Great Balls of Fire Click

Great Balls of Fire

Click looks at fusion energy and its potential as a limitless source of clean power. Plus the San Francisco PD trying to stop people driving under the influence of cannabis.

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Now on BBC News, it's time for Click.


This week: Regenerating keys. Unusual vegetation. And goodness


gracious, Great Balls of Fire! -- teeth.


Energy. As our demand for it grows, the world is faced with a challenge.


When we burn coal, the energy that has been stored inside for millions


of years is released, to power our cities and machines. But so, of


course, is all the bad stuff that is polluting and changing our


environment. Countries have met and agreed to reduce carbon emissions


and invest in cleaner energy solutions. We are harnessing more


solar and wind energy than ever. And last month, the UK had its first day


of electricity supply without burning any coal. But green power is


still a long way from taking over from fossil fuels. But what if there


was a clean energy source that could rest release -- release ten times


the energy of fossil fuels, an almost limitless supply they could


keep the planet running for millions of years? Well, it turns out that.


And answer lies in the stars. In the heart of the sun, under intense


pressure and heat, hydrogen atoms change from gas into superhot


plasma, and in this burning soup, beef used together, forming helium,


and releasing amends amounts of energy. This is nuclear fusion. And


this is what scientists have been trying to recreate down here on


earth. -- being fused. We have to do something similar to a star, which


has gravity. To do that, we use magnetic fields. We are talking


about magnetic fields that great more pressure than the water


pressure at the deepest part of the ocean. So you have this huge


pressure trying to compress the plasma, and you need to hold it in


place for a long time as well. To get more energy out. If you can keep


that superhot plasma in place for long enough, the energy released can


keep everything hot, without the need for external power. The fusion


then becomes self sustaining. And that is when the magic happens. And


that is also the hard bit. We are making progress, though. We have


already achieved fusion. And some of the best fusion happens inside


machines called tockermac. This one is just outside Oxford, which turns


out to be a bit of an epicentre for fusion technology. The world's is


just 15 minutes drive up that way. -- tokamak. The problem is you need


to put more energy in then you get out. Which is not ideal. But the


company here is taking a different route. This is the lab of Tokamak


Energy, which is generating relatively small tokamaks. The


designs are being refined. This approach means that the team may be


the first to work out how to produce a net gain of energy. Go on then,


fire it up. That is a fusion reaction! Insight here, we are


generating a gas with electricity flowing through it, and we are going


to fuse atoms together, joined together, and generate fusion


energy. -- inside here. And this is not even fusion, this is just a


warmup for the next age, which is hoped to happen next year. What we


will do is heated up to over 10,000,000 degrees, up towards 100


million degrees. What will that look like? We won't be to keep our face


this close, because it will get damaged! Will have to be further


away, outside a concrete barrier. But it will start to go transparent


as the plasma gets really hot, ten times the coverage of the sun, 100


times the director of the sun. Once they have achieved the temperatures,


they need to keep the plasma in place long enough for it to become


self-sustaining. -- the temperature. This is what the team hopes will


create magnetic fields from hour to do that. Is of thick copper cables,


a strip of superconductor meed of each room barium copper oxide. All


this sounds hopeful, but the joke is that nuclear fusion has always been


30 years away. -- itrium barium. If successful, it means the end of our


reliance on fossil fuels, there is a lot of science to do between and


then. It could be a fantastic source of energy. Likely to be the most


important source of energy in the 22nd century. The point is we need


it now and so we want to make faster progress towards fusion energy.


Well, these guys try and recreate the conditions at the centre of a


star. Let's talk for a few minutes about capturing energy from our son.


Solar energy. It turns out that India is in the grip of a solo gold


rush. Money is pouring into the country to build solar power plants


to try and cater for the skyrocketing demands from about a


billion potential consumers. -- sun. We sent a correspondence to Tamil


Nadu. -- correspondent. Follow the morning sun for two hours out of


Tamil Nadu, and it takes you to a world first. The planet's largest


solar power plant. It is huge. Ten square kilometres of glimmering


glass and electronics, stretching as far as a drone can see. The power


company here through $700 million into building the community plant.


And they did not hang about, up and running in just nine months. But it


is big when it comes to solar power. Or are the Indians just showing off?


The answer might be in the clouds. If you look over there, you can see


there is a gathering storm. This is one of the problems with solar


power. If the rain comes, there is too much cloud and the output is


drastically reduced. But the sheer size of Kamuthi means this is less


of an issue. This is covered in 2500 acres of panels. With cloud, only


five or 10% reductions occur. Normally, we can predict in a year


generation for the maximum of ten months. Only two months there will


be variations. Each of these panels generates 310 watts of energy. 30


watts is enough for a domestic light bulb. 220 for a laptop computer.


