31/01/2014 Newsnight


31/01/2014

Who is to blame for the floods? Who suffers as America slows down its money printing? How did radio survive the Internet? The transfer window shuts.


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Transcript


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Just when you thought it was safe to come out of the house, guess what,

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there is more of this to come. Ruined crops stranded communities

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who is to blame? Before radio was invented a reporter

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could only speak to as many people as could hear him shout and then...

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. Why has a century-old medium not

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just survived but thrived in the new era.

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As the football transfer window slams shut in 28 minutes, only one

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show will carry it life... Newsnight! ?

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Hello, if you have just realised how much the animal kingdom chooses to

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hibernate this time of year look away now. More rain heading our way

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with high tides and gale force winds. Two flood alerts put in

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place, and even what the Environment Agency is calling "threat to life".

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Those worst hit have seen homes ruined and livelihoods wrecked.

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Environmentalists are blaming the farmers and the farmers the

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agencies, then the odd lone voice blaming the gays.

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There is nothing unusual about the Somerset Levels flooding, much of it

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is under sea level, but not this long. The land is under water a

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month. The county might have had the wettest January on record, but many

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think this disaster is man made. Once upon time it was only really

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God who got it in the neck for causing flooding. These days it is a

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case of take your pick, farmers, sheep, birds, bureaucrats, climate

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change, rich people, apparently they are now all to blame. Unless of

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course you are one certain UKIP councillor, for him things have

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really come full circle, this is collective punishment by God for gay

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marriage. First in the dock the Government, including the

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Environment Agency and minister Owen Patterson, who Labour has now

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decided to call "the fool of the floods". Why wasn't it done ages

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ago, why only now? Many of the locals don't seem impressed either,

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they are angry about lack of flood defences, a slowness to pump the

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rivers and a lack of dredging. I have been campaigning for years to

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have this river dredged for years along with the local residents, I'm

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a councillor for 14 years, you are a councillor for 20 years and they

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don't listen. If they weren't listening before they are now. The

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Government is saying dredging will start as soon as is practicable. It

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might seem unlikely but the RSPB is charged with helping to cause the

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floods. They manage large parts of the Somerset levels for the benefit

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of wading birds, and they along with other conservation groups have

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opposed dredging. I'm sorry about the birds and voles, we have to

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defend ourselves, birds can fly and voles get away. It is hard for us to

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lift up homes adisappear. Next up farmers and landowners. This takes

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the argument in a some what different direction, to what is

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going on upstream. Even the sheep are guilty. Because, the accusation

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goes, in order to give them land to graze on, farmers have been ripping

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up threes and scrub which would normally soak up the waterfalling on

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the hills. No-one is saying that flood-hit

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residents deserve their faith, but some think it is time they moved. In

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Somerset the argument goes the 1,000-year history of keeping sea

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water out of the area has to end. While across the country it is

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argued the practices of draining wetlands, reclaiming salt marshes,

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and walling in rivers are being overwhelmed by the forces of climate

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change. What we have to think about is perhaps areas that are less

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heavily populated, areas where we have built on by the coast. Some of

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these areas it is just not possible to continue to defend at all costs.

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If the blame game is getting on your nerves, last night's Question Time

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showed you are not alone. Every time we have a disaster, and I have no

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doubt this is a terrible disaster for the people living there, they

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must be having a nightmare time for the last few week, somebody has to

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be blamed. I think the present furore about Somerset, who is to

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blame, somebody has to be summoned, this lynch mob stuff is slightly

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irrelevant to the suffering of the people there. Southern England, the

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south west and west Wales may feel they have suffered quite enough

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already. But more misery is coming, high tides, strong winds and yet

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more heavy rain is on its way. And there are nearly 150 flood warnings

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in place. That was Zoe, joining us is the environmental campaigner and

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the nationa farmers' representative Steven Watkins. I will start with

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you, you are the man who has currently 300 acres or so under

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water, do you think anything could have stopped that? Yes, I'm great

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believer in dredging of the rivers, the reason for that is historically

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it was done and that was to, in my case, the River Severn to allow

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larger vessels to travel up to deliver oil much further north on

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the river. But we have a situation really where building over the

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years, and that is not necessarily on the flood plain, we are talking

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general building, has increased the speed at which water runs off. And

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what's happened is that I have been given the considerable amount of

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money by the Government and Europe to manage low-lying grassland to

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maintain it in an environmental low-sensitive area. Because the

