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This week, a medical special with a professor plugging himself into


everything, and optimists -- octopus fights dementia and a cat that does


everything. Every single person


on the planet is different. Looks different,


likes different things, Those genes can also decide


which diseases each But of course, for most of history,


genetics was unknown territory. This is the Royal Society


of Medicine in central London. And this institution has been at


the forefront of promoting and the sharing of information


throughout the medical community. And in 2003, that community received


an explosion of information. The human genome project


was declared complete. And this knowledge paved the way


for a far deeper understanding of And these days, the talk is all


about personalised medicine. But how useful is this genetic


information at the moment? Well, after meeting a leading


geneticist in San Francisco, Jane decided to embark on


her own genetic journey of If you could unlock all


of the secrets of your health, how long you will live, what diseases


you were at risk of developing, Stanford's genetics


department is hoping that this It is studying 100 healthy people


and sequencing their DNA to see if they can predict when they will


get sick before they do. Leading


the research is Professor Michael I'm always keeping


my devices very well charged. He is a one-man tracking machine.


Along with sequencing his genome,


he wears nine different devices every day to monitor his health


outputs, including three smart I have a continual glucose monitor


that sits just on top of my skin, that continuously


measures my glucose levels. For Professor Snyder, the


experiment has already been a He found he had


a genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes, despite showing no typical


signs of the condition. My genes predicted a number


of risks, And as we are actually doing all of


these medical analyses, we discovered that


my sugar which have been running on perfectly fine actually shot through


the roof, and basically to the point The professor keeps track


of his genome It looks complex,


but it is showing changes happening The outside affects my gene


representation of my genome, and all the different changes I have


relative to the inner line here. I think we will see a world where


this will be relayed to your smartphone and the information will


show up and get integrated. Quite frankly, it will go to your


physician as well. Inspired by Professor Snyder,


I signed up for 23 and Me. It is one of the better-known


and cheap services that offers you Rather than looking


at your whole genome, it looks of the ones that are significant,


using the latest research. Simply send a off sample,


and you're left with this. It is getting back 3 billion bits


of info, I received 100. These included risk factors


for indicators of Alzheimer's disease and ovarian and breast


cancer syndrome. The roles of 41 genetic variants


that produced different things from I was lucky to find out I didn't


have anything significant to report. In fact, the most interesting


thing I found out was I was I've changed my diet accordingly,


and it has made This small discovery increase


my appetite for more genetic After reading forums,


I discovered a site which said it can unlock more data


from 23 and Me for only $5. So I went for it,


and rather wished I hadn't. In ten minutes I was flooded with


information on 20,000 genomes. These are marked


as not said, good or bad. Instead of nothing to report, I seem


to have hundreds of bad genes, and I have a high risk of developing type


2 diabetes and various cancer. So I put my results to


a clinical geneticists. I'm absolutely baffled by the


information that is in this report. Do you find any


of this information useful to me? As a clinical geneticist who would


be looking at your risk of disease, I would say there is nothing


in here that we would find clinically actionable, in terms


of setting up screening or It may tell you some things


about where you are Adam explained the percentages


that scared me actually showed that these genes were fairly common


in the general population. It's also just one genetic aspect


out of 3 billion molecules that make up your genome, and


and that single molecule is not going to change that much about you


in this context. What do you think my GP would say


to me if I brought them this? I think your GP was struggle to find


anything in here that they would A more comprehensive insight


into our genes may come from the NHS's 100,000


Genome project. Participants include people with


rare diseases and their families. The NHS wants us to form the base


for a genomic medical service, potentially offering new and more


effective treatments and diagnoses. We will be in Rome -- world where


people get their gene is sequenced before they are born. Many times you


see mutations and you're not sure whether they are damaging not and


that's what makes it tricky. While it may be many years before


we can access useful information


about our genomes cheaply on a smartphone, a future when


genes play a greater role in the healthcare seems increasingly


possible. Well that was Jen,


and this is Tony Young who was the leader of innovation at the NHS.