They plasma TV screen, that is 330 or 350 watts. There are 2-and-a-half


million these panels. -- these panels at Kamuthi. -- of these


panels. Kamuthi's estimated to make a enough power for three quarters of


a million people. They are squeezing every last drop of energy out of


whatever sun is available. By facial panels even generate power from


light that bounces back from the ground. -- bi-facial. Or snow. Not


that there is much snow in India. Where water is scarce, washing dust


covered panels can be impossible. An Israeli company has developed a


robot that drycleaned the panels so they get a regular dusting. As the


light fades, so does the power generated. Until they have the


batteries to store something like the 648 megawatts Kamuthi producers,


solar in India won't replace dirty coal, be noxious gases from which


pollute the country and the rest of the world. It is certainly getting


cheaper. This week, wholesale prices of solo dropped below coal for the


first time. -- solar. Bids are in to construct a bigger plant then there


is further north in Andhra Pradesh. But until then, Kamuthi, the largest


solar plant on the world, will make the most of its place in the sun.


Hello and welcome to the week in Tak. It was the week that Microsoft


released an urgent software update after discovering a floor in their


operating system. The bug could give hackers accessed by simply sending


an e-mail which did not even need to be opened. A 16-year-old's tweet


about chicken nuggets became the most retweeted ever. And customers


in the UK were told there would be no more roaming charges in European


countries as of next month. Take a look at the solar panels. Kaesler's


solar roof tiles are now available. Look pricey? Well due to the power


harvesting abilities, they are being pitched as cheaper than conventional


tiles. From solar to sonic. A US plane return to earth after two


years in space. But its mission remains top secret. Having landed at


the Kennedy space centre, or the Pentagon declared was that it was


performing risk reduction, experimentation, and concept of


operations development. Intriguing. And finally, Hollywood quality


animation comes to the masses. OK, well not quite. The smart suit pro


tracking system costs a fraction of the pro- Kit. But at 2-and-a-half


million dollars, it could prove gaming changing for many. --


Smartsuit Pro. It is one of the biggest fundraising events of the


year. Lost funds are still being counted, organisers are hopeful the


records from last year's London Marathon will be broken. Online


fundraising platforms play a big role in attracting donations,


pushing causes to users, was also allowing them to donate money were


just a click. Just giving, one of the biggest players, raised just


under ?350 million last year. This is a figure that charities might not


have been to raise without the help of these sites. But these are big


business. JustGiving takes 5% commission. While others, like


GlobalGiving, take up to 15%. They say the fees cover operational


costs and innovations to ultimately But for charities, this commission


is money that is not The majority of our funding comes


from individual fundraisers, for example one of our runners


is currently on ?1500, so the commission


on that is going to be about ?100. And, on the ground, that translates


into care for ten kids that could have received top to toe


checkup, HIV testing, ATV testing. And be insured their


health and well-being. Starfish is a small charity


which helps vulnerable children in South Africa,


who are affected by HIV and poverty, and a lot of its money goes


into running a mobile health clinic. In the UK, the charity Big Kid helps


vulnerable young people in south Both organisations have been


experimenting with Kind Link, a site which promises to give


charities although collected donations and will not


make its money from commissions. I went to meet its founder,


Iskren Kulev, who traded in corporate life and set up


a Home Office, just KindLink didn't start as a company,


KindLink started as an idea to be a social enterprise/charity


that helps charities. For him, it's all


about transparency - he wanted to create a platform


where charities would post updates. The biggest problems


of the charities is how they communicate with their donors


and do the donors trust About 70% of donors say


they would make more if there -- they knew what was happening


with their donation. They have also added a feature


to show people how much money the charity has received and how


much it has spent. How has your background in financial


tech helped you to put this together and also to work the system a bit,


because it is all about making money, it is about making money now


not for businesses but for this. It is always a matter


of negotiation, I would say. I will go firstly through volume


is important, how you present When I know where they can make


a compromise, I can try to come up with a deal which would work


for both of us. See, this is a guy you want


on your side, because he knows how And so far it's proving


successful, with more than 170 How would you improve


on what you are doing on the pitch? For Big Kid, it's been able to spend


more money on its programs, like this one, which trains young


people to be football coaches. It has helped me, definitely,


especially with school Like, in school, I wasn't the good


kid, you understand? So how does Kind Link


cover its costs? Well, instead of taking


commission from donors, it plans to take the


money from businesses. They've developed this platform


for companies to build a profile for themselves, showcasing


