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Rogue One

A look at Industrial Light & Magic's work on Rogue One. The programme also visits Berlin to see how refugees are using tech to ease their transition to life in Germany.

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This week new homes and new lives. DIY space battles and hidden


figures. Did you see that? EU, shame on you! We are living in


interesting times. To many it feels like the world is shifting on its


access. Tempers are rising, voices are being raised. And there is


movement, political. Ideological. And physical. And this is one of the


most divisive issues of the day - how to handle what the UN has cold


the largest migration of people since the Second World War. At a


migrants? Are they refugees? Should they be welcomed? Should they be


turned away? At the Barbican in London and artist is making this


nuclear with this work - in coming. He has used a long-range infrared


camera to film the arrival of migrants and refugees of camps


across Europe. It is actually a military tool that can detect body


heat from 30 kilometres away. You can see through smoke and haze day


or night. So this is a thermographic camera. In other words, you can


actually see people was my body is glowing. A radiant thermal glow. You


cannot really see their faces. It kind of a non- Isa 's people. It is


an image of an individual with out a biological traits. It dehumanises a


person, in a way, which is appropriate since it is a weapons


grade technology. One interesting result of using a thermal imaging


camera is that you cannot tell the skin colour of the people in the


film. They are simply people. And of course that is part of this point.


He says he wants to use the technology against itself, showing


that the same camels that allow missiles to see can also emphasise


the fact that all humid life gives off the same glow. We have to work


with these people as humans. Instead our governments have created these


extraordinary technologies to enforce those borders. So I guess I


wish people would dwell on that gullible bit. Germany is one country


that has taken on hundreds of thousands of refugees. Many travel


to the country from Syria after hearing about its opendoor policy in


the summer of 2015. But successfully integrating asylum seekers into


society here is still one of the many challenges facing the nation.


There are many obstacles to integration, including finding


housing and getting a job and learning the language. But


technology may help to speed the process. We have been to Berlin,


which is now home to over 60,000 Syrian refugees, to see how. When


the refugee crisis began, some of Germany's largest empty buildings


were given over to how is refugees. Including the International Congress


Centre. It was abandoned for conferences and home to over 450


guests. 80 people live together in each of these spaces, colourful


boxes lining a whole. Most are from Syria but there are asylum seekers


from other countries as well. Afghanistan. Rush hour. Pakistan.


Ideally, guests only stay here for a few weeks but many people have lived


here for over a year. I first heard about this camp when I was covering


Europe's biggest tech show. I was surprised to learn that there had


been people living in the halls here as well, even recently. In fact hold


26 used to housed refugees who have moved out since the conference


started. The juxtaposition between a refugee camp in a high-tech trade


show cold struck me. But many refugees have been helped by


technology, using Internet and smartphones to guide their journey


to Germany. Including this man, a programmer from Damascus to spend


ten days travelling to Germany from Turkey and was filmed for a TV


Channel. He graduated as a computer engineering 2010 and arrived Germany


in 2014. I was a little disappointed because I thought I would find big


technical companies and I would directly find a job and work but it


was not like that. I needed about ten months to discover a position.


It takes a few dozen refugees each semester, this course. The school


was heavily supported by Facebook who donated space. Mark Zucker Bird


and this wife visited the students recently. Through this place a web


was -- and app was developed for newcomers. This is the people who


speak Arabic so they do not suffer like me in the beginning. They can


directly access all the information that they need. He won an award for


this work and is entering an entrepreneurship scholarship for six


months. In Berlin, finally I found my dream that I can take courses and


connect with a lot of companies. I can enter the tech community here in


this country. It was not easy to find that in the beginning. For many


newcomers, the legal requirement to learn German is one of the hardest


hurdles to integration. Outside the class, students can use


one of these crime books donated by Google. Felix helped to build a


Wi-Fi network here, which was non-existent. This is the server, a


little further. It controls who was allowed to get on the Internet and


who is not allowed. The crime books are allowed to be taken out five


evenings a week and are controlled by a password which changes hourly.


