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Great Balls of Fire

Click looks at fusion energy and its potential as a limitless source of clean power. Plus the San Francisco PD trying to stop people driving under the influence of cannabis.


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Now on BBC News, it's time for Click.

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This week: Regenerating keys. Unusual vegetation. And goodness

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gracious, Great Balls of Fire! -- teeth.

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Energy. As our demand for it grows, the world is faced with a challenge.

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When we burn coal, the energy that has been stored inside for millions

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of years is released, to power our cities and machines. But so, of

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course, is all the bad stuff that is polluting and changing our

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environment. Countries have met and agreed to reduce carbon emissions

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and invest in cleaner energy solutions. We are harnessing more

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solar and wind energy than ever. And last month, the UK had its first day

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of electricity supply without burning any coal. But green power is

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still a long way from taking over from fossil fuels. But what if there

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was a clean energy source that could rest release -- release ten times

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the energy of fossil fuels, an almost limitless supply they could

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keep the planet running for millions of years? Well, it turns out that.

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And answer lies in the stars. In the heart of the sun, under intense

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pressure and heat, hydrogen atoms change from gas into superhot

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plasma, and in this burning soup, beef used together, forming helium,

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and releasing amends amounts of energy. This is nuclear fusion. And

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this is what scientists have been trying to recreate down here on

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earth. -- being fused. We have to do something similar to a star, which

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has gravity. To do that, we use magnetic fields. We are talking

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about magnetic fields that great more pressure than the water

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pressure at the deepest part of the ocean. So you have this huge

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pressure trying to compress the plasma, and you need to hold it in

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place for a long time as well. To get more energy out. If you can keep

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that superhot plasma in place for long enough, the energy released can

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keep everything hot, without the need for external power. The fusion

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then becomes self sustaining. And that is when the magic happens. And

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that is also the hard bit. We are making progress, though. We have

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already achieved fusion. And some of the best fusion happens inside

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machines called tockermac. This one is just outside Oxford, which turns

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out to be a bit of an epicentre for fusion technology. The world's is

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just 15 minutes drive up that way. -- tokamak. The problem is you need

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to put more energy in then you get out. Which is not ideal. But the

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company here is taking a different route. This is the lab of Tokamak

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Energy, which is generating relatively small tokamaks. The

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designs are being refined. This approach means that the team may be

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the first to work out how to produce a net gain of energy. Go on then,

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fire it up. That is a fusion reaction! Insight here, we are

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generating a gas with electricity flowing through it, and we are going

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to fuse atoms together, joined together, and generate fusion

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energy. -- inside here. And this is not even fusion, this is just a

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warmup for the next age, which is hoped to happen next year. What we

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will do is heated up to over 10,000,000 degrees, up towards 100

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million degrees. What will that look like? We won't be to keep our face

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this close, because it will get damaged! Will have to be further

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away, outside a concrete barrier. But it will start to go transparent

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as the plasma gets really hot, ten times the coverage of the sun, 100

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times the director of the sun. Once they have achieved the temperatures,

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they need to keep the plasma in place long enough for it to become

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self-sustaining. -- the temperature. This is what the team hopes will

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create magnetic fields from hour to do that. Is of thick copper cables,

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a strip of superconductor meed of each room barium copper oxide. All

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this sounds hopeful, but the joke is that nuclear fusion has always been

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30 years away. -- itrium barium. If successful, it means the end of our

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reliance on fossil fuels, there is a lot of science to do between and

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then. It could be a fantastic source of energy. Likely to be the most

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important source of energy in the 22nd century. The point is we need

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it now and so we want to make faster progress towards fusion energy.

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Well, these guys try and recreate the conditions at the centre of a

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star. Let's talk for a few minutes about capturing energy from our son.

