03/08/2011 Newsnight


In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Gavin Esler.

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Tonight, so was it just News International that was at it? A


Newsnight investigation uncovers new allegations of phone hacking at


the Mirror Group. Mills, the former wife of Sir Paul McCarthy tells us


a senior Mirror Group journalist admitted a phone hacking from a


A former Mirror journalist, and an MP on the Culture Committee tell us


how much further this could spread. Deposed President Mubarak on trial


and on a stretcher, and as we find out, punishing their ailing


President is about the only thing Egypt's aspiring politicians can


agree on. The political forces that combined


to oust President Mubarak are now turning against each other.


I will be examining whether Egypt's revolution has derailed.


Mouch money have you lost in the recession, exclusive Newsnight


research puts a figure on how hard your pay packet has been hit.


Coming up later on tonight's show, a special report on...a special


report on... I had it a minute ago. And as the world's experts on


memory gather in Britain what do we really know about it. And unlike


Steve, one man who never forgets it here to be tested.


From the very start it has been likely that a phone hacking scandal


involved not just one reporter or one newspaper, or even one


newspaper group, tonight Newsnight has new allegations involving


Mirror Group newspapers, and the former wife of Beatle, Sir Paul


McCarthy. Heather Mills claims a senior journalist there admitted to


her in 2001 her phone had been hacked. She told us the name of the


journalist, but for legal reasons You have no new message and no


saved messages. After permeating News International,


the phone hacking scandal seeps into the heart of the Mirror Group.


Evidence provided to us by Heather Mills suggests at least one senior


journalist was harvesting personal messages with a view to making the


front page. Their turbulent love affair made for highly prized copy


for the tabloids. But Heather Mills says after a row in early 2001, she


left the UK on a trip to India. She says that Paul McCarthy left a


series of highly sensitive messages on her voicemail to would her back.


Shortly afterwards she received a phone call from a senior Mirror


There has been much speculation about what Piers Morgan knew or


didn't know at the time about hacking. He was a senior Mirror


Group editor. But he was not the person who rang Mills. But his own


omission n a newspaper article, he had listened to one of Heather's


He wrote in a 2006 article in the Piers Morgan was editor in chief at


the Mirror at the time when Heather Mills says her phone was hacked.


Yet on the face of it in that 2006 Mail article, he appears to have


admitted to listening to one of her private messages. He has always


denied knowledge of phone hacking. Tonight he has raised questions


about the credibility of Heather Mills, and once again, denied


knowledge of hacking. In statement he said Heather


Mills's claims are unsubstantiated, and that a High Court judge had


described her as a less than candid witness. Some of his former


colleagues believe hacking was widespread. He said I have never


hacked a phone. I believe that. That's perfectly plausible. He said


he had never asked anyone to hack a phone, that is possible as well.


But what wasn't possible is the third thing, that he never


published a story on a phone hack, on any of the papers he has edited.


Newsnight has been told that seven individuals are consulting lawyers


about taking legal action against the Mirror Group about hacking.


Former England manager, Sven-Goran Eriksson, is one, today we spoke to


his-partner, who believes their So how much hacking did go on at


heightles owned by Trinity mirror. One of Piers Morgan aers fiercest


critic, jailed for share ramping, said he would have plenty to say


about it. We would have a lively debate about some of the stories he


had published whilst he was there. That we would talk about some phone


hacking, and I might be able to point to a few stories that he


published whilst he was the editor of the paper that came from phone


hacks. Arriving for his show tonight in


Los Angeles, Piers Morgan had little to say. I have actually made


a statement, I'm not going to add anything further to that. Thank you


very much. Pressure on him and Trinity mirror is growing tonight.


We have more extraordinary detail from Piers Morgan. He has been in a


position where he has to give more detail. He says he has no knowledge


of any executive from any other newspapers that Trinity newspapers


may or may not have with Mills. Goes on to attack Heather Mills's


credibility. He says he has knowledge of that Sir Paul McCarthy


says that Heather Mills illegally accessed his phone messages and


released those details. He then goes on to quote the judge in the


divorce case, saying that Heather Mills was inconsistent and


inaccurate in some of her evidence, and a less than impressive witness.


