16/04/2014 Newsnight


In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Jeremy Paxman.

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First, the Ukrainian government issues an ultimatum to protesters,


then it tries to enforce it, without any great you can ises. Some of its


soldiers are disarmed and captured by the very people they were


supposed to be suppress. The Ukrainian soldiers have been put in


the buses behind us. They are being bussed away. They had their weapons


taken away from them. Is there a looming point at which this proxy


confrontation between Russia and the West turns into something worse? The


man cleared of murdering PC Keith Blakelock talks for the first time


about what happened that night. I was on the estate when PC Blakelock


died, but I wasn't near. I wasn't in no crowd chasing him. I wasn't in no


crowd urging anyone on to do anything to him. One woman and lots


of other people's dogs. How working for yourself is the new big thing in


employment. From the horrors of the civil war in


the Central African Republic, the story of a Christian and a Muslim


leader working together to prove it doesn't have to be an eye for an


eye. There are talks in Geneva tomorrow


which are supposed to help to defuse the crisis in Ukraine. The omens


aren't good. The government in Kiev hasn't been able to ex-cert its will


in eastern Ukraine and Russia is still talking about the danger of


civil war. NATO estimates there are about 40,000 Russian troops massed


on the border. The Secretary General says NATO forces on land, sea and


air will be deployed shortly. Yet, no western power has saided they


will intervene militarily. We're going to hear the broader


implications in a moment, first, Gabriel Gatehouse reports from the


scene. Today was the day Kiev sent in troops to try to get control back


of the east. It didn't go well. Crowds of angry locals, surrounded


the soldiers and their armoured vehicles. A warning shot, fired into


the air, failed to disperse the protesters, just outside the town of


Kramatorsk. A short while later some of those same armoured vehicles are


seen on a Ukrainian TV stations making much faster progress, but


flying a Russian flag. What happened? Were they captured or did


the soldiers defect? If soldiers are defecting, that could be a


game-changer. A massive boost for the separatist movement. If they


surrendered on the other hand, what does that say about Kiev's ability


to reassert its ability on the region using military means. We


found some of the missing armour vehicles, in the hands of


pro-Russian militia men. We were told not to film the government


soldiers from a Parachute Regiment. While a colleague tried to film, I


spoke to some of the government soldiers. They told me they had been


surrounded by local residents first, then they said armed men arrived,


taken over their vehicles. I heard a commander order them to hand over


their guns. The Ukrainian soldiers have been put on those buses behind


us. They are being bussed away. They had their weapons taken away from


them, effectively surrendered. The excited and sometimes angry crowd


believed something very different. TRANSLATION: They refused to shoot


on us. Some have come over to our side. They volunteered to join our


forces. The rest have been given food and money and are going home.


We found the remaining government forces still blockaded in by local


residents, enable to advance. The commanding officer told me his men


had been taken prisoner not defected. I asked him how he planned


to take control? TRANSLATION: What do you mean of


taking control? My understanding that the local population should be


able to live there in peace. Said he hoped he and his men would pull


back, withdrawing to their bases in central Ukraine. The locals are


telling us this morning when they heard about this main group of


armoured vehicles rumbling into town they came out immediately and


stopped them until their tracks. These soldiers clearly haven't been


captured. Safety in numbers, perhaps, but the commander told me


they are about to withdraw. In key v an inexperienced new government is


come under pressure to bring the east under control. It's not clear


what the Ukrainian military wanted to achieve today. What is clear,


this approach doesn't seem to be working. Was Gabriel Gatehouse in


eastern Ukraine. What shall we make of the separatist movement? Will it


be strong enough to break apart the country? Our diplomatic editor, mark


Urban, has been looking into the history of the eastern part of the


country, its divisions and the strength of pro-Russian public


opinion. Ukraine, even the name means "pord border land" a place


where the shifting realities of power has caused frontiers to


migrate. The 1922 solvient republic was smaller. It had many Russian


settlers in the east, which would grow into the industrial heartland,


home to coalmining and heavy industry, the powerhouse of Ukraine.


