19/04/2013 Newsnight


In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Kirsty Wark.

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police operation and locked down in Boston tonight. The prime suspect in


the Boston bombing and the killing of a police officer has shocked the


nation and his family. I say, if you are alive, turn yourself in. And ask


for forgiveness. Who are the brothers? The now dead name-mac-bee


and the still at large, name-mac. We have been asking ourselves whether


it was home-grown or foreign inspired, but the answer may well be


both. Also tonight, and an economic boom for Mongolia as they set out to


tap their economic world -- economic wealth. Are they about to become one


of the wealthiest countries in the world? It is a vast body of copper,


gold and silver. They say it is the size of the island of Manhattan.


Good evening. It has been a day of huge drama in Boston but still the


19-year-old suspect in the Boston Marathon bombings has evaded the


Lancs -- the ranks of law officers swarming the city. His brother and


accomplice died following a fire fight with police. Scattered family


members have contributed to a picture of the suspected bombers. An


uncle in Maryland has called them losers and called his surviving


nephew, a medical student, to give themselves up. An aunt in Toronto


said the older brother had recently become a devout Muslim. The father


in Dagestan said his sons were set up. This report on the dramatic


operation still unfolding. Ladies and gentlemen, back-up,


back-up. We are being ordered back. A city in lockdown. 1 million people


trapped inside a combat zone. We are asking you to stay home, stay


indoors. We asking businesses not to open. Move back around the corner.


Move now, please. Up to 10,000 officers, heavily armed. In their


sights, two suspects, one no dead, one still on the run. It was late


last night when the two men finally broke cover. 19-year-old Dzhokhar


Tsarnaev, caught on camera in a 711 shopping Cambridge, near the


Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus. He and his


brother, Tamerlan, were apparently trying to rob it. Police were


alerted to a disturbance. First on the scene, 26 old police officer,


Sean Collier. He was shot several times and died in his vehicle. To


make their getaway, the two men carjacked at the driver of a


Mercedes. Keeping him with him -- with them in the car for half an


hour before releasing him unharmed at a gas station in Cambridge. The


police gave chase. Following the Mercedes into Watertown. Police say


that they were fired at and explosive devices were thrown at


them from the car. After midnight, there is more gunfire. More bombs


are thrown. Tamerlan Tsarnaev is captured, critically injured. He


died later in hospital, while his brother, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, escaped.


Our immediate concern is for those people in the neighbourhood up


there. We have an active search going on by tactical teams to locate


and apprehend this particular individual. He should be considered


armed and dangerous. It is a threat to anybody that might -- he is a


threat to anybody that might score -- might approach and some use


extreme caution and stay in your homes. So they stayed inside and


this is what they saw. This is our garaged right now. -- our garage.


What the hell? And they were not necessarily safe in their homes.


I've heard someone empty -- something enter my room. I've found


at my desk a bullet had gone through my wall. It had gone through the


calendar and the back of my chair, and whenever my head would have


been, the bullet came to rest at the foot of my bed. Quickly, a picture


emerged of the brothers. Both ethnic Chechens who arrived in the United


States ten years ago. Tamerlan Tsarnaev was a boxer. In an


interview with Boston University Magazine, he said he aspired to


fight for the US Olympic boxing team. Yet he also said that he did


not have any American friends. He said I don't understand them. On


Russia 's equivalent of Facebook, the younger brother described his


worldview as Islam, and asked to identify the main thing in his


life, he answered, career and money. What did not become any clear online


was what was motivating the two men, a mystery to their father even.


TRANSLATION: I have confidence in my children. In their innocence. I do


not know what happened and how this came about, only that God Almighty


and the person that did it know what really happened. The Almighty will


punish them for that. In middle and, an uncle was less forgiving. I say,


if you are alive, turn yourself in. And Aske for forgiveness from the


victims and the injured and from those who are left, ask forgiveness.


He has brought shame on our family. He has brought shame on the entire


Chechen ethnicity. It is now approaching 20 hours since the


manhunt began. But still they do not have their man. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev


remains at large, and many in the city Art, Taoist. -- are


traumatised. You do not know what is going on. Something is happening in


my community, on my street, but did not know what it was. When I've


found out, I cannot talk any more. Tonight, details emerged about the


family. An aunt in Toronto claimed that Tamerlan had a Christian wife


and a young daughter, that had recently become more devout as a


Muslim. Our diplomatic editor has just


returned from Boston. How has it come to this? We have one dead prime


suspect and the other on the run. An extraordinary end to the trauma at


the beginning of the week. What was apparent throughout the week was the


incredible pressure the authorities were under to show some signs of


regress. Also, we had amateur sleuthing going on, people being put


in the frame on Twitter, and none of those images turned out to be these


brothers. But there was a stampede to try and out who was responsible.