But despite all of this, the question that remains tonight,


which he hasn't addressed yet, is why did he write in 2006, this line


about at one stage he was played a tape of a message that Paul had


left for Heather on a phone. He hasn't addressed that specifically


at all. He reiterates he has never hacked a phone, told anyone to hack


a phone, nor, to his knowledge, published any story obtained from a


phone haging. Another thing, Trinity Mirror Group said that all


the journalists work within the law and the Code of Conduct. I'm joined


by the Conservative MP, Therese Coffey, from the Culture Committee,


investigating phone hacking, and Wensley Clarkson, a journalist


formally at the Mirror and other papers, not at the time we were


talking about. What do you make of the


allegations? I find them very have strong in terms of Heather Mills


has made these, although her credibility is attacked and has


been in the past, there is no doubt she feels very much her privacy has


been infringed. I'm sure everybody wishes she would have gone to the


police earlier with this matter, rather than just left it at the


time. The significance of this is that you and other members of the


committee have always thought it wasn't one journalist or one paper,


it wasn't one newspaper group this appears to back up those suspicions,


at least? I'm not the only member of the committee who has made those


suggestions in the past. The information commission's report


from 2006 gave credibility to that. I just hope the police take the


evidence and go with it, and if Mr Morgan wapbs to come back to the UK


and help them with their inquiry, I don't mean being arrested or


anything, I'm sure he can add light to the article he wrote in 2006.


would be a good idea for him to come back and help the police?


think it is, there is no point in him necessarily saying in the UK


and issuing statement. It would help him, including himself and


this investigation, if he was able to say more about why he wrote what


he did in 2006. Does this strike you as credible? It probably is


credible. There is a huge issue here, where do you draw the line.


We're now on Heather Mills tonight, saying this, no doubt there will be


somebody else next week. It is a shame that Heather Mills herself is


not perhaps the most credible person in the world. No doubt Piers


Morgan will feel that as well. He has already said that. I would


point out she has had battles with the Mirror and Piers Morgan. It is


a bit he said she said in that situation? The bigger issue is more


important, that is where do you draw the line. For example, hacking


is something that newspapers learned from Private Eyes, Private


Eyes are hired and - private ayes have been hired in the past by


television stations, newspapers, magazines, and were until recently


used for documentaries. I recognised the voice of a private


eye in the background on a documentary I watched own the BBC


the other day. I have to open this, if we go after other newspapers we


will have to go after them. We will have to go after David Cameron


himself, who got Andy Coulson wo vet bid the Security Services, who


used a freelanceer to do the vetting, he was a private


investigator who would have used hacking in the past. Where do you


draw the line. You draw it at legality. Then we have to go after


everybody. What do you make of the point that Piers Morgan is very


detailed, legalistic, it talk about the various things with the court


cases. It does not redress the fact that he was writinging about this


heart-breaking phone call that he apparently heard - writing about


this heart-breaking phone call that he apparently heard and didn't


report it at all. I guess Piers Morgan is there to be shot down,


because he's a world famous personality which he hasn't back


then. I would imagine every editor, I didn't work at the Mirror at that


time, I must make that point, would be worried what was done in their


name, whether they were aware or not is almost irrelevant, as we


discovered from the fate of Rebekah Brooks. That is a fact. I will also


say here and now, I'm absolutely certain not one newspaper in Fleet


Street has employed these tactics for quite a number of years now,


this isn't something that has suddenly happened overnight. Where


do you draw the line? The grounds of illegality. Of course


journalists have often used sources to break stories in the public


interest. The Telegraph paid money for a disc about the expenses


information, actually that was in the public interest, even though it


was embarrassing for MPs, what was the right thing to do. I'm not sure


going into the love life between Heather Mills and Paul McCarthy is


necessarily in the public interest, it may sell papers. This is about


the dark arts, this is the phrase we keep hearing, "the dark arts",


that involves private investigators, journalist, and a lot of those


security companies that are hired by banks, they are hired by the


City, they are hired by the BBC, to investigate people. At the moment,


I'm sure, security companies are being used by the BBC and all sorts


of major institutions to look into people, using the very dark arts we


are talking about. We will leave it there. Thank you


very much. Now, for decades Hosni Mubarak was


Egypt's king of kings. But today the humiliated and apparently one


well former President appeared in court on a stretcher. Agreeing to


get Mubarak and punish him has brought the country together. But


how does the leading nation in the Arab world cope with the ambitions


of nationalists, socialists, Islamists and others, all under the


eyes of a powerful military. Mark Urban has returned now from Egypt.


