24/10/2015 Click


24/10/2015

Click asks whether hydrogen-powered cars could be the future and takes a closer look at the All Blacks rugby team.


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Transcript


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filling up with hydrogen. Today, I am driving a very rare

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car. One that could save the planet. And our lungs. If there's one good

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thing that's come out of the Volkswagen scandal, it is that it

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has highlighted just how bad diesel is for the environment and for our

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health. Cue my ride for the day, a car powered by hydrogen. This one is

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a modified Hundai and I have someone on hand to talk me through the

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science. -- Hyundai. There it is. May I congratulate you on a really

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ordinary looking piece of equipment. That looks like a normal engine. But

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it does work in a different way, doesn't it? This is a hydrogen fuel

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cell. This vehicle generates its own electricity onboard. How it does

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that, we draw hydrogen gas in, because that with oxygen, and

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electrochemical reaction gives us a couple of results. One is a flow of

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electrons that powers your motor, another is pure water. In one

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sense, this runs just like an electric car, the difference is how

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it gets electricity? That's exactly how it is. This is an electric

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vehicle that produces its own electricity onboard. You don't need

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to plug it in. There is hydrogen fuel cell technology big at the

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moment? Well, nowhere. OK. Who is most likely to make it big? First,

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this is something interesting, 20 years ago Europe and Japan made two

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different decisions on whether to back diesel. Europe said yes, Japan

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said no. This is what happens next. Yes, diesel usage in Japan pretty

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much disappeared. And it looks as if they were bright to turn away from

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diesel. Instead, Japan concentrated on alternative sources of power.

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Think of the electric Nissan, Mitsubishi and Honda have also been

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pushing electric vehicles for a while. Now Japan is putting a lot of

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political will behind hydrogen cars. If it was right with diesel, will it

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be right again? Here is Dan Simmons with the case that Japan is putting

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forward for the hydrogen society. Japan is in a hurry to make cars

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differently. So, why are Japanese carmakers assembly lining up to

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create what in the past has proven to be an expensive, impractical,

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unloved white elephant? The answer is as much political as it is about

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technology. Ahead of the 2020 Olympics, they are thinking big. We

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need to have a dream for the This is Tokyo's first hydrogen

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filling station. The city has five now and they are all as busy as this

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one. Gosh, it's quiet. Traditionally hydrogen has been made using fossil

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fuels but Japan doesn't have any of those on the Honda has made a clean

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away, using electricity, ideally produced from renewable sources and

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it is designed stations that store and make it. This is one of the new

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stations and overhear this is where the hydrogen is stored. About 18 kg

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work. But the new method does have its limitations. It can only top

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that up by about 1.5 kilograms a day and that's particularly bad news

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when you consider that if any more than four of these hydrogen cars

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rock up in a day and want filling up that would be this station

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completely emptied. It would need two weeks to fill itself up again.

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It may take a while to produce but the beauty of hydrogen is its only

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waste product is the pure water emitted through the exhaust. Japan

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has set its sights on being the leading exporter of these super

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clean cars to the rest of the world. To go to recently revealed the first

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of its fuel cell cars to parts of Europe, and here in the UK. This is

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the world's first mass-produced hydrogen car designed from the

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ground up, which means they have just taken an existing model and put

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the hydrogen tank in it. They put the tanks in the back and

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effectively the engine, with all of the chemical reactions going on

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between the two front seats, so it handles nicely. It is a little bit

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heavier than the normal car, but it stacks back up. 111, top speed, zero

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to 62 in about nine seconds. But there is one statistic that might

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concern you. The cost. It is over ?66,000. About twice the amount you

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would expect for the sort of car in its petrol form. In California,

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these cars receive a 25% subsidy. In Japan, it is over 40%, making them

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much more affordable than the UK, where there is no discount to make

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this technology get out first gear. Of course the Japanese can't help

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that, but to go to is keen to speed things up by sharing all 5000

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patents it holds for this car by other manufacturers. And it has gone

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the extra mile to quell any fears over safety. What with hydrogen

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being quite flammable at all -- and all. We crashed to that heavy

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speeds, set fire to it, even for shot it with a high velocity rifle

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and it can take something like 150 tons of pressure on the fuel tank

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casing. So, it is as safe as anything on the road. It's a safe

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and slow start to Japan's waterpowered revolution.

