

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over an actor's appearance, but they can even alter their performance

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long after the shoot has taken place.

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You can start with what happened on the day,

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but you can also tweak it a little bit if you want to.

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You can embellish it or you can play it down,

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you can emphasise certain things or de-emphasise certain things,

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and by recreating a shot world inside a computer, that flexibility exists.

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Even if the end result is a completely virtual character,

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performance capture still needs that human element -

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the performance artist wearing the suit.

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In fact, it's ushering in a new breed of actor

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who is aware of both its possibilities and its restrictions.

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You have to make sure the balls don't get cloaked or hidden

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from the cameras, so if two actors get close together,

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they are going to get hidden,

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so you have to make sure that movements stay far apart,

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but if they are together, then they don't stay that close for very long.

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It enables us, especially on screen,

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to be able to do far more effects and make stunts safer, for instance,

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so it is something that every actor should have on their repertoire.

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These days, it's also possible to see a fairly good version

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of the finished shot on set in real-time,

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rather than having to wait for months of postproduction.

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And that's handy if you're perfecting your Shakespearean remake

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of the Dirty Dancing routine.

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And if you don't have a hunky actor to lift you into the air,

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well, that's no problem either.

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Sometimes it is necessary to be up higher in this virtual space -

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for example, if I need to maintain an eye-line with an actor

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who is down there. They can build you a set of steps,

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you can climb them and then, in post,

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after the event, they can turn this into a virtual balcony, for example.

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Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou, Romeo?

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Is this a good look?

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A performance for your consideration there.

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But while my Oscar-dodging act can easily be caught

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by the cameras all around me,

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there is one area of my body that is a lot harder to pinpoint.

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And that's where this beast comes in.

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It's the very latest in facial-capture technology.

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The helmet holds four high-def cameras that sit just outside

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of the wearer's vision.

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Each one records data from dots of make-up that are strategically

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placed on the actor's face, to help capture each tiny muscle movement.

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It is a step forward in accurately recreating an actor's performance,

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but it still does require a little bit of getting used to.

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With motion capture, you have to enhance your expressions

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because you don't have the eyes.

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The eyes come later with the computer geniuses.

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So we have to either frown more if we are sad, smile more if we are happy,

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but not to the extreme,

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like it's a theatrical, over-the-top pantomime performance.

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Yes, so not overdoing it is the key.

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But, as we've learned, even MY moves can now be reined in

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to the precise amount of flailing the director wants to see.

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And if said director really does want to get hands-on,

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they can grab this mobile pseudo-camera

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and see the shot from whatever angle they like.

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That said, no decision needs to be final these days.

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You can recreate the world that was shot on the day inside a computer.

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And you can mess with camera angles after the fact, you can

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tweak performances, you can emphasise or de-emphasise.

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You've got that flexibility to be able to do more work after the shoot,

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but you're also capturing the truth of what happened on the day.

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And with all of the these cameras capturing this virtual space,

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the sky is no longer the limit on where you can place your actors.

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And it is a set-up like this which was used in a movie

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that many critics are calling a game-changer

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in terms of how technology is used in film.

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Houston, this is Mission Specialist Ryan Stone,

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I am off structure and I'm drifting. Do you copy?

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Tipped to win big at the Oscars,

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Gravity may well have you actually believing that they sent

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Sandra Bullock and George Clooney into space.

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Its director, Alfonso Cuaron, originally wanted to make the film

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without using much computer-generated imagery, or CGI.

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That was an idea that wasn't shared

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by the visual effects supervisor Tim Webber

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and the team at the BAFTA-winning effects house, Framestore.

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I think Tim Webber was less naive than me.

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From the get-go, he was saying, "This is not going to work like this."

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It was, "Yes, we can do it!"

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I really thought that we were going to be mostly practical -

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meaning a more conventional way in which you build sets

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and you have your actors with their suits and you have wires and stuff.

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Zero gravity is incredibly hard to achieve on a film,

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and what then, in this film,

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takes it a massive leap forward - I was going to say "step" -

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a missive leap forward is Alfonso's style,

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which he was pushing further than he had before,

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of the very long shots and the immersive shots

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with a roaming camera.

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Tim was very sceptical - he kept saying,

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"Let's do all of these digitally."

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I was sceptical about the digital result,

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so, um, then the dance began.

