07/05/2016 Click


07/05/2016

Can you predict when you will get ill? Click explores personalised medicine, looking at a quick test to find blood biomarkers and tech to help people with dementia.


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This week, a medical special with a professor plugging himself into

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everything, and optimists -- octopus fights dementia and a cat that does

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everything. Every single person

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on the planet is different. Looks different,

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likes different things, Those genes can also decide

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which diseases each But of course, for most of history,

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genetics was unknown territory. This is the Royal Society

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of Medicine in central London. And this institution has been at

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the forefront of promoting and the sharing of information

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throughout the medical community. And in 2003, that community received

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an explosion of information. The human genome project

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was declared complete. And this knowledge paved the way

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for a far deeper understanding of And these days, the talk is all

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about personalised medicine. But how useful is this genetic

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information at the moment? Well, after meeting a leading

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geneticist in San Francisco, Jane decided to embark on

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her own genetic journey of If you could unlock all

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of the secrets of your health, how long you will live, what diseases

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you were at risk of developing, Stanford's genetics

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department is hoping that this It is studying 100 healthy people

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and sequencing their DNA to see if they can predict when they will

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get sick before they do. Leading

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the research is Professor Michael I'm always keeping

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my devices very well charged. He is a one-man tracking machine.

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Along with sequencing his genome,

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he wears nine different devices every day to monitor his health

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outputs, including three smart I have a continual glucose monitor

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that sits just on top of my skin, that continuously

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measures my glucose levels. For Professor Snyder, the

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experiment has already been a He found he had

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a genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes, despite showing no typical

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signs of the condition. My genes predicted a number

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of risks, And as we are actually doing all of

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these medical analyses, we discovered that

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my sugar which have been running on perfectly fine actually shot through

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the roof, and basically to the point The professor keeps track

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of his genome It looks complex,

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but it is showing changes happening The outside affects my gene

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representation of my genome, and all the different changes I have

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relative to the inner line here. I think we will see a world where

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this will be relayed to your smartphone and the information will

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show up and get integrated. Quite frankly, it will go to your

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physician as well. Inspired by Professor Snyder,

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I signed up for 23 and Me. It is one of the better-known

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and cheap services that offers you Rather than looking

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at your whole genome, it looks of the ones that are significant,

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using the latest research. Simply send a off sample,

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and you're left with this. It is getting back 3 billion bits

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of info, I received 100. These included risk factors

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for indicators of Alzheimer's disease and ovarian and breast

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cancer syndrome. The roles of 41 genetic variants

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that produced different things from I was lucky to find out I didn't

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have anything significant to report. In fact, the most interesting

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thing I found out was I was I've changed my diet accordingly,

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and it has made This small discovery increase

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my appetite for more genetic After reading forums,

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I discovered a site which said it can unlock more data

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from 23 and Me for only $5. So I went for it,

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and rather wished I hadn't. In ten minutes I was flooded with

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information on 20,000 genomes. These are marked

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as not said, good or bad. Instead of nothing to report, I seem

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to have hundreds of bad genes, and I have a high risk of developing type

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2 diabetes and various cancer. So I put my results to

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a clinical geneticists. I'm absolutely baffled by the

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information that is in this report. Do you find any

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of this information useful to me? As a clinical geneticist who would

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be looking at your risk of disease, I would say there is nothing

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in here that we would find clinically actionable, in terms

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of setting up screening or It may tell you some things

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about where you are Adam explained the percentages

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that scared me actually showed that these genes were fairly common

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in the general population. It's also just one genetic aspect

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out of 3 billion molecules that make up your genome, and

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and that single molecule is not going to change that much about you

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in this context. What do you think my GP would say

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to me if I brought them this? I think your GP was struggle to find

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anything in here that they would A more comprehensive insight

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into our genes may come from the NHS's 100,000

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Genome project. Participants include people with

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rare diseases and their families. The NHS wants us to form the base

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for a genomic medical service, potentially offering new and more

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effective treatments and diagnoses. We will be in Rome -- world where

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people get their gene is sequenced before they are born. Many times you

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see mutations and you're not sure whether they are damaging not and

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that's what makes it tricky. While it may be many years before

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we can access useful information

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about our genomes cheaply on a smartphone, a future when

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genes play a greater role in the healthcare seems increasingly

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possible. Well that was Jen,

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and this is Tony Young who was the leader of innovation at the NHS.