What happened today? That image of President Mubarak in the cage, is


essentially what happened, along with his two sons and a former


Interior Minister. The trial opened. You ask questions about whether


there really is a serious dossier of evidence, connecting him and his


sons and the minister to the crimes they are accused of. Because we


have seen in the Hague, when leadership figures have gone on


trial, these things have sometimes taken years to assemble to try to


prove the responsibility of individuals for decisions to shoot


demonstrator, this kind of thing. Any way, it opened, they were in


the cage. The charges were read, of corruption, and of course, of


complicity in the killing of demonstrators during the revolution.


The TRANSLATION: The intention was to kill the biggest number of


protestors possible. TRANSLATION: All the accusations I deny them all.


It is a trial, but it is also, quite clearly, a show, isn't it?


Absolutely. If one looks at the wider impact, I think it could be


enormous, the little guy in the Middle East, seeing one of the


region's strongmen brought low, kainled on his bed, sick - caged on


his bed, sick. Justice, in that sense, was being done, awakens


posbltsd that it might be done in their countries - possiblities that


it might be done in their countries. The leaders there, we know there


was pressure on the Egyptian council that runs the country from


the Arab Emirates not to do this. A lot of them felt President Mubarak


gave in too easily any way. It was a very tough decision. Of course,


the decision to put him on trial was, in a sense, forced by the


violence going Onyango the streets. The military council knew if they


didn't there would be more and more trouble. Today outside the


courtroom, clashes broke out between supporters of the former


President, and pro-democracy activists who supported the trial.


There have been running battles of this kind for weeks, with the


military edging towards today, as a means of trying to buy people off.


The implications of everything you have been saying is that Mubarak is


the past, and this is putting a seal on that, but the future and


the question of election, that is all very uncertain? That is


absolutely right. The point is, in essence, this trial may well now be


adjourned, or it could go in fits and starts, it could last a hell of


a long time, they have played the military - the card, the military


council, in terms of moving the nation forward and bringing it


together. We know from all the other street battles, and


demonstrations and shows of force I have been witnessing in recent days


in Cairo, that the battle for political control of the country,


once elections are held, has begun Egypt's transformation races on.


Everyone is jockeying for advantage, and Cairo's streets are the arena.


Fridays offer the country's different political forces the


chance to mobilise and show how many people they can bring to


Tahrir Square. But new tensions have emerged over the institution,


timing of elections and the place of Islam in society. Several months


after the revolution, some are talking about the need for a second


revolution, one thing is clear, that the forces that combine


together to topple the former President, Hosni Mubarak, are now


engaged in an active competition Early morning on the Nile, and the


city's troubles are a world away. These rowers belong to the Arab


constructors club. It is a big building firm that is putting


something back into the community. Among their first eight are an


interior design he, an office manager, and the Cox is a teacher.


They think Egypt is on the right course, they are in work, and as


their hour's training row end, seem to trust the country's temporary


military helmsmen. Is their job a bit like your job in


the boat, the cox, to steer Egypt in the right direction. It will be


good, we will be stable, after this situation any revolution in the


world takes more time to be stable. Not everyone shares that confidence.


Here a TV show was going out. Among the guests an editor from one of


the top pro-democracy parties. They have been casting doubt whether the


military council ruling Egypt to election also really hand over


power. TRANSLATION: The election process


is in danger. Civil society in Egypt is weak. The real threat is


not that the military don't want to give up power, but that political


parties are so disorganised that the military says it must stay in


power. Downing Street about the way ahead


lay behind a protestor's decision early in July to reoccupy Tahrir


Square. A rainbow coalition of groups came to demand justice for


the country's martyrs, and criticise the generals running the


country. Some here bother the scars of a


March on military headquarters that ended in violence. Among them this


man. An unemployed graduate, who believes the military will not


allow free elections. TRANSLATION: We don't want elections, because we


don't trust the military to run them fairly. None of the demands of


the original revolution have been met yet. And the military have no


authority. There should be a second revolution, with a broader case


base. In this city the Muslim Brotherhood has become adept at


judging the mood. Founded 60 years ago, and underground for decade, it


decided to get out of the protest camp and condemn those who stayed.