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That digital dance resulted in a film that is about 80% CGI.

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In fact, sometimes the only real things on the screen

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are the actors' faces.

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Even their spacesuits were created on a computer,

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which overcame the problem of making the actors weightless.

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In fact, the entire movie was created in a low-resolution

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so-called pre-visualisation form first,

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before the actors stepped on set.

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It was used to calculate the movements of the robotic camera

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and also shown on the inside of this thing.

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Because this IS the set.

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The light box was invented for this movie,

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and it's made of almost two million LEDs.

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It was used to simulate the correct lighting on the actors' faces

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and give them a frame of reference

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for everything that would be digitally added later.

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The International Space Station, for example,

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took ten modellers working for about a year to create,

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and such was the complexity of the finished shot

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that each single frame would take about 50 hours to render fully.

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And the render was achieved by using the grunt processing power

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of about 15,000 CPUs.

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It's estimated that if the job had been done on a single core computer,

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it would have taken about 7,000 years.

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But even after the comparatively moderate five years of work,

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with the film ready to be delivered to the studio,

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the process wasn't quite done.

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We have to go, go, go!

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We had finished and we were just hanging, chilling out,

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talking about just general things,

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and the visual effects producer next to Tim - Charles - said,

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"You know, the cool thing about this film

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"is you can watch it in any position."

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He took the computer and flopped the whole thing.

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And that is when I realised, "Wow, we screwed it -

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"it should have been like that."

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So, you were pretty much finished with Gravity

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and then Alfonso sees the first scene

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and he asks you to make quite a major change, doesn't he?

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To make a simple change,

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like flip the first two-and-a-half minutes upside-down,

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took a couple of months.

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It's a big number because you have to very slowly rotate the camera

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during this one continuous shot to get back to the right way up

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for the rest of the scene, which meant reanimating, re-rendering...

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Something simple like that was a significant thing to do.

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Do it now!

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Houston, I've lost visual on Dr Stone!

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OK, next up, a look at this week's tech news.

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Oh, no, hat hair.

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There's been a backlash from users of the messaging service WhatsApp,

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after Facebook bought it in the biggest internet deal

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in over a decade, worth £11 billion.

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Many of the comments you have sent to us

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focus on worries over privacy and the introduction of ads.

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WhatsApp says it has more than 450 million active users

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and is adding one million every day.

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Facebook boss Mark Zuckerberg said there were no plans to place ads

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on the service, and that WhatsApp would continue

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to operate independently. Watch this space.

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Europe could soon be offering its own cordoned-off portion

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of the internet, if proposals by German Chancellor Angela Merkel

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wins support among fellow European leaders.

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Motivated by the recent NSA revelations,

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her plans for the European communications network would see

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no e-mails or other data passing through US data centres.

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But critics say the design of the Internet makes it hard

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to restrict data traffic to geographic regions.

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And what happens when thousands of people

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try to play a video game simultaneously?

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Social gaming site Twitch is hosting a multiplayer version

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of the Gameboy classic Pokemon.

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By typing one of eight commands in the video's chat,

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players can control the game one move at a time.

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But with hundreds of thousands of Pokemaniacs

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wrestling over the controls,

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they may have bitten off more than they can Pikachu.

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Now, not everyone has a Hollywood budget or a Hollywood crew

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to make their dream project.

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And that's why we asked David Reid to go to Paris to meet

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the film-makers who are making movies not with traditional cameras,

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but with these - smartphones.

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PIANO PLAYS, CAMERA WHIRRS

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INAUDIBLE

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The rules of France's Mobile Film Festival are simple -

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entrants have one minute to make their mark with judges,

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like the leading French director Jean-Pierre Jeunet.

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He was 17 when he forked out a small fortune for his first camera.

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It was expensive.

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You had to buy some pellicule, some print from Kodak.

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It was very difficult.

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You needed a lot of money.

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You might think that all you need now is a mobile,

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but not so fast. It's still tough to get to do this for a living.

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For those who win, the festival offers connections and cash -

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15,000 euros - to nudge budding directors into full bloom.

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The major problem is the financial problem, the means.

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This moving industry, how you get in.

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Find some friends, write a good story, have energy,

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be creative, and we will give you the means to go further.

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Mobile films have a familiar feel.

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The nouvelle vague of the '50s and '60s had directors

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shooting in natural light, in real homes, using jump cuts.

