23/01/2016 Click


A comprehensive guide to all the latest gadgets, games and computer industry news. Click visits San Francisco and looks at how 3D printing could be about to change our lives.

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an omission that they have avoided paying tax in the past. You can join


me for more news at the top of the hour. It is time to click now.


This week we bring you the impossible things. The pain, and the


anaesthetic. Think 3-D printing and you might


think of weird trinkets like these. But did you know that 3-D printing


can also be done on one of these. Welcome to Autodesk. Is a company


known for computer design and 3-D graphic software. But here in San


Francisco, it is home to the creative workshop. The place where


researchers and artists are invited to test the software on 3-D printers


of all shapes and sizes. From conventional printers to giant five


axis machine. All faithfully reproducing the models as they


appear on screen. A resolution of the latest 3-D printers is now high


enough to produce some really intricate models. In fact, it is so


high, that if you want, print a record. It does not sound brilliant,


but the bombs and cruise give a recognisable sound -- the bumps and


grooves. One of the artists is recreating artefacts that have been


destroyed by the so-called Islamic State. Because she has not been able


to 3-D scanned them, she has had to use reference photographs to build


within 3-D modelling software. She was an artefact that was outside the


museum that was destroyed. It was life-size and way bigger than this.


Why did you feel that you wanted to do this? As an artist I'm interested


in ways in which you can work with historians and archaeologists and


how 3-D printers can go beyond just beyond the technical tool and think


about 3-D printing as a tool for archiving. You can think about as a


personal, political and poetic and emotional ways. Some serious and


some not so serious. What is universally amazing to me is the


materials that one can 3-D printed in these days. Your good wall


sculpture anyone? Some 3-D printers can print in different materials in


the same run and that has opened up even more possibilities. If you


would asked me half-an-hour if you could 3-D print a system of moving


parts all in one go I would have said no. Europe to 3-D print the


individual parts. But this is a 3-D printed system of moving parts. It


came out of a machine like this. It gets washed away as it comes out of


the printer. It allows the parts to move independently which is


seriously cool. Some of these moving objects could not be manufactured in


any other way. Try building these impossible keys within two years and


you will see the problem. It is things that cannot be made in other


ways. Picture and -- an engine block. That could not be cast that


way. But you could 3-D printed. We 3-D print a lot of prototypes. That


is another great addition of 3-D printing. Maybe it will change over


time and will have to be cast in every way that you do it. Every year


that you grow they need a new prosthetic. Those are the Times we


see it to be the most groundbreaking. Is printers here


have been made especially. They are able to do things in micron level


detail. They don't just create little beautiful things like this.


They are capable of printing things much more important. They have been


fighting out more in the wet lab just down there. Imagine a future


where instead of taking bones out of your body for a transplant, you


could build your own new bones with the help of a 3-D printer. This is a


company that uses software and 3-D fabrication to bring this idea


closer to reality. In a series of relatively simple steps. Hersi they


take a CT scan that needs the bone replacement -- firstly. A crater


scaffold of bone tissue from a cow that has been stripped of all of its


cellular material. Than a small sample of stem cells is taken from


the fact tissue. The structure is housed in a buyer reactor where it


grows for three weeks -- bio. You could have your own living bone. We


ask how we can get the cells to live inside here? We engineered a system


that goes around it and you can see that there is space for a scaffold


to live inside of it. Each buyer reactor that we engineer is


perfectly matched to each of these different shapes that you would have


here. We cultivate the bone inside of you with sales and deliver the


growth factors and the environmental conditioning that the cells need to


then turn that into bone -- cells. With approval, it could be implanted


into clinical trials into humans in the next couple of years and


commercially available next few years. The focus now is on small


bones for facial reconstruction but could one day move to more, located


bones. Could you actually grow bones is somebody lost a limb? If you


think into the far field where this is going just growing bones. During


my Ph.D. We a groin muscle and heart tissue. When you think about a limb


you think about the different parts involved -- we were growing muscle.