If anybody does something wrong we can tell the government. We are not


bad people. This guy was a bad person. This distinction is


important in Germany where regulation makes the owner of a


Wi-Fi network liable for any activity. Muhamed from Syria found


it difficult to get online when he arrived in Berlin and had a very


different experience in this shelter. We have computer rules,


free computers for 400 people and you needed an appointment to go and


use one of them. You have to deal with security and if they are not in


a good mood they will give you an appointment as after two weeks. If I


want to use the Internet, I can't. He joined a group of activists who


installed Routers across the cities which can connect refugee housing to


the Internet for free. That is where we like to install our networks, at


homes or churches. I went to see one of the installations on top of the


church tower. Nodes are routed through virtual private servers


which gets around some of the laws. This is a nano station antenna,


regular five gigahertz financial Wi-Fi network like you would have at


home. Somewhere like this where there are no inhibiting factors,


this can reach for several kilometres. Cisco, one of the


world's largest network provider saw an opportunity where is refugees had


online access they could connect to courses already available in their


language. Its campus in Berlin comes complete with an autonomous bus. It


is also home to a familiar face. We first saw this man last year when we


were filming in a camp in Jordan. He had lost this leg in an explosion in


Syria. He was volunteering in Jordan with a start-up refugee app to print


a cheap replacement parts. He made the difficult decision to travel to


Berlin. He is now in Cisco training to be an engineer. It was amazing


for me. This building from outside, so old and on the inside it is


filled with technology, cutting-edge technology. When I realised that


this would be my workspace I was even more excited. He spent this


weekends teaching a robotics course for children. It is a nice and fun


way to introduce programming to children. Cisco is currently working


with five refugee interns and would like to expand the programme. They


see the influx of Syrians as an opportunity to fill demand for


programming skills in the country. Where would you see him after this


programme? I would love to have him in the innovation Centre because at


the moment I have a lot of different topics that I want to establish and


I would love him to engaging with our customers and the solutions.


Even then, in our future. Never have an issue of how to handle a refugee


crisis been more controversial. By opening its borders, Germany is at


the forefront of this debate. And it is clear that the tech community has


a role to play and can help ease the transition to a new home. Hello and


welcome to the week in Tech. It was the week that Uber found itself


under fire after a former employee accused the company of sexual


harassment in a blog post. Uber responded saying it would conduct an


urgent investigation into the claims which it cold abhorrent and against


everything Uber stands for and believes in. It was also the week


that YouTube announced it would get rid of an skippable ads in 2018.


Scientists showed off a special coating making it easier to get


catch about of a bottle. And astronomers have discovered seven


sized planets orbiting a single star. And, before you live, three of


them may have conditions to support life. If you just hate living in a


world with wires then research may have the answer. Their prototype


living room can wisely charge ten items such as smart phones and fans


by static have the resonance. This means you can walk around while


powering up, the purpose-built room has walls, ceiling and a floor may


develop many with a copper pipe in the middle, a signal outside and a


power amplifier so not quite a simple DIY job. And finally,


researchers at Brigham Young University have shown off an origami


inspired light weight bullet-proof pillow. The Barrier is made up of 12


layers of bullet-proof Kevlar and weighs only ?55.


How many faces can you see in this picture? Did you see that? This is a


persistence of vision display. You can only see it when your eyes, or


in our case the camera, move left or right. We've slowed right down so


you can really feast on... Uh... My face. So, persistence of vision


display is predicated upon the persistence of vision for which is


an effective human eye and it is the effect where when you look at any


bright light and you look away you see a ghost of that bright light for


a moment. So what happens is our display takes a standard


2-dimensional image and Brexit up in the vertical columns. This single


column of light brings out each eye, until it gets to the end of the


image and start over. So as your eye looks away from the display, it


prints each column in your retina in a different location and the whole


image is reassembled in the eye. Moving strips of super fast flashing


LEDs are painting pictures or text in the air for a couple of decades,


but this relies on our eyes to do the movement. Something they are


naturally doing all the time. For what purpose? Well, enormous


adverts, for a start. We've created a new type of projection technique


for creating persistence of vision displays and we patted that globally


and what that lets us do it is scale the display massively. -- patented.


It becomes challenging the display anything more than three metres, but


with our Eco technology we can create displays up to 200 metres


tall, turning skyscrapers into the world's biggest image machines.


That's why if you've been walking down a particular street in Berlin


last Monday, you might have seen my face out of the corner of your eye.