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And stories left unresolved.

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I give up. I'm having Marmite.

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Mobile movies do something similar, giving us

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a glimpse behind the closed doors of aspiring film-makers.

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Bathrooms, balconies, kitchens, car parks.

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So does this have the makings of a new genre?

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-TRANSLATION:

-The films that win

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strangely, or maybe not so strangely,

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are the films that have that little flavour of being home-made,

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but are a bit, shall we say, rough and ready.

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Sylvain should know - this year he won with The Vicious Circle -

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a cautionary tale of our times.

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Girl meets boy, boy proliferates intimacies of girl online,

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dire consequences ensue.

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Here he's taking some shots on the hoof, but this is him fully armed -

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tripod, digital audio gear and a fancy LED light.

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So what do you need to make a good movie?

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An idea, script, good actors - sure.

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But surprisingly, which camera is largely irrelevant.

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We don't care about if it's internet, computers,

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camera with "brrr" - we don't care.

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Just find good ideas and tell good stories.

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David Reid on a subject that has got our cameraman Mike very worried.

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Don't worry, Mikey, we will keep you on, I promise.

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That tea won't make itself, you know.

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Anyway, film isn't just about the visuals, of course.

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You only have to experience Hitchcock's Psycho

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to hear how important sound can be.

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After years of being afraid to go into the shower,

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Mark Cieslak is about to pull back the curtain on the audio

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that could be coming to a cinema near you, soon.

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Smart movie-makers understand that sound matters.

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Based on a true story, and starring Mark Wahlberg as a US Navy SEAL

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in Afghanistan, the film Lone Survivor has found itself

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Oscar-nominated for both sound mixing and sound editing.

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Go, guys, go!

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We had a great sound department who understood that we wanted

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realism to put the audience into the sounds of war.

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War is loud and deafening and confusing

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and disorienting, from just a sonic standpoint,

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and we wanted to try and capture that kind of audio experience.

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But to fully realise a movie-maker's audio ambitions,

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cinemas and audiophiles had had to invest in dedicated sound set-ups.

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From mono to stereo, surround 5.1 and 7.1,

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the story of sound in cinema

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hasn't just been written by advances in technology

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which affect the quality of audio that's being reproduced.

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A big part is played by the number of speakers and channels

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that surround an audience and, most importantly, how they are used.

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But Dolby's engineers have created a system they have dubbed Atmos.

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They think that by adding speakers to an area which has previously been

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a speaker-free zone, they'll help to create

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a more immersive sense of surround sound.

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They've popped them in the ceiling.

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It's not just about adding speakers, though.

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Audio can literally be moved around the room

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and placed in specific locations and speakers.

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The effect at times can be quite eerie,

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particularly if an object is supposed to be moving around you.

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Don't you hate it when you get buzzed

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by a computer-generated version of the 9th Air Cavalry?

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It's an object-based system, so we are taking audio items

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and making them objects that the sign designer or director

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can move around within a big soundscape,

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and we can reproduce that in the cinema, and it gives you

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a much more immersive, more dynamic reproduction of the soundscape.

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Dolby is hoping to roll-out the system in cinemas around the world,

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and believes that it will future-proof cinema owners

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from further advances in audio technology.

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So, any cinema has a calibrated sound system.

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Once the system has been installed,

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it will be calibrated by a qualified engineer,

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so you're getting essentially the same playback

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that the director heard in the mix studio where he mixed the movie.

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You're getting that in your local cinema or local multiplex.

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Atmos takes that a little stage further on.

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The room design is programmed into the processor that replays

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the sound in the cinema.

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So the processor essentially knows where all the loudspeakers are,

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what their power-handling capabilities are,

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and then it gets this map of audio of objects

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that it then has to re-render into the space.

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It's difficult to convey to you, the viewers at home,

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the difference this sort of audio set-up

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makes to the cinema experience.

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Sounds seem to move around the viewer in an uncannily realistic fashion.

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If anything, systems like this prove that for movies,

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sound is just as important as visual.

0:18:420:18:45

Mark Cieslak, a man you can usually hear before you can see.

0:18:490:18:53

OK, now it's over to our very own leading lady.

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Here comes Kate Russell with Webscape.

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Having peeked behind the cinema screen,

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you might be feeling inspired to get creative yourself.