the good causes they support And the companies will be


charged a monthly fee. I think it is quite fitting that


Kind Link have set themselves up just across the river


from Canary Wharf, where the financial industry


makes its billions. And I think it takes a certain


kind of person to give all of that up and come over


here and work for charities. What's being created here in this


lab at the University of Nottingham could mean that you will


be making fewer trips They're working on fillings


that heal your teeth! Whilst they can't actually


make a tooth regrow, they aim to encourage the dental


pulp stem cells within the tooth to transition


into a new healthy cell type. Goggles on and time


to talk to one of the lead Can you tell me a bit


about what you are doing here? Yeah, so, we've developed a dental


material technology that has been used to restore components


of a patient's tooth. This is the material we have here,


in its solution form, and once UV light is irradiated


on this solution, it stiffens The substance created is used


in the same way as a conventional filling, but the aim is that it


will interact with the dental pulp beneath to heal it


as well as prevent further rotting. Perfecting the product involves


precision and patience. The materials go through


many stages of testing. Once solidified under


a UV light, it is off Is the idea that it


will heal all the way up to the point of the filling,


so you have a totally The healing process will only occur


if the material is in contact with the cells we screen for,


so we have to place this material in contact with the pulp tissue


and the pulp tissue contains the cell population, the stem cells,


that we are trying to engineer What does this mean for your average


person who goes to have a filling? Potentially, if a person


has severe dental decay and they need a filling,


or if it's severe enough they need a root canal, potentially,


this technology can be used as an intermediate approach,


where we can intervene and reduce the incidence of people


needing root canals. The substance is designed to be used


in a similar way to current fillings and is hoped to be available


within ten years after various And they're not the only


ones experimenting with Kings College have been working


with an Alzheimer's drug, aiming to regenerate stem cells,


something which could be ready even But whilst the wait for what we saw


in Nottingham may seem long, I am told the materials are cheap,


which indicates that if this does becomes a reality,


it will do so for more than just Now, over the last few years,


we've reported from Silicon Valley, as marijuana has gradually been


decriminalised in several The tech companies in the area have


been quick to try and capitalise on changes in the law,


but there have also been some For example, it turns out


there is no reliable way to test whether a driver has


been smoking pot. Well, as we report, nanotechnology


that has previously been used to help detect cancer may now be


used by police officers to help American police officers are facing


a problem with pot as more states How to crack down on


driving while drugged. We asked the Mountain View Police


Department to explain the standard It all depends on whether or not


we can smell something. Federal law still states that smell


alone can allow an officer Pot behaves differently


in the body than alcohol. The difference between you and I


breaking out alcohol is minimal, whereas, in marijuana cases,


it rapidly leaves the body. At the end of an hour,


up to 90% of the marijuana in your system will have


been broken down. The police department hopes


Stanford University can help, scientists there are


working on a 'potaliser' - a device which will detect levels


of THC, the psychoactive You can think of each of those


sensors as a magnet. And when a chemical reaction occurs,


that indicates THC is present, then a magnetic nano particle


causes that magnet to flip It's a lot like a computer hard


drive, where you have zeros and ones For us, rather than having


a computer flip it from zero to one, we have a biochemical reaction flip


it from zero to one. The potaliser tests saliva


collected with a swab. It can send results


to a mobile device. This is the first attempt


at turning the technology In a year's time, the scientists


want it to be easy enough to use I stop you, you blow


into the machine within 15 to 20 minutes of the stop and it


tells me your nanogram level right 45 minutes later,


get your blood drawn, At least I have the original,


at the time when my car stopped, And that will help in


the prosecution later on. Ultimately, researchers want


the potalizer to work faster, cost less and it


should work on people. Because Stanford receives


US government funding, it must comply with federal drug


laws, so potalizer is yet The researchers hope it can edge


out competing devices, like the THC-detecting breathalyser


from Hound Labs. Marijuana use may rise


as loser laws take effect, but the right tool could help


police the streets safe. Just before we go, a little tease


about next week's clip, -- Click, which is going


to be rather epic! In the meantime, follow us


on Twitter, and like us on Facebook, You can see loads of extra content


on the Facebook page Thanks for watching


and we will see you soon. Showers or longer spells of rain


were the mark of the day on Friday


Click looks at fusion energy and its potential as a limitless source of clean power. Plus the team follows the San Francisco Police Department who are trying to stop drivers driving under the influence of cannabis.

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