More Russians arrived after the famine engineered by Stalin in the


1930s left the east depopulated. After the war, he also shifted


borders westwards, adding land from Poland and other countries,


absorbing millions of new citizens with a very different perspective to


the Russians. In 1954, Crimea was added too. Crimea, more than 58%


Russian, is the only area where they are in the majority and that made


itses annexation by Russia simpler. In the east, home to 14 million


Ukrainians, even the Donetsk region doesn't have a Russian majority. It,


and the neighbour Lugansk have a 39% Russian. Even in the east only 24%


said yes in a recent survey. In western Ukraine. That was only 1%.


As for future ties, while most Ukrainians wanted closer ties with


the EU, it's different in the east. Only 22% said they would vote Yes to


that there. 62% said they wanted to join Mr Putin's Eurasian Customs


Union. It's the Gulf over trade, autonomy and the future that could


break Ukraine it Seve part. Olexander Scherba,


Ambassador-at-Large in the Ukrainian foreign Ministry. He joins us from


Kiev. These talks in Geneva tomorrow, what is your Foreign


Minister going to say at them? Well, we are going to say what we have


been saying for quite a while. We don't want to go at war with Russia.


We don't want war to be a part of our reality. But, also we will talk


to the West and we will look into the West's eyes and we will remind


them that in the last three months this nation was basically fighting


for democracy and freedom and people were dying for democracy and


freedom. Now it's the moment of truth for all three sides, for all


four sides that will be sitting around the table in Geneva. Russia,


Ukraine, America, and the European Union. You know that there is no


possibility of NATO forces militarily intervening in Ukraine,


don't you? We don't think that all the possibilities for the West are


exhausted. What do you think the West could do then further? First of


all, tomorrow there will be a chance for the goodwill for the goodwill to


play its part in this whole drama that is unfolding before our eyes


from Russia and from the West. If the goodwill doesn't take over, if


the aggression prevails, then of course the sanctions must be... Must


toughen up. You do accept, do you, that Russia is exploiting genuine


divisions in your country? Absolutely. Absolutely. Ukraine,


like many, many countries in the world, has many division lines, it's


not a reason to take this country apart or dismember them. You just


heard the statistics, the majority of all the regions that we are


talking about right now in Ukraine's east stands as supports staying


within the limits of Ukraine and being a part of Ukraine sovereign


state. Why has your government been so poor at trying to enforce its


will in eastern Ukraine? Because tomorrow is Geneva negotiations.


And, Russia... Russia's position was very clear. Anything, any bloodshed


on the ground would derail the negotiations. The soldiers, the


troops on the ground weren't given the orders, that is the one thing.


For the other thing, it's a very complicated issue for Ukrainians to


get ready, to shoot at own people. And, also to shoot at Russians. Even


if these own people, even if these foreigners, who came from the


neighbouring country, are really meaning harm for Ukraine, we have


been seeing this nation as a brotherly nation for two decades,


for hundreds of years. And, it real situation for many, many of us right


now. If you were so concerned, why did you send in the troops at all?


At every stage there seems to have been mishandled. You issue an


ultimatum much you don't keep to it. You let another day go by. You say


you are worried about how the Russians might react, but send in


troops. In the end the whole thing is a complete fee sass Coe?


There has been some miscalculation in some parts today. But he did not


show the other cities and there are other times where the situation has


calmed down today. Thanks to the presence of the army on the ground.


How do you think this crisis is going to end? I hope that common


sense will prevail. I hope that tomorrow the Russian delegation will


come with clear instructions to do their utmost to stop this madness.


It is madness going on in Ukraine between our nations that have been


together and have been living in peace with each other for a very


long time. Thank you for talking to us. There has been a frantic search


going on to find anyone who might have survived the sinking of a


passenger ferry off the coast of South Korea. A.D300 people, many


schoolchildren, are still unaccounted for and as time passes,


so does hope. The ferry which sank quickly, within a period of two


hours, sent its distress call at around 9am local time after it began


to take on water. What precisely calls to sink is not of lesser


importance than trying to save life or perhaps to recover bodies.