What do they need in those environments, it is it difficult to


medic that in a lab. It is moving towards being able to grow pieces of


tissue in the same place. But you can imagine for a limb it gets


exponentially more difficult. But you can see the world moving in that


way. 3-D printing sounds absolutely incredible when applied to


specialist areas like that. But I can't help wondering whether in the


home, at least, it will ever be more than a curiosity. A novelty being


out to knock up a few items and then never used again. It changes as


technology changes. With spoken about that as we speak about the new


materials being involved. At professional and there is research


that is paying off already. That trickles down into the consumer


stuff and I think there will be that materials for people to use it. As


we have been saying it is a tool and a platform to make things. All that


happened for a 20 dollar machine that sits on my dining room table? I


do not know. Is really about how this will affect things are larger


level to the things I touch every day in my life. And they don't just


make stuff that humans design. The software can create things that we


might never have thought of. What is this? If you look at this bicycle,


these are things that you have seen before, except for this. A resident


was looking to design a different type of bike stem. It takes the


information that the design gives it an nose has it take to wake of a


bike rider's hands but then it figures that everything in between


sleep and optimise the strength, wait and that you will use it. It


figures out a form that is unlike with anybody else would ever come up


with because it is a computer. In theory you could do a better job the


humans design is because it is doing the maths -- big mathematics. We


have people working on all kinds of interesting problems. With that jet


flying over it will use less fuel. This is the kind of place that runs


on creativity where residents are encouraged to push the software to


the limits with seemingly crazy ideas. And that seems to be the


reason that one employee has built this machine. The sole purpose of


which is to brew the perfect Manhattan cocktail. Cheers. While


Spain in -- what the input joy is a well-deserved drink. Twitter has


gone down with people being unable to express themselves in 40


characters of less. If only there was another method to communicate


with one another. It is definitely not going to be friends reunited


which this week died a very quiet death. It also gave us a new level


of doom from the original designer. And space X successfully delivered


an ocean monitoring satellite to all but. The landing, however, did not


go so well. It was also the week that a drone managed to land on the


roof of a moving car on its's own. -- it's. It follows a moving target


and decide precisely when two touchdown. In this case, on a moving


car fitted with a net travelling at almost 50 mph. That is not the only


thing the drugs had been up to this week. Students at the University of


Oslo has set a new Guinness book world record for the heaviest


payload lifted by a remote controlled multi- copter. It


successfully carried weight of over 61 kg. The students hope that soon


they will be able to strap a person onto it. Have you ever watched a


game of American football? It is brutal. The impact that the players


experience are frightening. In fact, recently some people have been


calling for the sport to be banned because of the head injuries that


the players can suffer. We have been checking out some of the research


that is designed to detect early signs of these injuries and make the


sport, generally, safer. Weights or you get down here and you will


realise how hard these players hit each other. It is relentless all the


way through the game. They may be playing the ten or 15 years in their


career, but the research is really warning about what is happening to


these players. The facts are quite horrifying. Almost a quarter of


professional football players are expected to develop Alzheimer's.


That is double compared to the general population. But shocking


discovery is the subject of concussion, a new film starring Will


Smith. Repetitive head trauma chokes the brain. He discovers the real


damage caused to American football is -- footballers. After intense


pressure, and the multimillion dollar lawsuits, the league is


finally starting to take the threat seriously. Is down here were all the


players medical staff and players are keeping an eye on the action. In


a small room up there there are two experts with my Nokia is watching to


see if there is a possible head injury. If they spot in the looks


troubling, that player has to be removed whether they like it or


not. It is here at Stanford University were some groundbreaking


technology is being tested. A project funded by the Department of


defence aims to detect when a player is concussed almost immediately.


After a heated ahead of brain get scrambled and we can't pay


attention. That is the keeper around the. Had you measure the tension? We


use eye tracking as a method of how the. Had you measure the tension? We


use eye tracking as a method of much you pay attention. Is part of the


protocol to assess athletes for possible concussion and reuse the


eye tracking. We use it on the sideline because it is great it is


you can value people right away. This is an Oculus Rift basically


with cameras inside of it that can track and follow the quality of eye


movements that we're seeing right from the sidelines. What we do is we


have them place it over their face like this and they should be able to


see the red dot which is the beginning of the test and we are


looking for nice fluid tracing of that circle. As you can see, it is


not fluid, it is slightly abnormal and this is in line with what you


see with someone with mild impairment. Players are faster and


bigger but we have to focus on protective gear. We need to get away


from the helmet designed into more of a helmet torso and neck design of


technology. The issue shows no signs of going away and it is hoped a


research like this. The sport -- will prevent the sport gambling with


the lives of its players. The 49ers are the biggest players here and a


few have ever wondered what technology goes into a massive


stadium like this, we've been taking a tour -- the biggest team here. It


is game day at Levi's Stadium, home to is the 49ers and host of the


Super Bowl this year. Fans come for the excitement of live football but


they often experience crowds. But here technology helps fans handle


the hassles at one of the most wired arenas in the US. We certainly need


the capability to have 70,000 people on their phones at the same time in


a small space. At the supercharged Stadium 400 miles of cable are


distributed to boost cell coverage, Wi-Fi hots pots, charging stations


and an Internet pipe, a first for stadiums. The stadium also has its


own free app. I know the fastest way to get my parking zone, and once I


am here, I know which date to go into to get to my seat the fastest.