To stay in Tahrir Square will create chaos, stopping people going


to the famous buildings, marching to the army it causes criticism for


it creating chaos in the street, this is dangerous. The Muslim


Brotherhood and others left the democracy groups behind in the


square. They are now speeding into the future, accepting that the army


will bow out, and preparing to win November's elections.


Those most friendly to western values meanwhile, are still trying


to find traction. This event brought the social media


glit rattity to a Cairo hotel, TV presenters, corporate sponsors and


humam rights activists joined the blogger who calls himself


Sendmonkey. They wanted to raise money via Twitter for one of


Cairo's slums. Like others on this progressive wing of politics, he's


already crying foul about the election. In the new election they


have stated that there will be no international observers. I'm not


saying that they intend to do fraud in the elections, I'm just saying


that usually Governments that don't want the election monitored have


something to hide. While the Twitterratie debate the


timing of elections or rivalries, their relationship with the


community they were helping seems to be arm's length.


When we went to here, the fundraisers' organisers couldn't


come with us or put us in touch with any community workers. More


than 600,000 people live here, with few services. Many rely on state-


subsidised bread, and times are tough because the economy has


stalled since the revolution. But the issue that most concerned the


people we spoke to, was the desappearance of the police.


- disappearance of the police. They told me the most noticable change


since the revolution was the slow response time of the police. The


Muslim Brotherhood has seen the law and order vacuum as an opportunity


to extend its own services. When we see the police going, our system


helps people to keep their security in all towns and villages, and even


the rate of crimes declined, not rose.


The faltering police and faltering economy combined to produce scenes


like this, most days in Cairo. Rising prices and unploil


employment, key factors in triggering the revolution continue


to eat away at social stability. These people are very angry because


the boss of their company has sacked 1200 workers and her


demonstrating at the gateway to the headquarters of the company. On


this same street, if you look down here, there are dozens of


ambulances, because the ambulance men are also in dispute with their


employers. And at the same time people are coming through the


street getting more and more angry, and this is Cairo today.


The army looked on, it tries to avoid stepping in to street


violence. And the generals have Insiders, meanwhile, scorned the


idea that the army wants to do anything other than get back to


barracks as soon as it can. TRANSLATION: I don't think the


transition period will go on for much longer. It is wrong to think


the military want to takeover. No- one would want that. Including the


international community. The military want to hold elections as


soon as possible. So if order is shaky and the army can't police,


what will happen here? Down in the Al-Hussein district, the tourist


market is on its knees, disorder has hit tourism hard. Some of the


stall holders used to make 300 Egyptian pounds on a good day, now


it is one tenth of that. business is going down, it is not


going up. Some here want a military crackdown,


but they know it won't happen. Instead, they pray the elections


will end the country's disorder. It started so good and now it has


become ridiculous. And the army is not so bad what they think, it is


not so bad. So, if the stage is set for


political showdown, with November's planned elections, last Friday's


prayers in Tahrir Square showed one party's ability to organise. This


event was dominated by Salafist, religious Muslim, must stricter


than the Brotherhood in the observance they urge.


There was a Wahhabi preacher holding forth in Saudi dialect, and


hundreds of thousands of people had turned up. Among them the cox from


the rowing club and his friends. The Islamic parties will win in the


election? We hope, we aim to win. Because there are more and more


people, you see, most people here, Islam is the most people in Egypt.


About 77% in the last vote. We will win, I think. Egypt is an Islamic


area, we are not Muslim, they want to make us liberal, we respect


those people, but keep those things for you, and leave the people say


what they want. If the people want to live liberally we will live with


them, if people say they want Islam, we go with Islam, that is democracy.


The Brotherhood does not share the Sulafist desire for a swift move to


an Islamic state. What is clear is that the two Islamic parties


between them may well deliver a majority of the electorate.