Joining me from Southampton is Captain John Noble, who was a marine


salvage expert. From what we know all the circumstances, what do you


think happened? It would appear from the passengers and evidence that the


ship struck something on the sea bed, either the sea bed or something


else, like a sunken container, and she was doing something in the order


of 18 knotts so as a result of any impact, there would be damage to the


ship's hull and there would be water ingress. The ship is said to have


then listed and then suddenly to have turned over. The initial


ingress would have been into the area adjacent to the impact took


place and much will depend on whether the watertight doors were


closed immediately or if they remained open. The initial list was


quite gradual but then suddenly, she went over and that would indicate


that water, possibly, entered the car deck, that they expands and of


water gets into that space, stability is severely affected. And


as a result, she would have capsized more quickly, as appears to have


been the case. Are there lessons from previous sinkings that perhaps


have not been properly learned? It is too early to say, until we find


out what did happen. If the doors were not closed immediately after


they felt trembling, that would be one mistake, if that is the right


word. But the lessons of the other cases probably do not apply because


advances have been made in the design and practice on this type of


ship, so it is too early to speculate about the exact cause.


There are some survivors who have talked about after the initial


impact, being told to stay inside. Is that good advice? It is probably


the standard procedure they had on-board for any incident but my


suspicion is the crew involved, who are exercising these orders, would


not have appreciated what was going on and there may have been a bright


line in giving occasion on-board, so the initial response to stay where


you are is probably right. But the seriousness of this event clearly


did not get through and as a result, that was the wrong thing to do.


Thank you very much for joining us. Thank you. It has not been British


justice's greatest hour. Almost 30 years after his killing, no-one has


been convicted of the murder of police constable Keith Blakelock.


The investigation into the horrific murder of one of their own turned


into a saga of police incompetence, the most recent chapter of which


resulted in the acquittal a week ago today of a man called Nicky Jacobs.


He has never spoken to the media about what happened the night PC


Blakelock was hacked to death, nor of what it's like to be arrested for


a crime like that. But he has now. He talked to Kurt Barling. On


October the 6th 1985, it is a long way of that those who were there


will never forget it. Hundreds of young people, black and white,


including 16-year-old Nicky Jacobs, clashing in long-running battles


which ended in the murder and tragedy. One week ago, Nicky Jacobs


was found not guilty of the murder of PC Keith Blakelock. It is a cloud


that has been hanging over him for 29 years. This is the first time he


has given an interview. I was throwing stones at police and to be


honest, I think, looking back, they expected that. Because they did not


show any respect. The death of Cynthia Jarrett had fuelled the


anger of those who chose to write and have certainly, their attitudes


once they heard a police officer had died. She died the day before or


something like that. So, for me, we would have had that feeling of


tit-for-tat. Was there any moment when you thought, I have missed the


main event? It did? Mind. Because, like I said, at that time, what


officers had done to the black community, it was celebration times.


His lawyers decided he should not give evidence at the Old Bailey. He


says if he had, he would have said he was nowhere near where PC Keith


Blakelock was murdered and he was too busy elsewhere throwing stones


and Molotov cocktails, for which she was sent to prison for eight years


in 1986. I was on the estate when PC Keith Blakelock died but I was not


in that crowd. Chasing him, I was not in the crowd urging anyone to do


anything to him. I am so glad, they tried to put me there but I was not


there. Like I said, I will sleep at night knowing I am not guilty. What


I am saying is I did not kill PC Keith Blakelock. Where were you when


that happened? I was on the estate, running around, like other kids. We


know the murder took place and you were not there? I was nowhere near.


Whoever said that they saw me there, they are wicked. At his trial, Nicky


Jacobs and the family of PC Keith Blakelock listened to evidence from


alleged eyewitnesses to the murder who put themselves and Nicky Jacobs


at the scene. The jury also decided the evidence was unreliable. Nicky


Jacobs says he cannot understand why those who admitted to kicking PC


Keith Blakelock were allowed to give evidence against him. Even the


witnesses, I am not mad at them, I am not. I mean... I have always


grown up in a life, I would not say lifestyle, but then alive whether or


certain things you do not do but on top of that, to just lie, to not


care, no one knows his family, because these guys are the only


people who said they took part in the murder, either with a weapon or


not, and they got rewarded. I want a mansion, I want a novella, a sexy


wife who can kick me dinner. She would have to be romantic, faithful,


give me a couple of youths, son and daughter, send them to school... One


of the key planks of the prosecution was a so-called poll in which Nicky


Jacobs, aged 18, described in detail the murder of PC Keith Blakelock. It


was presented as a confession. Nicky Jacobs says it reflects the feelings


of a young man who had lost hope in prison but not yet in life. This is


about a 16-year-old boy. I am 45 years old. Do you know what I mean?