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rivers are not taking the water away I'm actually losing these

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environmentally sensitive areas. When you say the rivers aren't

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taking the water away, what should have happened? If the dredging was

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continuously happening we would have a situation where the water is get

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out to sea. In the uplands the water needs to be held. In the lowlands

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the water needs to get away. I guess you have to listen to the people who

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work the land and say that is what they are pointing to, a lack of

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dredging? Of course they are pointing to that. I completely

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understand the pain they are going through. But there is absolutely no

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point in coming up with the wrong solution. What we are looking at now

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is a sort of reprisal of the badger UK the farmers are very upset,

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rightly, for very obvious reasons they are upset. They want action,

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they want to see something dramatic and muscular and eye-catching done.

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That is what the Government wants to deliver, and so it is giving them

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something which is not just useless, but in many cases actually

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counter-productive. And what dredging does so often is it

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actually causes more floods, more dangerous floods than were there

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already. So you have just been accused of watching eye-catching

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muscular policies that do nothing? That is absolute rubbish, we have a

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balanced society, and a balanced needs of society. We need

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environmental features and if the rivers are not being cleaned, I have

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got trees that are in a major river, the River Severn is a major river,

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we have trees falling down there and not cleared, and holding up the

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water. It is holding it further upstream and the Government spending

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more money on defences it is an ever-decreasing circle of spending

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more money on defences and we need to maintain what we have got. What

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is your solution, what should the farmers be doing? It is the same

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solution as the Environment Agency is advocating. It has been very

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clear about this. When talking about the Somerset levels it says dredging

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is not the answer. If it is the answer it is a tiny part of it. What

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we have to look at is the whole catchment, what is going on in the

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hills, we need more vegetation in the hills to help trap and slow down

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the water. We have to reconnect the rivers with the flood plains in

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places where it is safe to do so. More vegetation means what, fewer

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sheep, crops or what? Fewer sheep in the hills. When you are looking at

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land which is extremely unproductive and interfile it is crazy to keep

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that land there. That is not the cause of it. The best thing to do on

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the land is get trees back and some deep vegetation back to hold the

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water. The cause of the problem is the fact we have had no forestry in

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the hills for hundreds of years and the sheep farming has been going on

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perfectly acceptably. The problem is we have been building more and more

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houses, more and more roads, as society develops, but we have not

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been maintaining the drainage system, if we don't maintain the

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drains. If you have your sink and your sink gets blocked you unblock

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it. The Environment Agency and experts all over the country who

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have been clear about this, that just dredging and dredging, all you

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are doing there, you are not increasing Compatties of the flood

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main -- capacity of any flood main substantially at all. You are

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increasing the rate of flow. That means you are increasing the chances

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of dangerous floods to the towns downstream. People could be

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listening to you saying fine, but it is cook can you land, you can't --

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cuckoo hand, you can't ask people to re-think their livelihoods? We are

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paying ?3.6 billion in farm subsidies, a lot of those subsidies

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are delivering social harm like the flooding at the moment. It is a good

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example. We should rejig the farming subsidies, we should pay farmers in

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places where it is safe to store the water on their land. We should pay

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them to plant for trees and deep vegetation to slow down the flow,

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dredging is not the answer. I have received a lot of money from the

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Government and Europe to create and protect these very areas that you

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are talking about. They are being killed because the water cannot get

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away fast enough. My flood bank, I have 11 miles river frontage, four

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miles close to my house, the EA spent a lot of money in 1995-96

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repairing those. When we had the serious floods in 2007, Hillary Benn

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and Lord Rocker came to the farm and I showed them, Barbara Young the

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head of the Environment Agency said there was no reproduction in the

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system. Bridgeing is not the answer, it is the upstream catchment

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management we need to concentrate on. We appreciate that, thank you.

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Janet Yellen was officially welcomed today in what may be the biggest job

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in the world, as of the US Federal Reserve, she is responsible not nest

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for decision making in the world's largest economy, the US, but also

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for what happens everywhere else. As the Fed begins tapering quanative

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easing, the free money it has been pumping in to buoy the system. There

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are those who say it is moving too fast. We will ask what obligation

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the US has to other countries in a moment.

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First we have this, a stiff drink in one hand and party for one. Too

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fast. We will ask what obligation the US has to other countries in a

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moment. First we have this, a stiff drink in

:11:20.:11:22.

one hand and party for one. Emerging markets are in trouble, interest

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rates and stock markets plunging. What has that got to do with the US

:11:26.:11:31.

