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Welcome from Stonehenge to Inside Out with more of your stories from


where we live. Here is what's coming up tonight.


Has Stonehenge been giving its secrets quite? Is sound the key to


Wiltshire's world Heritage site? And we investigate the bank trying to


First tonight: it's a world heritage site: Stonehenge.


For generations it's puzzled everyone as to what it means. Well,


now a new theory says we shouldn't be bothered with how it looks, but


rather how it sounds. Stonehenge, the ultimate archaeological riddle.


Body in order to try and solve it, I need to take a road trip. I'm going


to Wales, almost as far West as you can go, because that is where the


Bluestones of Stonehenge came from over 4,000 years ago. Fellow! Thank


you. They must have been something really special to Stone Age man.


These lumps of rocks well they weighed four tonnes each. That's the


same as a fully loaded transit van ` but of course they didn't have an


engine! So why lug such massive stones all that distance? I'm


meeting Paul Devereux an archaeologist who has recently made


a very intriguing sounding discovery that suggests an answer to that


mystery ` sound being the key word...


Hello, you must be Paul. Hi, Jon, good to see you.


We meet below Carn Menyn ridge in the Preseli Hills, 183 miles from


Stonehenge. Got my microphone. Oh, you'll need


it! Paul is the leading investigator of


a project sponsored by the Royal College of Art looking for evidence


of a pre`historic landscape. How might it have looked and sounded to


Stone Age man? So why have you brought me to this


desolate spot, then? Well, because it is desolate,


really. We wanted a pristine landscape one that would be much the


same as Stone Age as now and what we wanted to do was to try to record


what Stone Age eyes and ears would have seen and heard. Most people


think of landscape in a visual term, but we also wanted to think of it in


acoustic terms. And this turns out to be an acoustic landscape.


But it's not just a case of keeping quiet and listening, it's about the


noises that Stone Age man might have made.


I'll bring out my trusty hammer stone. Normally if you hit a rock it


sounds something like that. THUD. But a percentage of the rocks here


are what are called ringing rocks and here's one of them. RINGING


SOUND. One of many ringing rocks up here on


Carn Menyn. Want to give it go? That's incredible!


Quite a lot of them here. Give it a good old...


It sounds like a bell. Just like a bell. Lots of different


tones. You could play a tune. In fact, we've had percussionists up


here who've played proper percussion pieces off the rocks. It's rock


music! RINGING SOUND. But how do we know that Stone Age


man was aware that these bluestones rocked?


There's a boundary along here, Neolithic walling that sealed off


the neck of this promontory here. Now, as you hear some of these rocks


are themselves ringers or potential ringers, so when Stone Age,


Neolithic people built this boundary they must have been aware of the


sounds the stones made. Beyond the wall there's yet more


evidence of the link between the rocks of the Preseli Hills and the


Bluestones of Stonehenge. Up here you see this jumble of


fallen, broken rocks? This is probably a Neolithic quarry,


actually the place where perhaps some of the Bluestones came from.


And this rock here may have been intended to be a Bluestone to go to


Stonehenge. So, if you like, a Stonehenge off


cut? Sort of. For whatever reason it was


abandoned. But we did a quick test of it and it's clearly a resonant


rock. Paul and his team have tested


literally thousands of rocks across these hills and have discovered


hotspots, like this quarry, where up to 40% of them ring.


Do you think they took the stones because they had this ringing


quality? There had to be something special


about these rocks. Why the hell would you take them from here all


the way to Stonehenge? The one thing that hasn't been considered until


now is the idea that sound might have been an important factor.


So, for too long do you think we've concentrated on how Stonehenge looks


and not how it sounds? Very much so. For so long


archaeology has been a silent movie. Now we're looking for the


soundtrack. But is the theory rock solid? Or


will cracks appear when I put it to the test. RINGING SOUND.


That's one. RINGING SOUND. That's another. There's two notes, two


definite notes. RINGING SOUND. That one and... RINGING SOUND.