All of these feelings, this porn, -- poem. There were particular areas


the prosecution focused on, chopping him on the fingers and the shoulder


and the chest? Chopping him all over and he is killed? What were you


thinking, because the prosecution said, it was an admission? Yes. Yes.


I mean, if you look and you can see those lyrics, it never says that I,


Nicky Jacobs, or me, it is always way. Despite his anger at the


decision to prosecute him with a unreliable witnesses and


contradictory evidence, Nicky Jacobs feels that as much as him, the


family of PC Keith Blakelock were not well served by his trial. If


that was one of my family members, I would want justice. I would be


outside the courts, petitions, whatever. I would want that. But at


the same time, if I had to sit down in the court for six weeks and here


that so-called justice about somebody else, then I would be


angry. And disappointed at the system. And the establishment, that


my husband died for. Nicky Jacobs has been found not guilty and his


claims of innocence justified by the verdict. It will take longer to


overcome the trauma of being on trial for a wicked crime with the


killer is eluding justice. -- killers. What a happy little


Chancellor George Osborne must be. Yesterday it was the news that


inflation was down. Today, the Office for National Statistics


disclosed that unemployment is at 6.9% - its lowest for five years. It


is therefore below the point at which the Bank of England used to


say it would consider raising interest rates. But within that


headline figure is something particularly interesting. The number


of people working for someone else went up 3%. But the number of people


working for themselves, the self-employed, rose by 9%. Has


entrepreneurship taken off or is there another reason? Jim Reed


reports. The self-made trader might feel it something straight out of


the 1980s but 30 years on, figures and show it as a self-employed,


workers like Mary, who are driving the latest recovery in the labour


market. The 240,000 new jobs created in the three months, all was two


thirds went to workers registered as self-employed. Merely left and


administration job at Heathrow to start all over again at the age of


53. Her dog sitting business has been going through the recession and


has taken on its first proper employee. Wasn't the right decision?


The best decision I ever made. I would say to anybody that was


looking at this, yes, go for it. Definitely. And it is older workers


who have made the bulk of the increase in self-employment since


the recession - four out of five of those new jobs have been taken up by


somebody over 50. I think because I did feel fairly financially secure,


my mortgage was paid, so it did feel like the right time for me to do


that so I did still have ten years ahead of me to be able to make a


success out of something. Overall, today's figures were the strongest


in five years. The number of people out of work fell by 77,000 in three


months. 6.9%, the unemployment rate is below the level the Bank of


England once said could trigger a rise in rates. Plenty for the


Treasury to crow about. Self-employment is an important part


of the economy but we are also seeing increasing numbers of


permanent jobs, part-time employment and a varied labour market. One of


the strengths of the UK economy and by helping build the -- businesses


to create jobs, we are seeing more people work in this country than


ever before. In previous recoveries, job growth has been led by big


private-sector firms and the public sector. This time, that is not


happening to the same extent. Instead, more growth appears to be


coming from that rise in self-employment and short-term


temporary contracts. Critics say that often means greater job


insecurity and less pay. Research today shows that 44% of the rise in


self-employment has come in lower skilled jobs like cleaning and


catering. 28% say that given the choice, they would prefer to be


full-time employees. Cathy is returning to rework is a landscape


gardener after leaving her job in publishing at the start of the


recession. She has been registered as self-employed, juggling studies


with temporary contracts and freelance work. There are lots of


low paid part-time zero hours contract work out their but how can


you plan when you don't get paid and the children are sick? For me, the


regularity of income and working hours and all of the other things


are going with employment and offer more of what I am looking for these


days. As the economy grows, so the idea is that people are Cathy will


be able to get off those freelance contracts and join full-time work.


That will decide whether the self-employment boom is a temporary


lip to get us through deep recession or a longer term change to the way


we work in this country. Nicola Smith is Head of Economic and Social


Affairs at TUC. Allister Heath is editor of City AM. They join me now.


Why is this happening? This is a real shift, what we have seen


Staines 2010 is 40% of net jobs growth has been in self-employment


and we have seen trends that are driving that change. That represents


2010. We have find that the number of people starting their own


business has gone down on the number who say they are contracting and


freelancing is what is driving that increase going up. But why? I think


it is happening because the labour market is still weak, were still


recovering. That tells us something. Why?