Federal Reserve. There is an old saying about the Fed it is supposed

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to take the drinks away just as the party is getting started, a few can

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get things going, but it is easy to overdo things. I consider it

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imperative that we do what we can to promote a very strong recovery. The

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Fed's way of livening up the economy is to create new money. Janet Yellen

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has an unusual relationship with the Fed's bank balance, she can type in

:11:57.:12:00.

any money she likes. That is what it means to be a Central Bank, you can

:12:01.:12:07.

create money out of nothing. Miss Yellen's predecessor has been doing

:12:08.:12:11.

plenty of that since the financial crisis of 2008. Spending the money

:12:12.:12:15.

on things such as US Government debt. But there is a spill-over and

:12:16.:12:22.

it is quite deliberate. Private investors don't want to outbid the

:12:23.:12:26.

Fed by investing in US Government debt, because the Fed has all the

:12:27.:12:32.

money in the world. So they look elsewhere to invest. In mortgages,

:12:33.:12:36.

or corporations, that makes borrowing cheaper, and it pushes up

:12:37.:12:43.

share prices. But, then, the spill-over continues. Investors have

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been looking further and further afield, putting their money in

:12:47.:12:54.

India, South Africa and Turkey. And just as the previous head of the fed

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put the pun into the markets, Janet Yellen will help to pull it out. The

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Fed is still printing money but it is slowing down. By the end of the

:13:04.:13:07.

year it is on course to stop buying new assets. Investors are suddenly

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telling themselves that if the Fed is going to stop buying assets in

:13:12.:13:16.

the United States, it might be easier and safer to make money there

:13:17.:13:23.

instead. And they are pulling out of emerging markets. You might wonder

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why, if the Fed is slowing things down so gradually, the trouble has

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arrived so abruptly. That is one of those things about markets. When

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things turn sour they turn sour in a hurry. Professor Nyree Woods, a

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former adviser to the IMF joins me, and former economic adviser to

:13:47.:13:55.

George W Bush, Eliaquim Mangala are with me. This policy was called

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selfish today, would you call it that? I think it is ill-advised, you

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can wonder why they think they should only look at the United

:14:06.:14:09.

States. But the fact is the United States' set of policies are having

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real effects on all other economies in the system. Those economies, like

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India, and this is why the Indian governor came out so strongly, are

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exactly the economies that the United States asked for help from in

:14:22.:14:32.

2007. As the IMF's manage -- managing director keeps saying, when

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it changes direction it should do so carefully and with consultation. It

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is talking about tapering for a year now, how much slower could have it

:14:42.:14:45.

have been? There has been no clarity. By floating the balloon

:14:46.:14:49.

that tapering would happen at some point, they have injected a whole

:14:50.:14:54.

load of precarious and fee broil tension into the markets. By not

:14:55.:14:59.

consulting with major economies and pulling the G20 together and making

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sure it is done in concert, it is creating chaos. It would have been

:15:05.:15:09.

so easy to do that, creating the goodwill from including people it

:15:10.:15:13.

depended on? I totally disagree I have to say. The fed has broadcast

:15:14.:15:19.

as loudly as it can, it has told the world what they are going to do. It

:15:20.:15:23.

is hard to have more clarity than what they have delivered. But what

:15:24.:15:27.

you can't do is deliver to policy makers around the world, we are

:15:28.:15:30.

going to do this on Tuesday, because then it is out in the market, right?

:15:31.:15:35.

It is still a board, and they still have to meet and make a decision.

:15:36.:15:38.

They don't make the decision before they arrive, and then broadcast what

:15:39.:15:42.

it is going to be. They actually go to the meeting and that's where they

:15:43.:15:47.

decide. The bigger question is do you think America has a

:15:48.:15:49.

responsibility to these countries, or should it just be looking to what

:15:50.:15:55.

it needs to do? The way every Government is structured is monetary

:15:56.:16:00.

policy answers to domestic populations. Nowhere in the world do

:16:01.:16:04.

you have central banks that are responsible for the impact of their

:16:05.:16:08.

monetary policy elsewhere. That is not the way the game works. However,

:16:09.:16:12.

having said that, what I think should be more in place is an

:16:13.:16:16.

wariness by the Federal Reserve of what is happening in the markets

:16:17.:16:19.

generally. And, what the specific impact is so they can understand

:16:20.:16:24.

where their partners around the world are. This is not well

:16:25.:16:29.

understood. A load of people will be sympathetic with that, America has

:16:30.:16:32.

to put itself first. These countries can be tiger economies, they can

:16:33.:16:35.

boom when they boom, why should they not be able to stand on their own

:16:36.:16:39.

two feet now? Two things, so the United States has spent decades

:16:40.:16:44.

persuading economies whether Brazil or independentia or Indonesian or

:16:45.:16:49.