Having done so, they may well have triggered this final Rampage, by


indicating to the brothers that their identities would be out there


very soon, and that they might as well is -- they might as well start


if they wanted a final killing spree. And on the -- and an enviable


dilemma. We know that a double amputee told them what he looked


like. A description.But to put names to them would have taken


longer. Tell me what do you think. Possible radicalisation.


Essentially, the boys are of Chechen origin. Both university students but


the older brother locked -- dropped out. Both very clever. It is


curious. It is Columbine meets jihad. We hear about the realisation


of the older brother, Tamerlan, and we have seen the comments that he


made in the piece to the newspaper report. He does not understand


Americans. Alienation commie dropped out of college. Some of these have


more in common with the traditional trajectory of some of these people


who have gone in killing sprees in the United States more recently and


we know that there was that element of radical Islam playing in his


life. And where does this leave President Obama? And his relations


with Russia? The authorities in the region of Chechnya have been quick


to say it is nothing to do with them. From the point of view of the


Kremlin, you would like to say that they knew nothing about this in


advance and these people were essentially Americans, having been


there for years. Intentionally, it offers an opening. If the US wishes


to use it, to get closer to the government of Vladimir Putin. The


issue of elaboration of terrorism has been a thing which


intermittently has allowed them to minimise differences over the past


12 years and emphasise commonality of purpose. For now, thank you. If


anything develops, we will come back to you. Daisy Khan is the Executive


Director of the American Society for Muslim Advancement which tries to


foster good relationships between Muslims and other communities. That


Leonard is a Professor at the Kennedy School of Government at


Harvard University and joins us from Boston. Residents there are being


urged to stay indoors. Professor Leonard, you are right next to


Watertown. Tell me, the atmosphere, the mood of the people you have been


talking today? It is a very sombre mood. It has been a tough week and


it is a tough day today. You should know that things in Boston are not


completely out of sorts. It is important to understand that the


actual lockdown in Boston is over a very wide area, on a voluntary


basis. The reasons for that is to reduce the demand for services from


police and to allow them to have freedom of movement. The actual area


that is affected is relatively small. I am right on the edge of


that area right now. In a sense, you made a stand is today because after


we -- it is Patriots' Day today and he went out. -- you went out.


Today is a special day in Massachusetts. I live in one of the


towns in which the Revolutionary War began. In the early morning, we go


out for what we call the dawn salute. It is a special ceremony to


celebrate the patriotism of the Minutemen who stood their 200 years


ago and thought for the liberties that we now have. Which is ironic.


It is odd to talk to you about that since it was against the British.


Maybe that was a big mistake. In any case, to do so celebrates patriotism


and the fight of liberty. It is ironic because what you were doing


celebrated freedom. The freedom that everyone has but they do not feel


free today. That is right. We are worried about that issue. In many


ways, this is the nightmare scenario. We have been worried about


this for a long time. People in counterterrorism and crisis


management are worried about the domestic, home-grown terror event.


It is particularly dangerous because it is particularly difficult to


prevent. We are a free and open society and we want to have open


access. We want people to be able to come and go. The worry is that


people who are illegally here and have all the rights that everyone


else has will develop radicalisation and will become, for some reason or


other, motivated and develop the intention to cause harm. In a free


society, they will be able to find the means to do that for a


relatively small-scale event, which is what this was. Let me put this to


Daisy Khan. Do you feel that? of all, we are devastated by this


event. And the loss of life. Here was a beautiful event where all of


humanity came together to celebrate human spirit, and it ends up in a


terrible tragedy. Do you think it will have a wider impact on the


general Muslim community in America? It has already had an impact.


Although the event happened in Boston, we got our share of hateful


calls saying, what are you doing about it? There is a backlash but I


have to say that our law enforcement and federal agencies have exercised


a lot of restraint in the message. I think the general public, although


fearful of what might come in the future, the messaging is very


tempered. That has had a positive effect on the community because we


do not need -- we do not use terms like Islamists. They have not use


terms like jihad S. We have been dealing with the actions of


terrorists. This is the complaint. Of course, it must be disturbing to


talk about these boys, American boys at University, ten years away from


Chechnya. Although with strong links. But they were following, on


YouTube, it radical preacher who preaches some pretty awful things.