You're also a surgeon. What do you make of giving what


seems a load of raw genetic data to Because Jen seemed quite freaked


out. I can understand that,


and there are more and more of these offerings coming


from the private sector around doing some element of your genomic


screening. And when you have that And the experience Jen had was one


of confusion, and there is But it's not just the public who is


confused. Many clinicians as well don't know


what to do with large swathes of And that is one of the reasons in


2012, our Prime Minister launched 100,000 Genome project, which was


a world-first, really. It was a larger-scale effort than the country


had undertaken to that point, to screen 100,000 whole genomes, and


through the population to look at both cancer risk and rare genetic


disorders, so we at the NHS could say, the results of confusing data


but actually, we're going to take Not relying on a commercial company


to give you some advice on the risk of diabetes or our son


is that may or may not be relevant. We can crack and solve some of the


big challenges we face and genomics is one of them.


We learned very recently that Google is using


its Deep Mind project, machine learning and artificial intelligence


systems, to analyse health data from the NHS patients.


The programme that you mentioned, with Deep Mind, is all


So patients are going to hospital and have an altered blood test or


a other test, but the early stages of that.


And you are still very well and your kidneys are very well,


But you're waiting for a human to look at that blood test result, and


the whole point of using a machine learning and artificial intelligence


is can we use this to actually pick that up much earlier to prevent


that person getting kidney damage and renal failure?


The data is there, but we're just not using it.


So we can deliver safer, better care.


And we have one of the biggest and best data sets but it's how we keep


it safe and secure. We have a national data Guardian to make sure


those things go forward and all data is encrypted so nope patient


identifiable information is shared. It's only the clinician who can know


it's their patient in front of them with that data and that's the key


thing. Hello. I would love to say it was the week that the inventor of


bitcoin was unmasked but after years, an Australian claim to offer


proof to three media outlets that he was Satoshi Nakamoto, the mysterious


inventor of the currency. That is until lots of people said he hadn't.


He has backed out from providing further evidence he said would


confirm his claim, saying sorry and goodbye. At IBM, they made a


functioning quantum processor available to the public online. Many


believe it will pave the way for next gen machines, capable of faster


calculations than those of today. Scared of going under the knife?


Have no fear, Robo surgeon is here. Researchers in America have built a


system that can autonomously so soft tissue. Having successfully operated


on a live papers-macro in testing, they say it can be safer and more


precise than a human surgeon. The winner for the tech PR Stunt of the


Week Award goes to "catterbox". Sick of cats sounding like cats? The


custom caller mixes me hows with various phrases giving would-be


purring felines a would-be voice. Town-macro. Wow! How purr-fectly


pointless. Over 47 million people in the world


are suffering from dementia, and an ageing population means that that


figure is only likely to increase. So I've been looking at


the technology, hoping to better the This week, Sea Hero launches.


Designed as a game to appeal to gamers,


beneath the surface is real science. While you may in think of


the main feature being memory loss, one of the earliest things to be


affected is actually spatial So after collecting data


about how healthy-minded players navigate the game, and comparing


that to how someone with dementia plays,


a benchmark can be created to both Just two minutes spent


on the app will generate the same amount of data as five


hours in a research lab. The design


of the game was built from the perspective of the scientists,


and what data they needed to understand how people would navigate


in 3-D space. This should provide not only a


standardised measure of quantifying someone's condition, but also


the ability to do so remotely. The key with this research is


understanding what goes wrong with So having understood that with this


experiment, and this big set of data,


we'll armed to go on and do new drug trials, for example, and to


investigate particular drugs and how they will have a good idea


as to how people navigate. The hope is that now in a crowded


market of smartphone games, the app will appeal to enough people


to make this mission possible. To bring them back to his beloved


Sea Hero. But for the millions this will be


too late for, there are other ways technology aims to promote


independent living for as long as possible. Like this remotely


accessible camera setup. I showed you a while ago and app that


re-purpose is smartphones and tablets to turn them into security


cameras, but there are many things that can be done with a setup like


that and one is to be able to monitor seniors. It's not just about


watching with a camera, which many may not want to have done to them,


but there are a lot of sensors that come with it. There are entry and


motion sensors, full sensors and even a smart pillbox. One of the


clever things is that it keeps track of someone's day to day habits so


that if they change, you will receive an alert that they could be


a problem. Of course, it big worry for loved ones is the risk of their


relative falling. So this aims to help. This pair of sensor embedded


insoles aims to provide smartphone alerts to chosen contacts should


wear red take a tumble. They are also providing feedback. Pressing


just here soars -- sort of feels like the vibration of an electric


toothbrush and that should help those with sensory issues called by


conditions like diabetes, MS or Parkinson's disease. For those whose


needs are more focused on keeping and engaged mind, this app provides


stimulating games for those with the early stages of dementia as well as


a place to log their life story, find exercise and nutrition tips and


a tool option to set reminders and to do lists.