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Solar energy. It turns out that India is in the grip of a solo gold

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rush. Money is pouring into the country to build solar power plants

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to try and cater for the skyrocketing demands from about a

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billion potential consumers. -- sun. We sent a correspondence to Tamil

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Nadu. -- correspondent. Follow the morning sun for two hours out of

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Tamil Nadu, and it takes you to a world first. The planet's largest

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solar power plant. It is huge. Ten square kilometres of glimmering

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glass and electronics, stretching as far as a drone can see. The power

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company here through $700 million into building the community plant.

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And they did not hang about, up and running in just nine months. But it

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is big when it comes to solar power. Or are the Indians just showing off?

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The answer might be in the clouds. If you look over there, you can see

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there is a gathering storm. This is one of the problems with solar

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power. If the rain comes, there is too much cloud and the output is

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drastically reduced. But the sheer size of Kamuthi means this is less

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of an issue. This is covered in 2500 acres of panels. With cloud, only

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five or 10% reductions occur. Normally, we can predict in a year

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generation for the maximum of ten months. Only two months there will

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be variations. Each of these panels generates 310 watts of energy. 30

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watts is enough for a domestic light bulb. 220 for a laptop computer.

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They plasma TV screen, that is 330 or 350 watts. There are 2-and-a-half

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million these panels. -- these panels at Kamuthi. -- of these

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panels. Kamuthi's estimated to make a enough power for three quarters of

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a million people. They are squeezing every last drop of energy out of

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whatever sun is available. By facial panels even generate power from

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light that bounces back from the ground. -- bi-facial. Or snow. Not

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that there is much snow in India. Where water is scarce, washing dust

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covered panels can be impossible. An Israeli company has developed a

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robot that drycleaned the panels so they get a regular dusting. As the

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light fades, so does the power generated. Until they have the

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batteries to store something like the 648 megawatts Kamuthi producers,

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solar in India won't replace dirty coal, be noxious gases from which

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pollute the country and the rest of the world. It is certainly getting

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cheaper. This week, wholesale prices of solo dropped below coal for the

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first time. -- solar. Bids are in to construct a bigger plant then there

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is further north in Andhra Pradesh. But until then, Kamuthi, the largest

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solar plant on the world, will make the most of its place in the sun.

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Hello and welcome to the week in Tak. It was the week that Microsoft

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released an urgent software update after discovering a floor in their

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operating system. The bug could give hackers accessed by simply sending

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an e-mail which did not even need to be opened. A 16-year-old's tweet

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about chicken nuggets became the most retweeted ever. And customers

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in the UK were told there would be no more roaming charges in European

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countries as of next month. Take a look at the solar panels. Kaesler's

:11:56.:12:00.

solar roof tiles are now available. Look pricey? Well due to the power

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harvesting abilities, they are being pitched as cheaper than conventional

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tiles. From solar to sonic. A US plane return to earth after two

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years in space. But its mission remains top secret. Having landed at

:12:18.:12:24.

the Kennedy space centre, or the Pentagon declared was that it was

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performing risk reduction, experimentation, and concept of

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operations development. Intriguing. And finally, Hollywood quality

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animation comes to the masses. OK, well not quite. The smart suit pro

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tracking system costs a fraction of the pro- Kit. But at 2-and-a-half

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million dollars, it could prove gaming changing for many. --

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Smartsuit Pro. It is one of the biggest fundraising events of the

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year. Lost funds are still being counted, organisers are hopeful the

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records from last year's London Marathon will be broken. Online

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fundraising platforms play a big role in attracting donations,

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pushing causes to users, was also allowing them to donate money were

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just a click. Just giving, one of the biggest players, raised just

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under ?350 million last year. This is a figure that charities might not

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have been to raise without the help of these sites. But these are big

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business. JustGiving takes 5% commission. While others, like

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GlobalGiving, take up to 15%. They say the fees cover operational

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costs and innovations to ultimately But for charities, this commission

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is money that is not The majority of our funding comes

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from individual fundraisers, for example one of our runners

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is currently on ?1500, so the commission

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on that is going to be about ?100. And, on the ground, that translates