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But you don't need a ticket to Hollywood,

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just point your browser at crowd-sourcing collaboration platform

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Wreckamovie.

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There are loads of projects or you can start one yourself,

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ranging from short films and animations

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to full-length feature films.

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Everyone is welcome, both amateur and professional.

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Just take a look at the tasks for a project

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and let them know what you can do.

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We come in peace!

0:19:310:19:33

Far from looking amateurish,

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this community has already produced some truly impressive movies,

0:19:350:19:39

complete with rich cinematography and stunning special effects.

0:19:390:19:44

You'd be hard pushed to pick out films like this, Iron Sky,

0:19:440:19:48

which was made by the Wreckamovie crowd

0:19:480:19:51

on a budget of 7.5 million euros,

0:19:510:19:53

against a Hollywood sci-fi production costing ten times that, or more.

0:19:530:19:58

You could get involved in graphics, script writing, promotion,

0:19:580:20:03

design, or as a music composer.

0:20:030:20:06

It's surprising how many roles there are,

0:20:060:20:08

when you get down to the nuts and bolts of producing a film.

0:20:080:20:11

So sign up and get involved.

0:20:110:20:13

Smartphone cameras produce a pretty good-quality picture these days.

0:20:200:20:25

But it's all academic

0:20:250:20:27

if the person holding the camera doesn't know what they're doing.

0:20:270:20:30

Or is it?

0:20:300:20:31

Horizon is a brand-new app that rotates and resizes your shot,

0:20:310:20:36

no matter what orientation you hold it at,

0:20:360:20:39

producing amazing results from even the shakiest camerawork.

0:20:390:20:43

# Any way that you want me... #

0:20:430:20:46

This is one of those apps that will make you go, "Wow!"

0:20:460:20:50

It uses the phone's gyroscope to recognise how you're holding

0:20:500:20:55

the handset, and adjust the rotation and scale of the shot

0:20:550:20:58

to produce a seamless horizontal clip.

0:20:580:21:01

Sadly, it's only available on current Apple mobile devices -

0:21:010:21:05

the 4S and up for your phone, for example - but the developers

0:21:050:21:09

told me they are considering an Android version in the future.

0:21:090:21:13

It supports a range of aspect ratios and quality settings,

0:21:130:21:17

although one potential downside here

0:21:170:21:19

is the loss of resolution you will get

0:21:190:21:21

when a video's cropped and zoomed.

0:21:210:21:23

This should only really be noticeable, though,

0:21:230:21:25

when displaying the film on a large screen.

0:21:250:21:28

# I've been watching you. #

0:21:300:21:33

The bestselling Star Wars games series in history...

0:21:350:21:38

If you're just not the creative type, there are plenty of other ways

0:21:400:21:43

to enjoy the world of cinema online, and on your smartphone too.

0:21:430:21:47

..just got bigger!

0:21:470:21:51

LEGO Star Wars is the perfect example of a Hollywood franchise

0:21:510:21:55

that's been exploited in many forms for your general entertainment.

0:21:550:21:59

Check out these great online games, desktop wallpaper downloads,

0:21:590:22:04

cute little films,

0:22:040:22:06

and a slew of entertaining apps mainly for iPhone and Android.

0:22:060:22:10

May the force be with you, young padawan.

0:22:100:22:14

Rescue mission I must launch!

0:22:140:22:16

Oh! A trap it is!

0:22:190:22:21

There are a lot of initiatives around right now,

0:22:230:22:26

encouraging children to learn to code,

0:22:260:22:28

and this week's video of the week picks up on that baton

0:22:280:22:31

and gives it a movie-style shake-up,

0:22:310:22:34

with Bill Gates explaining the principles of computer programming

0:22:340:22:38

using zombies, courtesy of code.org.

0:22:380:22:42

You can see that if we do that, if we are taking a turn to the left

0:22:420:22:45

and otherwise moving forward, we'll achieve our goal.

0:22:450:22:49

Thanks, Kate. Kate's links are all online if you need them...

0:22:490:22:52

And if you'd like to get in touch, you can. We're on e-mail.

0:22:550:22:58

We're also knocking about Twitter, Google+ and Facebook too.

0:22:580:23:02

That's it for now, though.

0:23:020:23:04

Thank you for watching. We'll see you next time.

0:23:040:23:07

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