Many diseases leave markers in the blood. Even detecting these can be


tricky and slow. Eight bayou marker may only be there in a tiny amount


and then your blood has to be collected and sent to a central


pathology lab. The whole thing can take hours or days. But here is


something that can take minutes. First, take some blood which may or


may not smell like blackcurrant cordial and dip in some of this


magic test strip. The blood creeps up the tiny capillaries ready for


testing. Pop it into the box, at a cheap smartphone fitted with an even


cheaper magnifying lens and an LED. Then add some testing liquids which


wash away the blood leaving only the bio-marker which glows. The brighter


the image the more the clinician needs to make a judgment on your


condition. This is another example of how smartphones, even low-cost


ones, can be used for diagnostics either in the developing world or


even in hospitals here, too. Let's look at heart attack. There is a


bio-marker adopted where heart attacks show chest pain. That is


responsible for around 1 million patients every year. Only a quarter


have a heart problem. Those patients had to stay overnight before the


test which takes so long. But with this, you can do things quicker.


This flu row strip has the same refractive index as water which


means it comes completely transparent when filled with a clear


liquid giving a brilliantly clearly quid of the offending bio-markers,


even at low levels. Crucially, it detects them at such low levels


which is what has been difficult up to now. Smartphone is a cheap auto


electronic component which can do pretty much the same job as other


systems and equipment sitting in pathology labs and that it is where


it becomes powerful. It is a level and miniaturised version of


sophisticated lab equipment -- a clever. Last week, we met Sir James


Dyson as he went to war on noisy, hot hairdryers with his own


invention. Now it's time to have a little more leisurely look around


his HQ. These are things that mean a lot to


me you. They mean something. A Harrier jump jet. I had a special


model built for me. It's heavy actually. That's pretty heavy. The


one out there is only five tonnes. It's very light. This one is carbon


fibre, one piece of carbon fibre than in the early 60s. There it was


in the 60s and it's a brilliant edition invention. That was my


favourite Walkman, an underwater one. I was a great fan in the early


days. That is a lovely Sony phone. A very good system. Nice and easy into


your pocket. A nice size. This was developed in the early 50s,


immediately after the war and it uses hydraulics for the steering and


brakes. Very high end cards are using the same system. It's taken


years to catch up. So the thing that attracts you is the genius in


engineering? Yes, the genius in that. What would you say your role


is in now? I can't see you taking a hands-off role. No, I was with the


engineers working on new product so I don't build prototype --


prototypes any more but the engineers do. We discuss the design


and discuss new technology and how to use it. How many other new ideas


of yours? Very few because I have lots of bright young people with the


average age of 26 and they are far cleverer than I am. I am like an old


tutor going around encouraging them. The vacuum cleaner, I built over


5000 prototypes before I got it right. How many? 5100 plus. How long


did it take? Three years. I was doing to a day or something like


that and testing them then building another one and another one. I was


covered in dust but enjoying myself enormously. I asked Twitter what


Twitter would like to ask you. My favourite for the hand-held vacuum


cleaner, are there plans to bring out the cowboy style holster? If


that's what everyone wants, we'll do a holster. More seriously, what


inspired you to become an engineer and what ideas inspire you now? I


started off being a designer and I realised that just designing the


outside of a problem -- product was deeply unsatisfying. You want to


understand how its work, how it's made. I wanted to be involved in the


whole thing. I went off to an engineering company and it took


seven years to learn engineering. Did want to be an engineer at the


beginning. I discovered I had to be and then I enjoyed it. What would


you say to the next generation of engineers to inspire them if they're


trying to decide whether to carry on with it? It's a good point because


we're not producing enough engineers. We need more. I would say


that engineering is exciting and fulfilling and an -- engineers are


the happiest people. Is exciting even though you have failure. You


have exciting breakthroughs and you're making real things for people


and satisfying their needs. Thanks for having us. Thank you. That was


Sir James Dyson. Who knows what secrets are lurking in that


building? That if it from us. Thanks for watching and we'll see you soon.


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