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You're also a surgeon. What do you make of giving what

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seems a load of raw genetic data to Because Jen seemed quite freaked

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out. I can understand that,

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and there are more and more of these offerings coming

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from the private sector around doing some element of your genomic

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screening. And when you have that And the experience Jen had was one

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of confusion, and there is But it's not just the public who is

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confused. Many clinicians as well don't know

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what to do with large swathes of And that is one of the reasons in

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2012, our Prime Minister launched 100,000 Genome project, which was

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a world-first, really. It was a larger-scale effort than the country

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had undertaken to that point, to screen 100,000 whole genomes, and

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through the population to look at both cancer risk and rare genetic

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disorders, so we at the NHS could say, the results of confusing data

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but actually, we're going to take Not relying on a commercial company

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to give you some advice on the risk of diabetes or our son

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is that may or may not be relevant. We can crack and solve some of the

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big challenges we face and genomics is one of them.

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We learned very recently that Google is using

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its Deep Mind project, machine learning and artificial intelligence

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systems, to analyse health data from the NHS patients.

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The programme that you mentioned, with Deep Mind, is all

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So patients are going to hospital and have an altered blood test or

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a other test, but the early stages of that.

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And you are still very well and your kidneys are very well,

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But you're waiting for a human to look at that blood test result, and

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the whole point of using a machine learning and artificial intelligence

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is can we use this to actually pick that up much earlier to prevent

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that person getting kidney damage and renal failure?

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The data is there, but we're just not using it.

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So we can deliver safer, better care.

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And we have one of the biggest and best data sets but it's how we keep

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it safe and secure. We have a national data Guardian to make sure

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those things go forward and all data is encrypted so nope patient

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identifiable information is shared. It's only the clinician who can know

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it's their patient in front of them with that data and that's the key

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thing. Hello. I would love to say it was the week that the inventor of

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bitcoin was unmasked but after years, an Australian claim to offer

:11:22.:11:30.

proof to three media outlets that he was Satoshi Nakamoto, the mysterious

:11:31.:11:34.

inventor of the currency. That is until lots of people said he hadn't.

:11:35.:11:39.

He has backed out from providing further evidence he said would

:11:40.:11:43.

confirm his claim, saying sorry and goodbye. At IBM, they made a

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functioning quantum processor available to the public online. Many

:11:51.:11:56.

believe it will pave the way for next gen machines, capable of faster

:11:57.:12:00.

calculations than those of today. Scared of going under the knife?

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Have no fear, Robo surgeon is here. Researchers in America have built a

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system that can autonomously so soft tissue. Having successfully operated

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on a live papers-macro in testing, they say it can be safer and more

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precise than a human surgeon. The winner for the tech PR Stunt of the

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Week Award goes to "catterbox". Sick of cats sounding like cats? The

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custom caller mixes me hows with various phrases giving would-be

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purring felines a would-be voice. Town-macro. Wow! How purr-fectly

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pointless. Over 47 million people in the world

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are suffering from dementia, and an ageing population means that that

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figure is only likely to increase. So I've been looking at

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the technology, hoping to better the This week, Sea Hero launches.

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Designed as a game to appeal to gamers,

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beneath the surface is real science. While you may in think of

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the main feature being memory loss, one of the earliest things to be

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affected is actually spatial So after collecting data

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about how healthy-minded players navigate the game, and comparing

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that to how someone with dementia plays,

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a benchmark can be created to both Just two minutes spent

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on the app will generate the same amount of data as five

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hours in a research lab. The design

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of the game was built from the perspective of the scientists,

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and what data they needed to understand how people would navigate

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in 3-D space. This should provide not only a

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standardised measure of quantifying someone's condition, but also

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the ability to do so remotely. The key with this research is

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understanding what goes wrong with So having understood that with this

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experiment, and this big set of data,

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we'll armed to go on and do new drug trials, for example, and to

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investigate particular drugs and how they will have a good idea

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as to how people navigate. The hope is that now in a crowded

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market of smartphone games, the app will appeal to enough people

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to make this mission possible. To bring them back to his beloved

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Sea Hero. But for the millions this will be

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too late for, there are other ways technology aims to promote

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independent living for as long as possible. Like this remotely

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accessible camera setup. I showed you a while ago and app that

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re-purpose is smartphones and tablets to turn them into security

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cameras, but there are many things that can be done with a setup like

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that and one is to be able to monitor seniors. It's not just about

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watching with a camera, which many may not want to have done to them,

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but there are a lot of sensors that come with it. There are entry and

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motion sensors, full sensors and even a smart pillbox. One of the

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clever things is that it keeps track of someone's day to day habits so

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that if they change, you will receive an alert that they could be

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a problem. Of course, it big worry for loved ones is the risk of their

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relative falling. So this aims to help. This pair of sensor embedded

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insoles aims to provide smartphone alerts to chosen contacts should

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wear red take a tumble. They are also providing feedback. Pressing

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just here soars -- sort of feels like the vibration of an electric

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toothbrush and that should help those with sensory issues called by

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conditions like diabetes, MS or Parkinson's disease. For those whose

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needs are more focused on keeping and engaged mind, this app provides

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stimulating games for those with the early stages of dementia as well as

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a place to log their life story, find exercise and nutrition tips and

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a tool option to set reminders and to do lists.