None of the liberal-minded parties favoured by the west has brought


these numbers to the square. The Sulafist produced a disciplined,


impressive show of strength. It really shows the relative


balance of political forces here. And the ability of the Islamists to


answer people's concerns from security to economic and to


mobilise their people and get their vote out.


Whether or not the US or UK like what they see as Egypt careers


towards the polls, there is little they can now do to influence this


revolution. Elections happen as planned, then


the superior organisation and ideolgical strength of the Islamist


movements could easily bring them victory.


We have got our memory man coming up in just a few moments. First t


has been a bad Newsweek for economies, from the United States


to Spain and itly the, but while the politicians talk of billions -


and Italy, but while the politicians talk of billions and


trillions, we wondered how the rest of us are being squeezed in pounds


and pence. We have exclusive research that shows what has


happened to our take-home pay since the recession hit. It is sobering


stuff. Generally speaking it is on a


downward spiral, small businesses have been hit as well.


We are teachers, we are both on a pay freeze this year. But certainly


petrol and food definitely. Eats a little more at your monthly income.


Have you had pay rise lately? lately, but I'm looking for one,


man. How are you finding prices and paying the bills? Getting harder


right now. This is Slough, one of several


candidates, along with the likes of Banbury and Northampton, for the


title of "Average Town UK". The amount consumers are likely to fork


out is changing. We have been hearing a lot in


recent months about the squeeze on living standards, but we haven't


heard much about it means in pounds and pence. We commissioned special


research to find out what the effect had been on people's take


home pay, we found out in the last two-and-a-half years, real take


home pay has fallen for the average person by more than 12 - �1200 a


year. In real terms the average construction worker is taking �86


less than last year. The average retail worker, already


on low pay was �25 a month worse off. And the average public sector


workers' take home pay is boun by �50. This affects families like


this, Guy used to run a business, but changed career to be a teacher,


a move made possible by the recession. Because interest rates


came down so far, our mortgage had become very, very affordable, and


that meant I had little and little bit extra which allowed me to take


the plunge and do my training. During the worst of the recession


we were better off, as we are climbing out, so we have got more


expenses, and bills are going up, inflation is going up, and we're,


although I'm going to get a little bit more money, obviously it is


going to get a little bit tighter in many respects. Sarah is trying


to ease the squeeze on the family budget by taking on more work as a


private swimming teacher. Yes we are bring anything more income now,


which is fantastic, it is the expense of the family time we


spending to. What happened to this family also happened to most of us.


Even in the boom years, before the banking crisis, the average take


home pay didn't keep up with prices. It was actually only when the


global recession struck, that the cost of living fell, and we got


better off. It is now that we are in recovery that the amount we can


buy with our money is again slipping back.


Food prices have been pushed up by a surge in demand from Asia, and


the weak pound means shoppers here are squeezed harder than the UK or


Europe. That pinchs particularly hard if you are a mum with mouths


to feed. The day-to-day budget, clothing for instance, kids don't


stay the same size, you have to buy loads of clothes. What else, I mean,


taking them out, day trips, you can't just take them to the park,


they get a bid bored, there might be other stuff you need money for.


The trouble with the word "recovery", it is misleading if you


take it to mean the consumer is getting off and feeling better. In


fact we got better off in the recession and we are getting worse


off now in the recovery. What's really happening here is that we


are breaking our addiction to spending beyond our means. And what


we don't yet know is whether this cure is going to be more painful


than the disease. We are worse off now than we were


in 2004, and what's driving that, according to one think-tank, is an


unprecedented situation where we are competing with countries that


pay their workers a tenth of what we do.


I wouldn't be at all surprised if we had to cut our living standards


by roundabout a quarter over a generation. And actually that's


just an extrap laigs over what has happened over the last eight years.


This is not predetermined and if we get ourselves the right skills so


we can compete in premium areas to charge premium prices, then we


don't have to cut our living standards. We will be forced to if


we are simply in the same areas, and we are therefore competing in


the same traditional areas that we have in the past. Our families are


gaining more by step anything and doing some work in other ways, this


work has brought in �100 a month. We have to step up what we are


doing if our children will not be worse off than the parents.


The greatest conference on memory will be held this month. Explaining


how memory can be improved and impaired. We will discuss what we


know, and the vast amount we still do not know about memory.