Do you go on -- do you go along with the idea that there might have been


some radicalisation relatively recently? Is that possible?


course, this is the action, not the action of a devout Muslim, but of a


twisted psyche. How it got twisted as anybody's guess, but Muslims are


very concerned about these radical websites that have grown from 200 to


2000 now. We have asked the government to shut them down or


tweak them. -- treat them like training grounds. Muslims who wants


to counter this are not allowed to go into these websites, so we want


to do our share of eliminating terrorists from our community, but


we're not allowed to do the job, and How much monitoring is going on do


you think? I completely agree with Daisy Khan about this issue. It's


really important not to think of this as being Islamic in any way.


We don't, first of all, we don't know what the motivations of these


people were yets. We don't know enough about who they were. We have


to be very careful not to be so curious about this specific ef vent


that we assume that all events will be like this. Timothy McHave a was


a Christian. He killed -- McVeigh was a Christian and he killed


people in Oklahoma City 15 years ago. It's how you deal with


radicalism. You deal with it by trying to understand where it's


happening and try to prevent it, try to see people who are becoming


radical aislesed and see them as individuals not as members of a


larger group. The other thing you have to realise is that in a free


excite society we want to have open access. We want to continue to have


events like marathons. Marathons are particularly difficult to


defend. I was in Doha a month ago and talked specifically about this


kind of scenario. Marathon which gathers a lot of people, is a great


celebration, has a high density of people, has a 55-mile perimeter


that's impossible to police all of that all of the time. We are going


to have, continue to have vulnerable events. Part of our


strategy has to be to look for the individuals who are becoming


radicalised and treat them as individuals and to cope with them


and try to prevent. But the other side of it is we have to be


prepared to take a certain level of risk in our ordinary lives because


we don't want to be in lockdown in the way we are today all the time.


That means that we have to borrow from your British traditions


actually of keeping calm and carrying on, as you did during the


Battle of Britain and during the IRA bombings. Thank you both very


much. I'm sorry for the delay on the line from Boston. Thank you.


A deal between the Government of Mongolia and the mining giant Rio


Tinto could transform a country from one of the poorest to one of


the richest per Capita in the world. Mongolia, once thought to be cursed


by being sandwiched between Russia and China is now in a perfect


position to exploit its untapped mineral wealth. Gold, copper,


silver, tungsten and the desert has it all. One it's full little


operational, it will account for a third of the country's GDP, but a


disagreement between the company an the Mongolian government over the


mining revenues threatens the operation.


For millennia, the only people who have managed to eek a living from


the Gobi Desert are nomadic camel herders. Not any more. Soon the


Gobi could be generating a substantial income for every single


Mongolian thanks to this. It's a new copper mine rising up from the


delz ert scrub. It's causing controversy across the country and


not just because of the scale of the operation. This is just the


beginning. Underneath me is one of the largest untapped mineral


reserves in the world. It's a vast body of copper, gold, silver. They


say it is the size of the island of Manhattan. The Anglo-Australian


mining giant Rio Tinto has spent �4 billion on the mine so far and


expects to spend a few billion more to get this place fully operational.


We have... This is a former yak herder who is turned geophys sifts.


He's now vice-president of the mine. He was part of the team that first


discovered the vast deposit. It was very exciting. It became more and


more bigger and bigger. We're talking about 30 million tons of


copper and more than a thousand ton gold. The revenue figures are


pretty striking too. The mine is expected to generate more than �5


billion a year every year for the next 40 or 50 years. One third of


the GDP will be from this mine. Hold on a second, one third of the


entire country's GDP? Yeah.From this one, single mine? But these


are early days. Oyu Tolgoi produced its first copper, this modest mound


of powder, during my visit earlier this year. The prospect of the


profits from this place are already helping power and extraordinary


economic boom in what was, until recently, one of the poorest


countries in the worl. -- world. They've taken down the Statue of


Lenin that used to stand here. For 70 years Mongolia was a rock solid


sal lite of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party that used to


run it was based right here. If you want to see how this country is


changing, just take a look at its new neighbour.


A mall packed with the world's most exclusive and expensive brand names.