Turkey to open up their financial systems and admit US investors and

:16:50.:16:53.

banks into their economies. It is those countries most affected by

:16:54.:16:57.

changes in US policy. If the US doesn't start taking responsibility

:16:58.:16:59.

for that, those countries are going to become much more nationalistic in

:17:00.:17:04.

their finance, and should the door and not let those investors in. You

:17:05.:17:10.

think that will happen? That is the risk, not trade, I'm talking those

:17:11.:17:15.

countries putting up what they would call Prudential barriers to stop hot

:17:16.:17:21.

money flying out and flooding i They should have done that initially.

:17:22.:17:26.

Protectionist measures? It doesn't have to be, if they were that

:17:27.:17:31.

worried about the hot money when it came in, the Federal Reserve's

:17:32.:17:35.

position is you should have raised interest rates at that time if your

:17:36.:17:38.

economy couldn't handle it and allow your currency to appreciate. If you

:17:39.:17:43.

didn't do those things you forfeit your right to complain now. That is

:17:44.:17:47.

speaking without a consideration of what a big economic power America

:17:48.:17:54.

is? I ace agree -- I disagree, the US is not the only one in

:17:55.:17:57.

quantitative easing, it is the combination of Britain, the United

:17:58.:18:01.

States and Europe will lean in that direction as much as the Germans

:18:02.:18:04.

will they let them. This is a different world than one Government.

:18:05.:18:07.

At the end of the day it still is our currency and everybody else's

:18:08.:18:11.

problem. This is a question for both of you, I will start you with

:18:12.:18:15.

Professor Woods, does it look at this point whether quaying has been

:18:16.:18:22.

a successful solution to a major world problem? I think so,

:18:23.:18:30.

quantitative easing was partly about repairing financial systems that

:18:31.:18:33.

were broken and stimulating economies. It is not a good way of

:18:34.:18:36.

stimulating economies, and you have to have an exit strategy and nobody

:18:37.:18:40.

could come up with a good one. It was the wrong exit strategy at the

:18:41.:18:45.

wrong time? Nobody knows the exit strategy, on the other hand it is

:18:46.:18:48.

hard to say they shouldn't have done it at the time, we were on the brink

:18:49.:18:53.

of quite a disaster. What is really interesting is it is working if the

:18:54.:18:57.

purpose of QE is to generate inflation, it is just generating it

:18:58.:19:10.

in the emerging markets. When MTV launched the first video was Radio

:19:11.:19:15.

Star, the intention was the channel would kill off radio. It is not the

:19:16.:19:19.

only thing, everything from the talkies and the Internet is billed

:19:20.:19:22.

as its them circumstance all have failed. Listening figures are

:19:23.:19:28.

holding up remarkably well. Is this the inevitable decline with

:19:29.:19:31.

technology, but there is big investment going into radio's

:19:32.:19:42.

future. For thousands of years spreading the spoken word was

:19:43.:19:46.

limited to how far someone could shout, and then 100 years ago... .

:19:47.:19:59.

SOMETHING CHANGED. THE INVENTION The invention of radio is still going on

:20:00.:20:08.

around the world. In San Francisco on 997 Now is Let It Be. Energy all

:20:09.:20:14.

over the bay today, it is so awesome. She is playing music and

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using technology that would have been unrecoginsable to the radio

:20:19.:20:24.

pioneer, she still sees herself as part of that tradition. We keep it

:20:25.:20:28.

local, we live here, I live here, I go through the same things, if there

:20:29.:20:32.

is an accident on the way to work that people are stuck in. Most

:20:33.:20:36.

likely they will know what I'm talking about, something happens on

:20:37.:20:39.