Steven Smith remembered to turn up for work today, we put him to good


use. Are you ready Mr Memory? I will


place myself into readiness for this evening's performance, and


super material. Mr Memory has been turning in unforgetable


performances. Now ladies and gentlemen first question please.


Yes, Sir, being beg your pardon, Sir, who won the cup in 19267.


1926, the Arsenal gunners were beaten in the presence of His


Majesty King George V. The great old yarn The 39 Steps, running in


London, resolves around a prodigious feat of memory. It is a


strange old mismemory, we are impressed by it, we know when it is


working and when it isn't. When it comes to how the old grey


matter actually operates, you are asking the wrong species, mate.


know, as brain scientists, quite a lot what happens when we learn


something, what changes take place in the brain then. What we know


almost nothing about is how we actually remember, that is what


goes on in the brain to enable you Memory. Andrew Lloyd Webber had it


right, yet again, when he said every street light seems to beat a


fatalistic warning. Technological aids are all very well, but don't


lose the old skills. The status of memory has changed, because of


technology. Memory is something that we don't attach as much


importance to, as we used to, because we can get machines to do


it for us, we don't bother to remember phone numbers any more,


because we feel secure that they are stowed away in our pocket


somewhere. I can still remember the phone numbers of my childhood


friends, but I couldn't tell you what my wife's phone number was. We


have sort of outsourced that We invited eight-times world


champion memory man, Dominic O'Brien into the controlled


environment of the overheating Newsnight Green Room, to show us


what a trained memory can do. Is it best if I don't talk to you now, do


you have to concentrate? It is up to you. Dominic said he could


memorise 20 random playing cards in the right order in 30 seconds or so.


Starting from the top, the cards are. The four of spades, the ace of


club, the seven of diamonds, the three of hearts, it is the ace of


hearts, the eight of diamond, followed by the king of spades.


came up with them faster than I can shuffle them. How did you do that?


I'm bringing the cards to life Madgeing them as people. And using


- imagining them as people, and then a journey. Back at the 39


Steps, the actor in the role has his memory tested. It is not like


the actor in the role with the lines written everywhere and on


your sleeve. Can we check that. For paying customers, there is nothing


there. No ear pieces. Not like Marlon brand dough, you just have


to learn it. What was Napoleon's horse called? It was called


Balerithon, when he road at the battle of Waterloo, am I right,


Sir? Quite right. Memory man, Dominic O'Brien is with


us now, along with my guests. As we are talking we have challenge for


Dominic, to memorise these numbers. There is 100 of them in order, by


the end of the programme, in about five minutes time. I think the


number also appear now. Now. While Dominic is having fun, I


just want to talk but about some of the things that we think we know


about memory. The first thing that strikes me is we all think that as


we get older our memories get worse s is that true? It is actually an


interesting idea that research hasst now revealing that there is


different aspectss of memory that get better as we age - aspects of


memory that get better as we age. One of them is our wisdom or our


general knowledge. While we might experience things like for getting


names or certain details of situations. Or car keys?