I need one more chord and I can be Status Quo!


We know Stone Age man brought rocks back from Carn Menyn. So I've


brought back the sounds. Now this really is quite exciting.


It's 7:30 in the morning and we're amongst the stones at Stonehenge and


not only that but English Heritage have given us permission to sound


the Bluestones. So I've got the sound equipment. Let's give it a go!


Chances like this don't happen every day and Paul's co`investigator Jon


Wozencroft and their team of advisors have jumped at the


opportunity to test the stones for themselves. If the theory's right,


if you hit Stonehenge it should sound similar to the rocks up the


mountain. But hold on... They're set in the ground, some of


them are set in concrete, so any sound they have, any resonance will


be damped down. They'll be slightly muted. Now what


about the protocol here? Can we just be whacking World Heritage sites?


No, you certainly cannot. I'm a bit concerned. So for that very reason


I've brought some plastic membranes so we don't actually directly hit


the rock. Great! Let's give it a go, then.


Nothing very special there. Oh, that's better!


So this is, what, Stone 62? OK, well, I would think if this was a


free stander or supported with air space all around that would probably


ring. I tell you, there's something else interesting here are these


marks, pieces have been knocked out ` look. They must have been detached


by hammering at some time in the past. Now, they're not as old as the


original working cos they've cut through that surface, but clearly


they are of some antiquity. The fracturing qualities here are


very different from the fracturing quality here ` it's quite clearly


been tapped. So do you think it flaked because people could have


been sounding the stone? It's possible. And it's in that segment


where there's more resonance than at the top, isn't it? And this is the


area where the chunks are missing. Where they've been hammering in the


past. I never thought I'd say this, but


let's go and hit more of Stonehenge. I think it might be this one, you


know. Let's go and try this one as well.


So, how might the ringing rocks theory strike a chord with what we


already know of Stonehenge? We know Stonehenge is very special


for all sorts of reasons, so it's quite likely that the stones had


properties besides the obvious ones, the visual ones, so it's quite


likely they had acoustic properties. This building, this site, is a


theatre of performance where ritual is going on, symbolism is going on,


astronomy ` all those important parts of a symbolic life is going on


here, and sound and colour plays a vital role in how that building


functions. The weak link in this whole story is


the fact that they could have just brought stones that made funny


noises by mistake. How do we know that they specifically said: "right,


we'll have that one." We don't of course know that they


moved them because they rang. What we can say is of course prehistoric


attitudes to stone must have been very different to the sort of


attitudes we have today. And we often think of stone as permanent,


very long term, very inert, yet we talk about in a strange way as the


living rock ` we talk about stone as if it's got a life to it. It's got a


sort of presence in the landscape which is a little bit more than just


a rock. You get sounds which are like bells,


some of them are like bamboo, some like tin drums. Ringing rocks are a


prominent part of many cultures. You could almost see them as a


prehistoric glockenspiel, if you like. You would knock them and you


would hear these tunes. The soundscapes of pre`history is


something we're only just starting to explore.


Oh yeah! There it is! That sounds good! That's really good, that one


there. That sounds brilliant! I'm going to get my recording of Wales


and we can compare them. So, with this we can play the sounds of Wales


and if the theory is right and I can switch it on it should sound fairly




You're getting resonance there that this stone can't give you.


But you can hear... Oh, yeah. You know that it's in there, as it were.


RINGING SOUND. That's a bell`tone. We know these have been re`set and


they're not going to ring. Not only that, they've been set in the


ground. These stones and that allowed them to resonate freely.


These cannot resonate freely. Do one more.


RINGING SOUND. It's that one, isn't it? That's the real... Here we are.


We got the Bluestones of Wales and the Bluestones of Wales, and they


both ring! Not so much Stonehenge and Tonehenge. Remember the time you


could get a bank loan at the click of your fingers with hardly any


questions asked. Could it be back then Laing banks would lend you


money to invest in an international fraud?