Bart on the train here. And it helps that I can relate and live the life

:20:40.:20:43.

they are living. News at the speed of life, your life. For years people

:20:44.:20:48.

have been predicting the death of radio, but radio definitely ain't

:20:49.:20:55.

dead. In the US, like the UK, over 90% of adults listen every week. You

:20:56.:21:01.

might think that good old steam-age railway is the antithesis of the

:21:02.:21:09.

computer and internet age as in Silicon Valley. However there are

:21:10.:21:14.

many internet entrepeneurs who are betting big that the radio has a

:21:15.:21:18.

loud and bright future. We are looking at two companies with very

:21:19.:21:22.

different approaches to how radio can evolve. The first would be a

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God-send if you ever wake up say wanting to hear a Nigerian hip hop

:21:28.:21:32.

station or all-hits radio from Malaysia. Tunein says it can deliver

:21:33.:21:38.

100,000 radio statis streamed to all your devices anywhere in the world.

:21:39.:21:43.

The last mass market medium moving on-line, as a result what is

:21:44.:21:47.

happening is the proliferation of these connected devices are meaning

:21:48.:21:51.

people from around the world can consume any radio station from

:21:52.:21:54.

anywhere. It used to be you could only consume a radio station if you

:21:55.:21:59.

were within 30-40 miles within the terrestrial tower. Now on your

:22:00.:22:02.

smartphone, instead of 70 options locally, you have 100,000 options

:22:03.:22:09.

from around the world. Tunein is backed by venture capital companies

:22:10.:22:12.

including Google. They are seeking to mash the traditional model of

:22:13.:22:16.

radio, which is local sales to local businesses. In Paolo at toe -- Alto,

:22:17.:22:24.

let as say I'm listening to a station in the UK, but the ads won't

:22:25.:22:29.

be relative to me. There is a local station here that could sell those

:22:30.:22:34.

ads and we revenue share that with the broadcaster and some place else,

:22:35.:22:41.

no matter where they are. But what if the future of radio isn't

:22:42.:22:47.

internet-based audio streaming. At the moment most modern smartphones

:22:48.:22:50.

contain a chip in them that allows you to receive an FM radio signal.

:22:51.:22:55.

The same signal you get in your house or car, it is just most

:22:56.:22:59.

carriers disable that chip. Change that and suddenly most people are

:23:00.:23:04.

walking around with a radio in their pockets that is free to use and

:23:05.:23:08.

don't require gobbling up your expensive data allowance. That is

:23:09.:23:14.

the idea behind Nextradio, a new service launched in the United

:23:15.:23:18.

States. The signal comes over FM, extra data like interactive ads,

:23:19.:23:24.

special offers and information comes over the Internet. One of the US

:23:25.:23:32.

carriers, Sprint, is promoting the idea. Where we step off and make it

:23:33.:23:38.

more compelling is to use the FM, what the audio is for FM, to trigger

:23:39.:23:42.

events that make it more interactive. As the song is playing

:23:43.:23:46.

we might display artist or album information, offering the listener a

:23:47.:23:50.

chance to give feedback, do you like it or dislike it, would you like to

:23:51.:23:54.

share it with your friends what you are listening to on which station.

:23:55.:24:02.

We are offering promotional things like awe -- automating the call. We

:24:03.:24:07.

are liking live radio stations and automating them and presenting to

:24:08.:24:12.

the consumer. And FM has its advantages. It is far more robust in

:24:13.:24:16.

the case of an emergency than internet streaming, making it pretty

:24:17.:24:22.

useful in earthquake-prone San Francisco. In the UK the Government

:24:23.:24:27.

is looking to kill off FM in favour of DAB. Although how soon and how in

:24:28.:24:36.

total we don't yet know. But this is just a debate about the delivery

:24:37.:24:42.

platforms, however they listen, radio survives because audiences

:24:43.:24:46.

value it. The audience will always want to connect with local radio

:24:47.:24:49.

personalities. Can you get music anywhere. You have lot of different

:24:50.:24:55.

devices to get it, it is inbetween the records that radio makes the

:24:56.:24:59.

connection with the audience. It is the personal connection, people want

:25:00.:25:01.

to be connected with other people, they want to be part of a tribe.

:25:02.:25:05.

They want to know that they are in a group with other people, they want

:25:06.:25:08.

to be accepted and that is what radio brings. Radio has survived a

:25:09.:25:11.

century of supposedly fatal challenges, from the movies, then

:25:12.:25:18.

television, then tapes, CDs and MP three players, it is now surviving

:25:19.:25:21.

the Internet and streaming music services. There are plenty of people

:25:22.:25:30.

betting plenty of money it will survive another century or two.

:25:31.:25:40.