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That was Dan Simmons. Meanwhile, I am at one of four hydrogen fuel

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stations in the UK, although there are only seven Hyundai hydrogen cars

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on the road at the moment so I guess that is a reasonable figure. Time to

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fill up. This is one of the selling points. It only takes few minutes,

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compared to a whole lot longer to charge an electric car. This is

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where the hydrogen is stored. 104 litre tank and a 40 lead a 40 just

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in front of it. Yes, it is bigger than a petrol tank, but what can you

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do? And that's another selling point over electric. A full tank of

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hydrogen can drive you for up to 400 miles. Back at the front, here is

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Robin again. Next question. How do you make the hydrogen that goes into

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this car? There's two ways for hydrogen production. One of them is

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heavily dependent on fossil fuel. That's one method which does have a

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carbon footprint associated to it. The other method, which we are

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pushing towards, is producing hydrogen from renewable energy,

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solar or wind power, which gives you a good carbon footprint and zero

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emissions. To create the hydrogen in the first place requires

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electricity. When you put it in the car, you are turning that hydrogen

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back into electricity? Yes. Why do we bother putting this hydrogen

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complication in? You will get a higher storage of energy in hydrogen

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than batteries. The site of the battery required to store the energy

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this has in its fuel tanks is enormous. First question you will

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probably want answered, what noise does this car maker? Ready? Here we

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go. That's it. A nice little tring and

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the radio, but no other noise. If you have electric vehicle you will

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be used to the complete silence that will will be driving under. So,

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seeing as the engine really is working, -- assuming the engine

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really is working, off we go. Given this is a green driving experience,

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you get all the dials and stats on the dashboard to show off that you

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are regenerating energy when you brake, you can see the usage stats,

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where the flow is going to which part of the car. Don't scrape the

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car please! You have no expensive to make idea how expensive this is! --

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you have no idea how expensive. It will be awhile before hydrogen cars

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can relieve us of all of the diesel fumes, which hearing this part of

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London really bad. That's because down there is Oxford Street, which,

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according to scientists, is the worst place for nitrogen dioxide

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emissions in the world. Goodness! Well, in the meantime, maybe we

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should all try and use technology to limit our exposure to the fumes. We

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have been finding out how. It isn't much better here on this road, where

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the slightly secretive wooden structure hides one of the UK's

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largest air pollution monitoring centres. Kings college London has

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over 100 sites throughout the city. They are looking for levels of

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dangerous fine particles in the air. These are 2.5 Micra metres in

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diameter, or smaller, as well as gas and nitrogen dioxide. Nitrogen

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dioxide is prevalent in emissions from diesel cars and tends to stay

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in one area, but the dangerous particles spread around a bit.

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Living in London I know the area is extremely polluted. It is

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disgusting. I can come home, sometimes there are black things

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coming out of my nose when I get home from work. That stuff in your

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nose, those are large particles. But the particles we are really worried

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about are the small ones that you can't see. They are very small. They

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are cooling the air from the roof, they come down this pipe and onto a

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little filter which sits inside there. These filters start off...

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They start like that. Clean? Particularly white. After a couple

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of weeks... Wow! They end up like that. That's mainly black carbon

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from the traffic outside. But after two weeks? Unbelievable. These

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detailed readings are now being fed into a variety of applications to

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help motorists and cyclists. You can use this data to plan your walk

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around London. It gives you the best route to avoid the worst of the

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pollution. Simply enter your location and destination and its

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maps out the best route with the cleanest air. You can also get the

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latest pollution forecasts. Another fresh air app is Clean Space. It

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offers rewards to its users to cut down on air pollution. From

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November, it will link up to a portable carbon monoxide sensor. For

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the first time in a commercial device, the sensor will be

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permanently power with by using unused radio waves in the air. These

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invisible waves provide a very small amount of energy from wireless and

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mobile frequencies through this paperthin harvesting antenna. The