Doesn't make sense. Elizabeth Watson is about to lose her Bournemouth


home. 13 years ago she went to the Bank of Scotland for a loan to


invest in a scheme which promised high returns. She says she was told


the scheme had the backing of senior people at the Bank of Scotland and


the bank was keen to offer her ?345,000 secured against her house.


But the investment turned out to be a huge fraud, and we think the bank


should have known that at the time. I've become obsessed. The fight for


justice is so enormous. I've been wrestling with the courts. I don't


know how to put it in words, other than to say it's ruined my life. The


biggest cost has been our health, our happiness, our family life. It's


wrecked my business, it's wrecked my health, it's wrecked my marriage.


It's been really, really tough. Really, really horrible.


Liz applied for her loan before the global financial crisis, when banks


seemed to want to lend money to practically anybody ` and there were


big bonuses for those who brought in the most customers. Having made a


trial investment, Liz says the conmen directed her to a Bank of


Scotland manager, Fraser Mackay, so she could get a loan to invest more.


Mr Mackay was so taken by the scheme he even invested funds of his own.


Liz says his enthusiasm meant she got other family members involved.


Do you feel bad about introducing your family members to the


opportunities that were dangled in front of you?


Terrible. I feel absolutely terrible about that. I was in such anguish


over that I had a breakdown, I suppose. At the time, I couldn't


function, I became a recluse. I wouldn't go out. I was crying all


the time. I felt this terrible guilt, I felt this terrible burden.


Regret, remorse? I didn't know how to put it right. Now, 13 years on,


the bank is going after her home and that of her sister Rosemary. An aunt


lost everything and Liz's parents lost their life savings. The whole


family was cynically reeled in through a vulnerable daughter


because of their apparent wealth. It's almost destroyed my husband


because he can't believe that he was? could ever have done so foolish


a thing, but then we just didn't know. It upsets me to see him upset.


I'm trying to help my daughters, both of them. I've written to all


sorts of people ` Theresa May, Mr Cameron, even the Queen, saying the


way I feel about my two daughters in danger of losing their homes. It's


something that I think any mother would empathise with.


It all began with an accountancy firm formerly based in Nottingham


and Leicester called Dobb White, whose partners Alan White and Shin


Gangar targeted wealthy families with the promise of returns of up to


160%. The pair got close to one of the


managers of the Bank of Scotland, Fraser Mackay, offering him


hospitality at champagne receptions and football matches, and


introducing him to potential investors as the man who could sort


out loans. There's NO suggestion Fraser Mackay knew it would turn out


to be a fraudulent scheme, but there were plenty of signs that should


have made him wary, not least the lies told and extraordinary returns


promised by one of the fraudsters Shin Gangar.


I mean, total temptation. He made it sound amazing. He said we can


generate returns on a best efforts basis. The main thing is your


capital is safe. He said it's risk free, and he made it sound


watertight. He said that he had a fantastic new opportunity that was


opening up a new area of the financial markets, and that he had


the backing of Bank of Scotland, and he had a fantastic relationship with


them at board level, and that he could arrange loans to invest in


this special bond underwriting scheme that they were running. He


showed me lots of references from high profile people.


He showed me a contract with Andrew Lloyd Webber at the Really Useful


Theatre group, saying that through the dividends and yields from this


scheme that they'd enabled the funding of the Sunset Boulevard


tour. I mean, it really impressed me, you know. He said if you weren't


happy, all you had to do was give 30 days' notice ` and it's a no brainer


` he said you can take your money out.