In the first phase because of the economic collapse, people had no


choice. The choice was, either you are out of work, you are not earning


anything, or you become a consultant and go freelance. The second phase


is different. That is what we are seeing at the moment. A lot of


people are choosing to be self employed at the moment. In some


cases older people returning to work and other people going off on their


own, start up their own business and be independent. There is a cultural


change. The workforce is changing in ways that are quite positive. OK. We


will come to whether they are positive or negative in a moment or


two. It tells us something about the nature of this recession, doesn't,


it the emergence from recession that the growth... The really notable


growth is in self employment? I think it's telling us there is still


a lot of weakness in the jobs market. There is still a lot of


ground to make up. When we look at the detail self employed figures,


you reported on some in your report, there since 2008, I think, the


number of people who say they are self employed working in social care


has gone up by 29%. The number of people who say they are self


employed working in retail has gone up. That says to me there is a lot


more insecure, low paid jobs in social care that are of a poorer


quality than we heard before. More people are in work, that work is


poorly paid and insecure. This takes us into the field that Alastair was


just raising. Is it a good thing or bad thing? Why do you think it's a


good thing? Two things. First of all, whether the recession people


have no choice, I would rather as many as possible become self


employed rather than become totally excluded from the labour market. In


past recessions unemployment went up before because people didn't have


the ability to be self employed. People have become more self


reliant. It's good people want to work for themselves. Good that fewer


people want to work for large companies. Why? It's more exciting.


It's more creative and liberating. The more you see successful people


going it alone and choosing to be self employed the better. It creates


a die Nattic society. The a society where people will innovate and


create new companies, jabs for others and so on. I'm quite behind


that - It sounds a different view from the one you were outlining? I'm


in favour of people starting their businesses and taking new people on.


As I said earlier, we don't think the data show that is is what is


happening. Our worry is, as we recover from recession, we see


strong jobs growth, we aren't seeing job growth where wages are strong


and we will get strength for the future. We see large numbers of jobs


growing in low paid sectors and increasing the extent to which the


jobs are insecure and poorly trained. Workers classify them as


being on a self employed contract but you are delivering packages, or


you are a social careworker but by making themselves self employed they


avoid employment rights. If that was a permanent part of our economy


would be negative. How much is to do with the benefit situation? I'm not


sure there is a strong link with the benefit situation in particular. I


think people who are on benefits desperately want to move into work.


The big growth is in what is rather confusingly called "elementary


employment" low skilled jobs, as you say? These jobs need to exist. A lot


of people with low skills, great they are working. I think this is a


really positive set of numbers. Huge increase in employment. Longest


increase since 1989 since the Lawson boom. Half of the jobs over the past


year are employee jobs, the other half are self employed. A lot of the


jobs are low skilled. It's great these people are finding work. Good


thing more people have jobs. A growth in self employment has


cultural consequences too for the nation, doesn't it? You hinted at


that? I like the cultural consequences. Independence and the


fact people are, woing in smaller units is a good thing. You call it


independence, others would call it insecurity. Poor terms and


conditions, depressed incomes, wider trend towards those on lower and


middle incomes getting a smaller share of the nation's incomes. The


latest data, which aren't particularly up-to-date, a Hansard


reference shows the average income is ?10,000 a year. We know people


who are self employed, adown group of them are likely to be working at


below minimum wage earnings. That isn't good for our jobs market. By


definition self employed people may work fewer hours than full-time


people their income may be lower. May work more. We used to be in a


social where people went to work for a big company, that is was their


dream, 9-5 jobs, 40 years. That is over. That can be a liberating


development. In some case it is's insecurity. In some cases people


aren't choosing to be self employed. 27% of the people who became self


employed over the past five or six years say that they didn't choose to


be self employed. That is half a million people though. It's a very


large number of people. Given the horrendous recession and the


collapse in the economic output, given what happened that is a small


number. That is positive. You have to look in the context of which


people are making a choice. It's good they are in a job rather than


no job. More people have remained in work during this recession. Terms


and conditions of pay have been severely depressed in away that is


historically unprecedented. We can't say that is good for our economy or


wages going forward. Thank you very much. The United Nations and various


aid agencies launched an appeal for the best part of ?300 million to


help refugees from the fighting in the Central African Republic. The


country has been tipped into chaos since a mainly Muslim rebel


coalition seized power a year ago, started abusing the Christian


population and set off waves of revenge attacks, which have driven


great numbers of Muslims out of the country. Terrible conflict has


brought forth two remarkable peacemakers. Tim Whewell has been on


the road with them in the Central African Republic. It was always dirt


poor, perhaps the least valued of all of France's African possessions.