If you haven't seen your teenager for the last six hours you should

:25:41.:25:44.

understand the football world in overdrive now less than four minutes

:25:45.:25:48.

to go before the January transfer window shuts. Tonight has been

:25:49.:25:51.

unusually quiet, but it is normally a frenzy of highly fought battles

:25:52.:25:56.

over glamorous signings from exotic clubs. At heart it is simple, the

:25:57.:26:00.

more you pay for the players the more you expect to win. Joining me

:26:01.:26:04.

now from the Football Focus studio in Salford is the show's presenter,

:26:05.:26:10.

Dan Walker and former Liverpool midfielder, Danny Murphy, who will

:26:11.:26:15.

be on in a few minutes. Tell us what's happening, first of all with

:26:16.:26:22.

Liverpool, Danny, is it Pilanka, sealed yet and what about the other

:26:23.:26:27.

signings? That is an on going saga. One thing for sure if it is sealed

:26:28.:26:33.

he's terrific, he could be a real boost for Liverpool pushing for the

:26:34.:26:36.

top four spots. I can tell you some of the other things that have gone

:26:37.:26:41.

through, Fulham have signed a Greek striker for ?11 mill I don't know,

:26:42.:26:47.

Chelsea have -- million, Chelsea have spent ?12 million on a player.

:26:48.:26:55.

It is not a big deadline day bid. The biggest was Juan Mata to Chelsea

:26:56.:27:04.

which is a few days ago. The teams at the bottom now are so desperate

:27:05.:27:07.

to stay in the Premiership because of the money involved. The top

:27:08.:27:10.

squads can't get the quality of player they want, so will wait for

:27:11.:27:15.

the summer. We see at the bottom with Fulham and Palace making ten

:27:16.:27:19.

signings how crucial it is for them to stay in the Premier League. How

:27:20.:27:25.

much do you say a club's fortunes rely on what happens on this kind of

:27:26.:27:29.

night? I mean it is interesting as a question. You do get this panic

:27:30.:27:34.

buying and in this country, in England they spend much more than

:27:35.:27:37.

some of the other to be leagues across Europe combined. It is an

:27:38.:27:40.

awful lot of cash. Sometimes it doesn't make too much of a

:27:41.:27:43.

difference. You have the likes of Torres and Carol, spent a lot of

:27:44.:27:47.

money on those, but without the big impact. You have Suarez, signed on

:27:48.:27:51.

deadline day, he does make a difference. In this window, it has

:27:52.:27:54.

been the likes of Crystal Palace and Fulham at the wrong end of the table

:27:55.:27:58.

who have spent quite a bit of cash and brought in a lot of players. If

:27:59.:28:02.

it keeps them in the Premier League it is money worth spending. We are

:28:03.:28:06.

seeing the financial fair play act, which makes club if you like offset

:28:07.:28:10.

the money they buy with the, the money they spend and the money that

:28:11.:28:15.

they bring in. Do you think that's quietened down the market? I don't

:28:16.:28:20.

think it has had as much of an impact as perhaps UEFA hoped it

:28:21.:28:23.

would do. You take a club like Manchester City, whose losses are

:28:24.:28:28.

far above what they should be by UEFA rules. They are reducing losses

:28:29.:28:32.

and taking action to do that. UEFA will look on them positively. I'm

:28:33.:28:37.

told the window has closed, it is 11.00, anything happened? Anything

:28:38.:28:42.

happened? I'm sitting here I don't know! The financial fair plaything

:28:43.:28:47.

is interesting, with what the top clubs are doing is finding ways and

:28:48.:28:51.

loopholes to get round it, naming rights of the stadium and using

:28:52.:28:55.

sister clubs in different countries. The window never closes, it always

:28:56.:29:00.

slams, it never closes. You can tell I'm Newsnight can't you! Thank you

:29:01.:29:05.

very much indeed! We're going it take you quickly through the front

:29:06.:29:06.

pages, the independent: That's all this week, we leave you

:29:07.:29:35.

with the Internet footage apparent from Turkish television of a police

:29:36.:29:41.

SWAT team in action, see if you can spot the fake sound effect we added.

:29:42.:30:08.

# Ooh # Ooh

:30:09.:30:33.

# Ooh (DOORBELL) February's about to start, where

:30:34.:30:45.

January left off. With plenty of flood and weather warnings, one of

:30:46.:30:47.

the problems on Saturday, the strength of the wind, coupled with

:30:48.:30:50.

high tides around western

:30:51.:30:51.