By promising fantastic pay outs and using names like Andrew Lloyd Webber


and David Frost, who had never been connected with the investment


scheme, Shin Gangar set out to dazzle clients like Liz. The reason


he was offering returns too good to be true was because he was a crook


operating a fraudulent scheme which collapsed. He was sent to jail and


the scheme's investors were left hundreds of thousands of pounds out


of pocket. That isn't the half of it. Shin Gangar already had a


criminal record, and his dodgy accountancy firm had long been


banned by the Financial Services Authority from handling client


money. Fraser Mackay and the Bank of Scotland should have known this but


they didn't check. Financial journalist Ian Fraser is highly


critical of the Bank of Scotland's actions, both in making loans to


invest in what turned out to be a fraudulent scheme and in now


pursuing numerous victims of the fraud for their homes. How would you


characterise the way banks were lending in 2001 Insaid `` insane,


they were lending to anyone with a pulse. They didn't care if there was


fraud, if people made up the ininformation. Some banks including


Bank of Scotland, they wanted to put the money out the door and they did


not care about all the proper work that should go on round that,


including authentication of dock yueps. The whole attitude was like


the Wild West, we had almost like a Wild West situation, in UK banking,


at that time: Controls, risk management, where credit checking, a


lot of these things were inadequate, and you know, we are reaping the


consequences of that. Let me put this to you, this is what


the Bank of Scotland are saying about what happened they never


endorsed the Dobb White scheme, all the loans they issued were according


to the relevant processes The Bank of Scotland had an obsession with


growth at that period, because it had just merged with Halifax and it


wanted to rally grow its loan book and it was determined to be as big


as other bank, like Barclays or HSBC, or RBS. And so it was going


hell`for`leather as a lender, and it was lending in a reckless or


cavalier manner, on the corporate side, which is to bids and on the


retail side to individuals. It was so obsessed with growth, it lost


sight of the fundamentals of banking, which are can the borrower


pay the money back? One of the risk of taking out a loan secure against


hurt your home is if you don't pay it back the bank can repossess your


property. To protect homeowners from making decisions that could leave


them homeless any leoparder has to be satisfied you have the means or


capacity to pay back the money you are borrowing aside from the equity


on your house. Under Fraser Mackay at the Bank of


Scotland if 2001, the victims we have spoken to claim this was not


being properly done. For many of them, their only real


source of income was the returns from the Dobb White scheme.


From what we have been able to find out, at least seven people lent


money by the Bank of Scotland have had their homes repossessed is or


been forced to sell them to avoid repossession. Others had to give the


bank their life savings. To save their homes some signed a legally


binding gagging order to stop them speaking out about how the bank has


treated them. By talking to us anonymously these people could be


breaking the gagging order but they realise staying silent means the


story can't get out. Why did the Bank of Scotland lend you money? The


only ground that was given to me was the grounds of the income from the


Dobb White scheme, because I had no other income whatsoever. The bank


knew that? Correct. Because if someone is going to offer you money,


secured against your home as a loan, there has tb a certain source of


income coming in? That is right. And that is what I was offered and that


is what happened. Do you think you were being foolish?


If you have a bank that is happy to fund you, and give you an unlimited


credit card, happy to give you an overdraft, an extra loan, all on the


basis of income from this particular scheme, why should I ask questions


about the bank's knowledge? If they are happy, why shouldn't I be?


When Shin Gangar's scheme collapsed more than ?100 million disappeared.


Many people lost their live savings, only a fraction of cash was


recovered. The whole world collapsed round us.


We just saw a big black hole. Everything wefr had, all gone and


lost. It was a matter of selling our house, selling our car. Selling


everything we could lay hands on and trying to keep going.


Having lent you the money for this fraudulent investment, what did the


bank say when you lost everything? They wanted their money back, full


stop. Absolutely, and the solicitors they put on to us, to repossess the


house were very aggressive. How are things now? My credit status is


zero. I am in a rented house. I am on state pension. With Pension


Credit. Nothing left. The bank say first of


all they did not recommend this Dobb White scheme, secondly, that the


loans were eschewed correctly. And thirdly if their customers can't


re`` repay their loans that is not their problem. So the bank is saying


they are justified in seeking to evict these people from their homes.