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into care for ten kids that could have received top to toe

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checkup, HIV testing, ATV testing. And be insured their

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health and well-being. Starfish is a small charity

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which helps vulnerable children in South Africa,

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who are affected by HIV and poverty, and a lot of its money goes

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into running a mobile health clinic. In the UK, the charity Big Kid helps

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vulnerable young people in south Both organisations have been

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experimenting with Kind Link, a site which promises to give

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charities although collected donations and will not

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make its money from commissions. I went to meet its founder,

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Iskren Kulev, who traded in corporate life and set up

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a Home Office, just KindLink didn't start as a company,

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KindLink started as an idea to be a social enterprise/charity

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that helps charities. For him, it's all

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about transparency - he wanted to create a platform

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where charities would post updates. The biggest problems

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of the charities is how they communicate with their donors

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and do the donors trust About 70% of donors say

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they would make more if there -- they knew what was happening

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with their donation. They have also added a feature

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to show people how much money the charity has received and how

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much it has spent. How has your background in financial

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tech helped you to put this together and also to work the system a bit,

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because it is all about making money, it is about making money now

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not for businesses but for this. It is always a matter

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of negotiation, I would say. I will go firstly through volume

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is important, how you present When I know where they can make

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a compromise, I can try to come up with a deal which would work

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for both of us. See, this is a guy you want

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on your side, because he knows how And so far it's proving

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successful, with more than 170 How would you improve

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on what you are doing on the pitch? For Big Kid, it's been able to spend

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more money on its programs, like this one, which trains young

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people to be football coaches. It has helped me, definitely,

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especially with school Like, in school, I wasn't the good

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kid, you understand? So how does Kind Link

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cover its costs? Well, instead of taking

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commission from donors, it plans to take the

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money from businesses. They've developed this platform

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for companies to build a profile for themselves, showcasing

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the good causes they support And the companies will be

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charged a monthly fee. I think it is quite fitting that

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Kind Link have set themselves up just across the river

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from Canary Wharf, where the financial industry

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makes its billions. And I think it takes a certain

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kind of person to give all of that up and come over

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here and work for charities. What's being created here in this

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lab at the University of Nottingham could mean that you will

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be making fewer trips They're working on fillings

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that heal your teeth! Whilst they can't actually

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make a tooth regrow, they aim to encourage the dental

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pulp stem cells within the tooth to transition

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into a new healthy cell type. Goggles on and time

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to talk to one of the lead Can you tell me a bit

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about what you are doing here? Yeah, so, we've developed a dental

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material technology that has been used to restore components

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of a patient's tooth. This is the material we have here,

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in its solution form, and once UV light is irradiated

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on this solution, it stiffens The substance created is used

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in the same way as a conventional filling, but the aim is that it

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will interact with the dental pulp beneath to heal it

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as well as prevent further rotting. Perfecting the product involves

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precision and patience. The materials go through

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many stages of testing. Once solidified under

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a UV light, it is off Is the idea that it

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will heal all the way up to the point of the filling,

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so you have a totally The healing process will only occur

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if the material is in contact with the cells we screen for,

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so we have to place this material in contact with the pulp tissue

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and the pulp tissue contains the cell population, the stem cells,

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that we are trying to engineer What does this mean for your average

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person who goes to have a filling? Potentially, if a person

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has severe dental decay and they need a filling,

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or if it's severe enough they need a root canal, potentially,

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this technology can be used as an intermediate approach,

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where we can intervene and reduce the incidence of people

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needing root canals. The substance is designed to be used

:19:18.:19:20.

in a similar way to current fillings and is hoped to be available

:19:21.:19:25.

within ten years after various And they're not the only

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ones experimenting with Kings College have been working

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with an Alzheimer's drug, aiming to regenerate stem cells,

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something which could be ready even But whilst the wait for what we saw

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in Nottingham may seem long, I am told the materials are cheap,

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which indicates that if this does becomes a reality,