getting things that have just happened to us, - forgetting things


that have just happened to us. But we are getting better with age in


rembering concepts and facts and general knowledge. Is there a


difference between good and bad memories. Older people sometimes


remember good things, but forget some of the bad things. That might


be a good defence mechanism? That is actually right. We know that


despite the fact that there is a lot of negative things that happen


as we age, our health might be failing, our our relatives might be


passing way, older adults have a very good way of regulating their


emotions, in terms of focusing on positive information in their


environment and rembering that. memory always useful, I would


always think there are some things we would want to forget, and that


is a good thing? It can sometimes be a serious problem for people who


have survived traumatic or life- threatening events, these intrusive


and vivid memories might come flooding back for many, many years


afterwards, something we used to call shell shock, but is now known


as post-traumatic stress disorder. One of the things that has been


coming up at the conference we are running up, is the remarkable


flexibility of memory, and the fact that we might have in the future


new ways that might be able to change or reduce these kind of


intrusive memory it is not always a good thing to remember. We are


watching Dominic here, memorise all these numbers, do we know how


memory works, we know it is like a filing cabinet and pull things out


s that right, is that how it works? I think the first piece of


understanding we must make clear is that there is not just one type of


memory, there are many different types of memory. And they all work


in different ways, and perhaps depend on different brain


mechanisms that can go wrong in different ways. Dominic now is


probably trying to remember these numbers as being located in


different places around his house or around a familiar route, as he


mentioned before. That kind of technique might enable him to use


his hipercampus, a part of the brain that we use for finding our


way around, but also the part used for long-term memories. This is


clearly interesting, but if it we did know much more about memory and


how it works, would that help us in some way, would we be able to


achieve more? I think there is a number of misconception that is we


actually have in our common understanding of how memory works,


and so an understanding the ways in which memory can be enhanced, new


research that has been done in the states has shown there is different


ways in which we can study material, to better learn that material, and


to have it endure for longer. And I think also understanding that


memory goes beyond the past and that is something I have really


been focused on. Memory goes beyond the past? I have been researching


how memory is used as the building blocks to imagine the future. Even


though memorys play - memories play back like videos in your mind, they


are stored in different ways, as framents or details across the


brain, that actually mean that is memory can be pulled apart and put


together in different ways. In that sense, what is the relationship


between having good memory or being intelligent and creative, they are


all slightly different things, we assume people who are intelligent


have good memories? Donna has raised way in which memory can help


with creativity by putting together new ideas in a new imaginative way.


More generally, I'm not certain there is a close relationship


between all good types of memory and intelligence. Some kind of


memory might allow you to continually store habits that are


reinforced over and over again, you might not be able to think about


those things, they come automatically to mind, I'm thinking


about riding the bike and playing the piano, that is memory too but


not the sort of thing we think of when we think of the word. People


and me have things like false memory, things I think my parent


told me, but they weren't there, that is quite important? There are


ways memory can be distort or fail, we might forget the source of the


information. We can't remember the context of how we encountered that.


Memories are stored in these fragments, when we retrieve a


memory, we have to bring together all the fragments again. It is


possible we might leave certain details out, or bring in details


from other experiences. I was wondering what the big thing that


we could hope for in some of this would be. People will also think


about Alzheimer's and loss of memory, and terrible debilltation


that cause, is it possible, through studying how we remember things,


that we might help in Alzheimer's and similar conditions? That is


absolutely right, what Dominic is doing now seems like a bit of money,


but memory is a serious business, if you lose your memory you are


losing your sense of self. Alzheimer's is something to be


solved and one of the most pressing issues for scientists to work on


today. Dominic your time for memorising stops now.


Thank you very much. We will get back to you and test you in just a


second. 30 seconds after I have Back to Dominic now to see if he


can give us the 100 numbers in order.


You have until the credits run out. , 6331, 1, 5 7, 29, 6, 8, 3, 55, 59,


3, 1, 33, 46, 437, 2, 5, 88, 7, 4 I think it is 81, 1, 4, 40 it could


be 8, 7, 7430, 2, 1, 17, 2, 24, 26, 1, 9, 28, 50, 5, 28, 22, 4, 7, 8,


22, 3, 5, 8, 33, 5, 1. 22, 3, 5, 8, 33, 5, 1.


APPLAUSE. Good evening, the daytime heat has


peaked, one more muggy night to deal with. With it outbreaks of


rain pushing to the west. The wetter weather will push through


areas. Rain working up other parts of eastern England. Into the


afternoon brighter weather will develop for North West England, a


wetter afternoon in store for eastern most parts. Particularly in


East Anglia, it is East Anglia to the London area to the south where


we could see minor flooding. London drying out for the second half of


the day. Many will see sunshine come out through the afternoon. The


temperatures will have dropped, humid and fresher in the shade. The


August sunshine strong enough across Wales to make it feel


reasonably warm. A brighter end to the day than we started with. For


Northern Ireland brightening skies in the afternoon, temperatures in


the high teens, squeezing the low 20s. For the northern half of


Scotland here the rain that stafrted in the south will have


pushed its way northwards and will remain wet through Thursday night.


Then the changes, northern areas we have the rain predominantly on


Thursday, Friday looking dryer, same further south, temperatures


will climb a little bit for one or two. Not back to the heat and


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