The French left a taste for combat owe in the capital, but not much


else. Now, a country that has always been misruled is in ruins. The only


authority, a few thousand foreign peacekeepers. In the last few


months, it's been violent cleansed of Muslims. Once they were 15% of


the population. Now, their homes are burned, thousands have been killed,


most of the rest have fled abroad. You might think it's all about


religion, but two friends, one Christian, one Muslim, are setting


out on a journey to try to prove it's not. They are the top Christian


and Muslim in the country. An Archbishop and the chief Imam. They


go everywhere together. Now, they are heading off on an


arduous journey into the interior of the country to talk to the killers.


Even for men of God, it won't be easy. Over the last two months, two


murderous militias have rampaged down this road, burning, looting,


killing, often at random. First, the mainly Muslim and Christian, their


crimes provoked the cycle of revenge that is now destroying this country.


The rebels are now defeated and confined to barracks in many places.


They seized power a year ago, committing many atrocities. To the


Imam's sorrow, some Muslim civilians took part.


The anti--Balaca. Today, of course, they are just fooling around. But


they kill Muslims for real, even though they call it self defence


against foreigners. This is the third village we passed


on a fairly short stretch of road, which has been almost completely


burnt. The countryside around here, for miles and miles, is being


completely emptied of Muslims. Bravely, the Imams got out to try to


persuade anti--Balaka fighters to go home. It's a tense moment. The


informal toll gate they have erected here is a money-spinner.


With militia ruling the roads, it's anarchy. Further on, thousands of


Christians are still sheltering around the cathedral. They fled the


Seleka months ago. This woman told them how the Muslim rebels killed


her son. She gets a blessing, but there is


little else the Archbishop can do for he. She takes us to see why. The


Seleka stripped her home of everything. It's the first time


she's been back. Behind, what is left of her son's


house. It's too much for her grandson,


Franklin. Not far away, the Archbishop and the Imam are trying


to persuade the few remaining local Muslims to stay. If they flee, like


most of the others, there will be no hope of rebuilding a mixed society


here. But they are met with a wall of distrust.


Back on the road, the in in day, the Archbishop refuses to be down cast.


A few bumps can't shake their sense of purpose.


Does the chief Imam ever worry he might be the last Imam, perhaps the


last Muslim in the country? In the market at the next stop, I


find one of the only two Muslims left in a town which had thousands.


This butcher was allowed to stay bus of his skills. Muslims dominated the


meat trade. It He is afraid to tell me much. -- he is afraid to tell me


much. His wife will never forget the day


when all the other Muslims fled for their lives.


It's been a journey when the two friends' pleas for reconciliation


has fallen on stoney ground, but they are not giving up.


They are heading back to the capital, then abroad, to urge


western leaders to send more peacekeepers before it's too late.


Perhaps it already is. Back in Bangui I find the tail end of the


exodus. Some of the capital's last Muslims leaving the country in any


vehicles they can find. Ethnic cleansing is almost complete. Still,


the world looks the other way. That was Tim Whewell aring l reporting.


Now the front pages: The Financial Times: Apparently, Scots are being


misled by some of the claims for the campaign for Yes for independence,


according to the Daily Telegraph. The Times has further news that the


trouble within UKIP about their funding. That's about enough for


tonight I think. The World Irish Dancing Championships are being held


in London this week for the first time in their 44 year history. Along


with the glory, this is the sort of trophy that successful competitors


can expect to receive. We have two World Champions, in their age group,


with us tonight, Gerard Byne and Julia O'rubg. He's from Donny gall,


she's from New York, both of them know a thing or two about a reel.


Good night. -- O' -Rourke. Brightness to southern and eastern


areas, cloudier further north, breezy with showery rain. Not a lot




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