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company developing this tech is led by a former UK science minister. He

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was actually part of the Labour government that promoted diesel car

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use but he now says that was a mistake. He thought it was any --

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only able to power things using small amounts of energy. It is

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recycling energy, which will otherwise go to waste. We aren't any

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to any of the transmissions, so we don't have the need to have any

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dedicated transmitters to boost the signal. We can harvest just the

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ambient energy. Yes, we do silly -- see it as a sustainable way of

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powering small devices. The readings would be as sophisticated as those

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we saw from King's College, but being portable has its benefits. It

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is early days. The sensors need more work. But in a few years it will

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give us much better information about what our individual exposure

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is, as we move through the city. The big tech news this week was the

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announcement that YouTube is to launch a subscription service

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offering original and exclusive content. Originally only available

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in the US, YouTube Red will cost about $10 a month and be completely

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ad free. Never fear, there will still be normal YouTube with

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billions of cat videos to watch, filled with lovely adverts. It was

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also the week that Disney announced it would launch a streaming service

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in the UK. TalkTalk was hacked, leaving customers' banking

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information up for grabs. And seals using the internet. It was also the

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week that Apple News finally arrived in the UK and Stanford engineers

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celebrated acts of the future day in the best way possible, with a self

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driving DeLorean that does doughnuts -- Back To The Future. Finally, we

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got a glimpse of what reality might look like once it is augmented,

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believed to involved a form of retinal projection. Magic Leap has

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promised to change the world. They have raised $500 million from

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investors but this video made without special effects apparently

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is a little teaser of what they have in mind. And let's face it, every

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office could be brightened up by having a solar system hovering

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around our desks. Here at Bridge And college in Wales, his high school

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kids are not cheering for us. They are cheering for their sporting

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heroes who are paying them a visit. -- Bridge End College. Three of the

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All Blacks who may be the world's best rugby team are here to play

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with the kids. And for us it's a trip to see the tech that keeps them

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top of their game. Today these youngsters are donning kit usually

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reserved for elite athletes. Sensors on their bodies will be monitoring

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their performance as they play. With millions of data points collected

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during a game, the coach can analyse the performance of a particular

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performance of a team as a whole. The big thing in professional sport

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now is all about workload. With it being such a saturated calendar

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throughout the year it is really important for us to understand how

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hard the athletes are working on when to back off and when to push

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forward. There were some papers released recently where we saw that

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when they are operating at high heart rate intensities and after

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running at high speed they are not necessarily making the right

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decision or they are avoiding making a decision. Sensors like these,

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providing GPS tracking, and Excel matter, and heart rate tracking, are

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pretty normal these days. It is the software doing the numbercrunching

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afterwards that is more interesting. And this is where

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competition is getting stiff. The numbers of parameters that you can

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monitor is in the hundreds. So it is used in all sorts of sports. Each

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coach can personalise the stats they'd like to analyse, with the

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software then providing the rather colourful chart. And for us as

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viewers, we can see some of the data on our TVs. I think you've got to be

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careful that you use it for what its purpose is. You can overemphasise

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some of the technology. The key part is it allows us to be more

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individualised with the way that we prescribe things, to be able to put

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a training programme in front of a player that we know is being

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monitored. And we can track their progress more accurately, is of

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course really helpful. And of course no tech can prevent every injury but

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the use of these EMS sensors could help speed up recovery times. I

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always like an excuse to work out on the job and today are definitely got

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one. Here is a sensor attached to my bicep and I now need to do some

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bicep curls. So what better to do them with than the Click monopod.