The ticket sensors help manage crowd flow. We look at all the things that


happened come all kinds of data points, where you scan your ticket,


which date, which helped us move our staff and make sure that the gates


are adequately staffed up by traffic is also monitored. We use drone


video technology or parking scans to see how people are getting to the


game. We're making real-time changes based on video footage we are seeing


postgame. If you ask me, the feature that makes the app worthwhile is


delivery to your seat. Place an order and ten minutes later, someone


brings it to you. Similar apps do exist but ordering food has never


been so easy. Or haps to easy. That's for me. Thank you. Yes


please. For visitors, a convenience, for 49ers, a data GoldMine --


perhaps. We have really been able to understand point of our information


like hot dogs, we know how many we sell and when and we can make


changes depending on the event. Another fan favourite is


wayfinding. 1700 Bluetooth begins enable the app to offer turn by turn


directions back to your parking space, the closest snack stand or


even the toilet. Pro tip, check along the lines are beforehand happy


these people oversee everything from food and beverage menus to instant


replays. This fellow right here is keeping a close eye on the game.


When play begins, he hits a start on his android tablet and when it is


over he hits end and that appears on the app 's puppy while some users


complained that it is slow and a battery killer, the app does save


you from waiting and having to leave your seat. And isn't that why you


came to the game? It is nearly time to leave San Francisco but before we


go, I wanted to find out more about something I have heard being touted


as the secret of success here. This is our conference room. Wow. Michael


works for Math Crunch, a startup but I'm not here to find out what he


does, I am here to find out about something he says makes him work


harder, think clearer and possibly beat the other startups to that


billion-dollar deal. For me, it is all about doing whatever I need to


do to do what I do everyday. To say, I am young, I'm 26 and we have this


awesome product and we want to bring it to the whole world. I need


whatever advantage I can get. TUC this kind of thing as the advantage


-- do you see? Yes. Someone sent it to me as a present year ago, a


friend and I tried it once or twice. Next thing I knew, I was


ordering more. It is cheaper than coffee, it is a dollar a pill and


that is what I was looking for. Something that is more affordable


and leaves me less shaky, just confident and comfortable. Welcome


to the world of new -- stuff you can take to improve your cognitive


functions. The idea has been around since the 70s but it is no surprise


that here, in high-performing Silicon Valley, is seeing a


resurgence. I'm off to meet the guys at the startup which surprised


supplies totally legal and totally regulated substances -- supplies.


What do you think? I think it is going to be sweet, but it isn't, it


taste like coffee. It's not candy, it's a performance product. So what


is going to happen to me when I have some of these? Think of an espresso


drink, you get that kick of energy, but you also get that sense of


focus. How long should the state to work? In 30- 45 minutes, you'll


start feeling a little bit zippy and a lot more focused. So you have


other products here. Dare I ask what this does? This is our daily


supplement. It is some can you take chronically everyday. Compounds have


been shown to increase memory capacity, it increases your


resilience to stress and antifatigue properties. The thing that worries


me is, although these are all regulated and perfectly legal, we're


looking at the culture here where people need these, they feel they


need them in order to perform. You suddenly have people who are


psychologically addicted to these kind of products because they're


convinced they work? Sure. And in this day and age there is going to


be demand for them, other paths to get ahead, let's offer it in a way


that is responsible and safe. How do you offer these responsibly and


safely? We have the best active forms of different compounds. When


we first started the business, a lot of the vendors out there weren't


following the strictest FDA regulations around the types of


compounds they were putting into products, or the safety


manufacturing processes. We want to do this right from the first stop


light I may have felt a little bit of a buzz but I'm going to take them


away to do a longer-term test. I certainly noticed an improvement in


my table tennis skills straight afterwards, although that might have


just been a special effect. That is it from San Francisco. A fine trip.


I have to learn how those pills are working out in the next few weeks.


Plenty of fun and backstage pictures on Twitter and we will see you back


in London. The weather is making headlines


in the north-east of the US. But as far as our neck of


the woods is concerned it is quiet.


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