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Many diseases leave markers in the blood. Even detecting these can be

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tricky and slow. Eight bayou marker may only be there in a tiny amount

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and then your blood has to be collected and sent to a central

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pathology lab. The whole thing can take hours or days. But here is

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something that can take minutes. First, take some blood which may or

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may not smell like blackcurrant cordial and dip in some of this

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magic test strip. The blood creeps up the tiny capillaries ready for

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testing. Pop it into the box, at a cheap smartphone fitted with an even

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cheaper magnifying lens and an LED. Then add some testing liquids which

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wash away the blood leaving only the bio-marker which glows. The brighter

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the image the more the clinician needs to make a judgment on your

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condition. This is another example of how smartphones, even low-cost

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ones, can be used for diagnostics either in the developing world or

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even in hospitals here, too. Let's look at heart attack. There is a

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bio-marker adopted where heart attacks show chest pain. That is

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responsible for around 1 million patients every year. Only a quarter

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have a heart problem. Those patients had to stay overnight before the

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test which takes so long. But with this, you can do things quicker.

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This flu row strip has the same refractive index as water which

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means it comes completely transparent when filled with a clear

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liquid giving a brilliantly clearly quid of the offending bio-markers,

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even at low levels. Crucially, it detects them at such low levels

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which is what has been difficult up to now. Smartphone is a cheap auto

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electronic component which can do pretty much the same job as other

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systems and equipment sitting in pathology labs and that it is where

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it becomes powerful. It is a level and miniaturised version of

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sophisticated lab equipment -- a clever. Last week, we met Sir James

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Dyson as he went to war on noisy, hot hairdryers with his own

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invention. Now it's time to have a little more leisurely look around

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his HQ. These are things that mean a lot to

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me you. They mean something. A Harrier jump jet. I had a special

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model built for me. It's heavy actually. That's pretty heavy. The

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one out there is only five tonnes. It's very light. This one is carbon

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fibre, one piece of carbon fibre than in the early 60s. There it was

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in the 60s and it's a brilliant edition invention. That was my

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favourite Walkman, an underwater one. I was a great fan in the early

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days. That is a lovely Sony phone. A very good system. Nice and easy into

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your pocket. A nice size. This was developed in the early 50s,

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immediately after the war and it uses hydraulics for the steering and

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brakes. Very high end cards are using the same system. It's taken

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years to catch up. So the thing that attracts you is the genius in

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engineering? Yes, the genius in that. What would you say your role

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is in now? I can't see you taking a hands-off role. No, I was with the

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engineers working on new product so I don't build prototype --

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prototypes any more but the engineers do. We discuss the design

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and discuss new technology and how to use it. How many other new ideas

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of yours? Very few because I have lots of bright young people with the

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average age of 26 and they are far cleverer than I am. I am like an old

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tutor going around encouraging them. The vacuum cleaner, I built over

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5000 prototypes before I got it right. How many? 5100 plus. How long

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did it take? Three years. I was doing to a day or something like

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that and testing them then building another one and another one. I was

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covered in dust but enjoying myself enormously. I asked Twitter what

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Twitter would like to ask you. My favourite for the hand-held vacuum

:22:40.:22:43.

cleaner, are there plans to bring out the cowboy style holster? If

:22:44.:22:47.

that's what everyone wants, we'll do a holster. More seriously, what

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inspired you to become an engineer and what ideas inspire you now? I

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started off being a designer and I realised that just designing the

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outside of a problem -- product was deeply unsatisfying. You want to

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understand how its work, how it's made. I wanted to be involved in the

:23:10.:23:15.

whole thing. I went off to an engineering company and it took

:23:16.:23:19.

seven years to learn engineering. Did want to be an engineer at the

:23:20.:23:24.

beginning. I discovered I had to be and then I enjoyed it. What would

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you say to the next generation of engineers to inspire them if they're

:23:31.:23:34.

trying to decide whether to carry on with it? It's a good point because

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we're not producing enough engineers. We need more. I would say

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that engineering is exciting and fulfilling and an -- engineers are

:23:45.:23:49.

the happiest people. Is exciting even though you have failure. You

:23:50.:23:55.

have exciting breakthroughs and you're making real things for people

:23:56.:23:58.

and satisfying their needs. Thanks for having us. Thank you. That was

:23:59.:24:05.

Sir James Dyson. Who knows what secrets are lurking in that

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building? That if it from us. Thanks for watching and we'll see you soon.

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