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Here behind me on the screen we can see the movement of these biceps. I

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can show you what it looks Lacroix the other totally relaxed. You can

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see that there is no movement being tracked at all. As soon as I pick up

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monopod you are going to start to see a bit of a change in the graph

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and when I actually do bicep curl, look at that. You can see I'm doing

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it properly because if I now do it at a slightly awkward angle... That

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graph completely changes. Being able to isolate a single muscle and track

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its engagement isn't just useful for rehabilitation, though. It can also

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teach us to activate the right muscles in the first place. Today we

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are attaching these two biceps or quads but of course you can attach

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them to every muscle in the body, cut your? Correct. In rugby we can

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attach it to the leg muscles and see how the leg muscles actually

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contract during the scrum. The aim of all of this is to make athletes

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more safely, efficiently and harder, well, it seems to have worked on the

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kids. Did it make you want to run further and run faster? Yes, it is

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after he showed me I wish to rant a little bit faster so I could beat

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every one else. And when I spoke to the All Blacks players, they told me

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the difference the technology has been making, even at their level. It

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is to be a lot of games where you feel like you have done a lot in the

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and you have trained really hard, you will wants to make sure the risk

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of injury isn't higher. There is a lot of monitoring in terms of

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heavyweights, but now it is all about the speed that you move the

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weight at, which is meant to be more relative to the game you play.

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You're not moving 200 kilograms often but you're trying to move

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things as hard as you can. You feel that actually makes a difference to

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how you play? You see the way the game has evolved. Guys are a lot

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quicker, they are a lot more powerful, and that has got to be at

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attributed to the weight goes up training now, from a younger age.

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We've been talking a lot today about dirty, dirty air. From cars that

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don't pollute the apps that tell you whether fumes are. Well, here's

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another project that is the about in London although this time it is

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using a camera. Following successful trials in the Netherlands, the

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iSpecs EU project is expanding in Europe and hoping to attract

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volunteers who don't mind attaching a small gizmo to their phone and

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pointing it at the sky. It is all to do with checking the spectrum of

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light and turning your phone into an optical sensor that can measure tiny

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atmospheric particles. Air quality is a massively important health

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issue for many. And Hugo and the team are hoping that 1500 people

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across the UK will volunteer to join the project, and give them a good

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chunk of data to analyse. Are there not, with all respect, sessional

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pollution monitoring project out there? -- professional. Should this

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be left to volunteers with smartphones? Well, the technology is

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really quite advanced in this little widget. On the problem is that you

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only have spot checks, so on the problem is that you only have spot

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checks, so what road it measures the pollution at ground level. But you

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don't know what the ambient pollution is. So it's quite

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important to get a good idea of how pollution moves across the city, all

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forms in a city, and where the pollution is coming from, so that is

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what we hope to get out of it. The results from this project will be

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fed into what, and affect what? I mean, this is real science. So this

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is... These results will then hopefully fed into policy to some

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degree -- be fed into policy to some degree. But at the moment it is an

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experiment. We are hoping we are going to get really good data.

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Obviously it relies on having clear skies which might not necessarily

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happen. And just before we go, a sneak preview of some of the

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greenest cars on the planet. Every two years, Australia Post is the

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World Solar Challenge. It is a race for cars powered entirely by the

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sun. And Jonathan Blake has been accompanying one of the teams from

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West Sussex, right here in the gloriously sunny UK. Three years of

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work finally coming together. Students from this college in West

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Sussex have designed and built a solar powered car from scratch. The

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group had travelled from England to Australia and are now getting ready

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for their epic journey. It has been a huge amount of work just to get to

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this point at the team have arrived in Darwin and for the few days

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before the race they are based here at the Hidden Valley test track,

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where teams are putting the finishing touches to their cars

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before the race. We first competed three years ago, and it was his

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idea, and he proposes to a few of his students. We started getting

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together and working on this car. Every time we sold some kind of

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problem there is another problem that occurs. Every step we take, if

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feels like you're taking another step back. It is so weird, we always

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wanted to be here and we didn't know if we were going to make it. The

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fact that we have is amazing. So it is the day before the race now, and

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after a very early start and a couple of last-minute hitches the

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team are ready for a test lap, and what they call dynamic Skuta

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nearing, testing this steering, and the brakes, and a few other things

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before they can compete. Just a few days ago now and there is plenty of

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sun, which is the main thing. That was Jonathan Blake in

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Australia. A World Solar Challenge has now been run. If you'd like to

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know the results you can get them online. I won't spoil them for you

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here because we will have the full story of what happened next week. I

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hope you have enjoyed our low emissions programme. Read easy, we

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will see you soon. -- breathe easy.

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