Just across the square is other evidence that the Mongolian boom is


not all it seems. They are off. Trading has opened on the Mongolian


Stock Exchange, but this place is not exactly Wall Street. The


Mongolian Stock Exchange is supposed to be driving the nation's


new capitalist economy. It has grown rapidly, but it is still one


of the smallest exchanges in the worldment -- world. This stock


market thing is quite a new thing in the country, but so far, there's


been only exploration, construction and development projects. There


hasn't been yet any production or mining started yet. With the start


of mining, with the start of production of all those, the real


boom will take place. But that boom is desperately needed because of


the deepening poverty elsewhere in Mongolia. It isn't just economics


that's reshaping the country, local people say the climate is changing


too. Mongolia has always suffered the


occasional extreme winter. They call them zuds here. They are


becoming more frequent and they're helping drive a great exodus from


Mongolia's countryside. This migration to the city


represents an incredible change in Mongolian society. They call this


place the Ger district after the traditional round tents the nomads


use. Once the morning smog clears, you get a sense of its real scale.


A quarter of of the entire Mongolian population has given up


its traditional herding lifestyle and set up their gers in this


sprawling shanty town. This story is typical. They were nomadic


herders until disaster struck, a Millions of animals have died in a


series of these zuds over the last few years. For Samma and other


herders, it meant the end of their But they haven't lost touch with


their roots. They've invited me to a concerts of Mongolian folk music


in town. But it is the mineral boom that's


preoccupying some of Mongolia's other musicians. G is a rapper who


is sceptical about the benefits of opening Mongolia to foreign mining


Most Monday goalians would disagree with you. They'd say they -- most


Mongolians would disagree with you. They want the things the resources


can bring. People in the Ger I'm from the Ger district. You are?


Yes. It's my hood. I'm from the Ger district. That may be so, but the


fact is a third of Mongolian families still live below the


poverty line. The shanty towns have no sanitation, no formal


electricity grid and few roads, other than dirt tracks. Just before


the general election last year, politicians bowed to the pressure


to spend, awarding every Mongolian adult a one-off payment worth


hundreds of pounds. What due spend Do you think that's the right way


fortd Government -- government to use -- for the government to use


the money from Mongolia's mineral The payment also made the investors


in Mongolia's mining industry anxious. The money came from


another mine in the Gobi, a vast coal mine. It helped create a cash


crisis that led to a temporary shut down and now, the government has


Mongolia's biggest mine in its sites. It is chilli today, minus 27.


This wedding cake of a building is the Mongolian Parliament and


Presidential Palace and the current government looks set to bow to the


temptation to spend the profits of Mongolia's mineral wealth today.


It's written a couple of hundred million dollars of extra income


from Oyu Tolgoi into this year's budget, income that depends on a


renegotiation of the contract with Rio Tinto, a renegotiation that


hasn't taken place. Where does the new Mongolian


President think that money is going to come from? I think we are now


going to negotiate that. And our government doing that. Is that a


renegotiation of the contract? never said that from our government


and from myself, you know, we never say that re-open or renegotiate.


You say you want hundreds of millions of dollars more from Rio


Tinto. That say change, isn't it? No, no, no. That's not changing the


contract. Of course viewed from Rio Tinto's London headquarters the


perspective is very different. a good project. It's good for


Mongolia. It's good for Rio Tinto. What I need to ensure is that our


shareholders are protected. Certainly we're in discussions with


the government of Mongolia, but importantly, they need to recognise


that this is a major project. It will be 30% of the country's GDP.


Speaking on behalf of Rio Tinto, and in fact commenting on behalf of


other people investing in Mongolia or potentially investing, certainty


is critical when you're bringing on projects of this scale.


implication is clear - when you're investing billions, you don't take


it kindly if the government changes the rules halfway through. Isn't


there a dainker that Mongolia gets a reputation for being -- danger


that Mongolia gets a reputation for being unreliable? You know Mongolia


is not a lawless country. Change Why are you asking the government


not to address those issues? should be no surprise that


Mongolians are demanding a proper account of their giant new mine.


But this is a dangerous game. Mongolia needs partners like Rio


Tinto if it's to exploit its mineral wealth and if it starts to


break contracts and demand extra cash, it may find the big mining


The danger is if the government misjudges its hand, the Mongolian


mineral boom could disappear back into the desert sands.


Tomorrow morning's front pages. Of course everything is dominated by


that search for the prime suspect in the Boston bombings. The Daily


Telegraph - a city in the grip of terror. Then a picture of Margaret


Thatcher's first boyfriend from the dra goon guards. The guardian next.


Police probe brothers' links to Chechnya. Massive manhunt sees the


city in lockdown. The Independent - a series of pictures and swat teams


go door to door in search of suspects.


Boston lockdown in hunts for the bomber says the Financial Times.


Bad day for -- bad week for Osborne at the bottom there.


A different story in the Daily Mail - the news the Duchess of Cambridge


will move in with her mum for six weeks after baby is born, rather


than having a maternity nurse. On the right side, Rolf's lawyers try


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