Do you think this is safe? Do you think this is to distract him for


drivers, for example? It is very important that we introduce it in


the right way. It isn't going to be for every location. I wouldn't want


to introduce this next to a motorway. We need people to


understand it and much like when LED billboards first came into the


public realm, they were very distracting and there was


legislation instantly put in place in all to prevent destruction from


drivers. We are going to have to travel a similar path. That's not


the only eye-catching projection that I've seen this week. The head


of next week's Mobile world Congress in Barcelona have also managed to


get a sneak preview of mobile devices. It is the latest version of


Sony's XB projector, and android -based device that throws a touch


sensitive display on a table or wall. It has all the top Seoul


touchscreen functionality of a tablet, with your finger's decisions


being watched by a camera under the projector and a row of infrared


sensors at table level to detect when you've actually touched the


surface. We are heading towards a world where our devices will be so


small that we won't want a screen or a keyboard or any kind of device


attached to them and I see this as one of the solutions. You just have


a display when you want it on whatever surface is around. Very


cool, but this week... Even that is not the coolest thing I've seen.


From blue screen jungles to strange adventures in time, over the past


few weeks we've been exploring some of the best visual effects from the


past year and this week is no exception. Directed by Gareth


Edwards, the visual genius behind Monsters and Godzilla, Rogue One has


earned over $1 billion at the box office and has been nominated for an


Oscar in visual effects. Edwards worked with the team at Industrial


Lights and Magic to recreate that Galaxy and as we found out when we


visited them in London they provided some very cool Kit to comment his


unique directing style. He is a very hands-on filmmaker. Likes to walk


around the sets and physically pick up the camera is and walk around and


find interesting angles that might not have occurred to him when he was


planning the shoots in preproduction. They were keen that


they were able to apply that same style of film into the synthetic


camera, so we used the real-time virtual reality system and so he


could show us rather than explain it to us. This is it? This is what we


call our V camera. It is an iPad with a controller stuck on the back!


So you are using existing technology? Exactly. We can set it


out relatively easily and quickly. Is this where he did the scenes?


This is where he shot his virtual film. So this is the scene that was


actually set up for the trailer, the first trailer. You have this thing


running and he would just walk around and decide on his best angles


and after that? The idea wasn't that he would be getting perfectly smooth


camera moves, but he was able to sort of show to as the beginning of


the shot, I want it here, the end of the shot, I wanted here. Then it


could be immediately picked up eye animators. We shop this in London


and then pushed it into the pipeline and it was picked up by people in


San Francisco and take was ready for them to review the next morning.


They I have a go? Absolutely. -- may I have. The animation in this scene


is the dish of the death star. Look! You can see behind the dish! So I


can get a different shot to Gareth if I wanted? If I find a better


shot, do I get a job? Waiting for an answer.


Look at that! It's the dish going to the death star. Here we are


following it as it approaches the shield gate. We can move around and


follow it in. Over to the front. This film is set in the minutes


before the very first one and so getting these computer generators,


the models, to look exactly like the physical models from 1977 was I


guess vital? Our friends and colleagues in San Francisco took


digital scans of the original models. They had lots of texture


references and thankfully just recreated them so that there


wouldn't be any jarring differences between these ships and the others.


We have teams of people who are responsible for laying out camera


moves, we have teams of people who are building digital models, texture


and digital models. We have a fantastic team of animators and a


team who take all of the range is that we generate and put it


altogether with all the footage and integrate it into a photorealistic


result. So this model here are, is that completely full detail, the UK


move the cameras anywhere? We had a camera rotated around on its own and


we moved it randomly around the city. We ended up with hundreds of


views. So many of them were fascinating. Typically if you give a


shot to layout you will start dressing everything to the camera.


You will start laying out buildings, typically with lighting you will


start with backlighting, from one direction. But what we found was


that because none of those considerations had been taken, you


end up with occasionally finding things that were so natural, so


lighting would be eliminated on one half of the wall, in the background


for example, or none of the roads are perpendicular to the camera.


That was really successful and we ended up using a lot of those views


as the background in our shoots. How much of that was based on a real


mushroom cloud? A lot. We did spend a lot of time watching old footage


of nuclear explosions. It is quite terrifying when you watch them over


and over again. And we wish everyone who worked on


Rogue One all of the best of luck for this weekend. Just a quick word


about next week's programme, which will be at the Mobile World


Congress, the big phone show in Barcelona. We will bring you the


full view from the show, mainly because we will be repeating what we


did in Switzerland last year and filming it in 360, although this


time will be streaming some of it live and we will show you how we


filmed this incredible super slow mode footage. -- slow motion. We


will give you a clue, the device is very, very mobile! In fact, we will


show you exactly what it is and how good it is online on Monday. Keep


your eye on Twitter for more details!


Well, Friday was much quieter and calmer day than what Thursday


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