That is, you know, that is in my view wrong. They are in denial. They


are trying to pretend that they have done absolutely nothing wrong. They


are doing it in order to preserve value for their current


shareholders. We have been in phone and written


communication with the Bank of Scotland for months now, but they


haven't answered questions such as whether it was right for their


manager Fraser Mackay to accept hospitality from Shin Gangar and


whether they were wear that the Dobb White firm was under investigation


by the financial authority at the sign of the so`called investments.


The Bank of Scotland have refused to give Inside Out and interview, I


spoke to a representative who denied the bank gave customers any


recommendations about the Dobb White scheme, he also said that all loans


were issued in accordance with the relevance processes but refused to


explain whey they were. `` what they were. You might think a


fool and their Monday are easily parted. If something appears to be


good to be true it usually is. This isn't some pub scam. Fraser Mackay


was a senior manager at the Bank of Scotland. For the victims we spoke


to, he was the face of the bank, and he was a figure of authority. His


department's willingness to loan them money to invest in Dobb White


was for them an endorsement of the scheme. Since retiring from the boss


box, Mr Mackay has led an active life, jetting off to Marrakech,


Moscow and Nepal and detailing his adventures on line. We tracked


Fraser Mackay down. He was happy to chat to us at length off`the`record,


and said Knight irhe nor the bank had done anything wrong. But he


suddenly went quiet when he asked him to put his point of view on


camera. We have had no joy from the phone calls or letters we have sent,


so we will try the direct approach. I am heading to Chester where he


retired to after he left the Bank of Scotland and we are going to see if


we can get some answers. He told us he was back from his


latest trip, so we waited for him to turn up. No response again. We have


been buzzing his apartment for the last two days and there has been no


sign of life in. So it looks like he has gone away or he has decided the


lie low for a while. Our expert believes the refusal of


anyone from the Bank of Scotland to properliance our questions fits a


familiar pattern of behaviour. In this case and in almost every


case I am aware of the banks never admit they have done anything wrong.


Because they prefer to stone wall, they prefer to be in denial, they


prefer to try to divide the victims, there is very strategies they and


other banks have used over the year, the hope is if they just stone wall


for long enough, the customers who have lost money will go away, die,


commit suicide or whatever, so the bank won't have to pay anything


back. It is just an astonishing, I am not, saying this particularly,


the bank's behaviour has been abhorrent. Most banks have been


behaved in an abhorrent manner. They haven't admitted they have done


anything wrong. Some have admitted they have made mistakes but


generally, they have been in a state of denial, believing they can carry


on, behaving in more or less the same manner. The banks should be


brought to task. A lot of them have spent, well they have ruined


people's lives. I don't want, they have ruined our


lives in the sense for 12 years we have had it round our heads, but I


don't want to see both my daughters, who are still relatively young


compared to me, loose their homes. They don't deserve to.


But there has been some movement. Since Inside Out has been in contact


with bank about this investigation, they have written to Liz offering to


stop repossession proceedings but suggesting both parties it is down


with an independent immediate Yao for to sort thingsous. We have been


in contact with the Financial Conduct Authority, which has the


power to issue multimillion pound fines to banks who break the rules,


they have taken a keen interest what we have uncovered and promised to


look closely at the evidence. Meanwhile, the Bank of Scotland


continues to claim they did nothing wrong in depositing customer's money


with an accountancy firm banned from taking it. Nor would they comment on


whether Frick Fraser Mackay's contact with Shin Gangar make the


scheme look he Egyptian mat. They make no apology for going off


customers when the scheme collapsed. If you end up losing your home


because you took out a loan you didn't have the means to repay, that


is not the bank's problem. That is just business.


Right, that is it for tonight, and indeed for the series, thanks for


watching, and don't for get, if you have a story for us, do get in


touch. We will see you later in the year.


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barracks, today a coroner said bullying and an alleged rape were


two factors. A good night for the bit at the Oscars, Gravity won an


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