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it will do so for more than just Now, over the last few years,

:19:54.:19:57.

we've reported from Silicon Valley, as marijuana has gradually been

:19:58.:20:03.

decriminalised in several The tech companies in the area have

:20:04.:20:05.

been quick to try and capitalise on changes in the law,

:20:06.:20:18.

but there have also been some For example, it turns out

:20:19.:20:21.

there is no reliable way to test whether a driver has

:20:22.:20:25.

been smoking pot. Well, as we report, nanotechnology

:20:26.:20:27.

that has previously been used to help detect cancer may now be

:20:28.:20:30.

used by police officers to help American police officers are facing

:20:31.:20:33.

a problem with pot as more states How to crack down on

:20:34.:20:44.

driving while drugged. We asked the Mountain View Police

:20:45.:20:50.

Department to explain the standard It all depends on whether or not

:20:51.:20:53.

we can smell something. Federal law still states that smell

:20:54.:21:01.

alone can allow an officer Pot behaves differently

:21:02.:21:04.

in the body than alcohol. The difference between you and I

:21:05.:21:13.

breaking out alcohol is minimal, whereas, in marijuana cases,

:21:14.:21:18.

it rapidly leaves the body. At the end of an hour,

:21:19.:21:27.

up to 90% of the marijuana in your system will have

:21:28.:21:30.

been broken down. The police department hopes

:21:31.:21:32.

Stanford University can help, scientists there are

:21:33.:21:42.

working on a 'potaliser' - a device which will detect levels

:21:43.:21:44.

of THC, the psychoactive You can think of each of those

:21:45.:21:47.

sensors as a magnet. And when a chemical reaction occurs,

:21:48.:21:53.

that indicates THC is present, then a magnetic nano particle

:21:54.:21:55.

causes that magnet to flip It's a lot like a computer hard

:21:56.:21:58.

drive, where you have zeros and ones For us, rather than having

:21:59.:22:03.

a computer flip it from zero to one, we have a biochemical reaction flip

:22:04.:22:10.

it from zero to one. The potaliser tests saliva

:22:11.:22:13.

collected with a swab. It can send results

:22:14.:22:15.

to a mobile device. This is the first attempt

:22:16.:22:17.

at turning the technology In a year's time, the scientists

:22:18.:22:20.

want it to be easy enough to use I stop you, you blow

:22:21.:22:26.

into the machine within 15 to 20 minutes of the stop and it

:22:27.:22:41.

tells me your nanogram level right 45 minutes later,

:22:42.:22:44.

get your blood drawn, At least I have the original,

:22:45.:22:47.

at the time when my car stopped, And that will help in

:22:48.:22:52.

the prosecution later on. Ultimately, researchers want

:22:53.:22:56.

the potalizer to work faster, cost less and it

:22:57.:22:58.

should work on people. Because Stanford receives

:22:59.:23:00.

US government funding, it must comply with federal drug

:23:01.:23:06.

laws, so potalizer is yet The researchers hope it can edge

:23:07.:23:09.

out competing devices, like the THC-detecting breathalyser

:23:10.:23:13.

from Hound Labs. Marijuana use may rise

:23:14.:23:19.

as loser laws take effect, but the right tool could help

:23:20.:23:23.

police the streets safe. Just before we go, a little tease

:23:24.:23:30.

about next week's clip, -- Click, which is going

:23:31.:23:35.

to be rather epic! In the meantime, follow us

:23:36.:23:59.

on Twitter, and like us on Facebook, You can see loads of extra content

:24:00.:24:08.

on the Facebook page Thanks for watching

:24:09.:24:12.

and we will see you soon. Showers or longer spells of rain

:24:13.:24:37.

were the mark of the day on Friday

:24:38.:24:43.

Click looks at fusion energy and its potential as a limitless source of clean power. Plus the team follows the San Francisco Police Department who are trying to stop drivers driving under the influence of cannabis.