17/04/2014 Newsnight


17/04/2014

An exclusive on the Obama strategist recruited by Labour, Ukraine, Birmingham schools and the death of Gabriel Garcia Marquez.


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a Newsnight exclusive. We reveal the man who sent Obama to the White

:00:10.:00:17.

House twice has been hired to work his magic on Ed Miliband. What

:00:18.:00:21.

chance the American campaign guru David Axelrod

:00:22.:00:26.

what chance the campaign Guru David Axelrod can make a winner? They are

:00:27.:00:37.

trying to support their families and retire with dignity. Frank Luntz,

:00:38.:00:41.

the top American pollster, and political commentator Rachel

:00:42.:00:43.

Sylvester discuss the star hiring - and the size of the task.

:00:44.:00:50.

After days of this in eastern Ukraine, will the deal in Geneva

:00:51.:01:00.

help? She's the most successful far right

:01:01.:01:05.

leader in Europe and she tells Newsnight she still wants to court

:01:06.:01:06.

Nigel Farage for her team. And the Nobel prize-winning novelist

:01:07.:01:20.

Gabriel Garcia Marquez has died. We reflect on his life.

:01:21.:01:28.

Good evening. It is a star signing. We can exclusively reveal that Ed

:01:29.:01:36.

Miliband has put his faith in the American campaign strategist David

:01:37.:01:39.

Axelrod to get him into Downing Street. He must have worked in

:01:40.:01:44.

number on him because last year, Axelrod, who started his career

:01:45.:01:48.

campaigning for Robert F Kennedy when he was 13, apparently said his

:01:49.:01:53.

role as Obama's chief campaign strategist would be his final role.

:01:54.:01:59.

So Axelrod makes a royal flush. The Conservatives have Lynton Crosby be

:02:00.:02:11.

and. To help with the significant task of

:02:12.:02:25.

convincing the public hears a winner, enter the man who propelled

:02:26.:02:32.

Obama to use presidential home. Who? The master strategist behind the box

:02:33.:02:39.

office appearances. Don't be fooled that David Axelrod always appears on

:02:40.:02:44.

the edge of the frame. In both of Balmer's presidential races, he was

:02:45.:02:47.

central even though he ended up being the butt of the old joke. So

:02:48.:02:53.

my advisers have switched over to the dark side. David Axelrod works

:02:54.:03:00.

for MS NBC which is a nice change of pace because they used to work for

:03:01.:03:06.

David Axelrod. But why would he want to go from this to having a shot at

:03:07.:03:13.

this? He has been taking calls from Ed Miliband since the summer and

:03:14.:03:20.

with arm-twisting from Douglas Alexander, he was persuaded to sign

:03:21.:03:25.

up. As the man himself explained in a carefully prepared clip. I think a

:03:26.:03:31.

candidate is a winner who speaks to the lives of the people they are

:03:32.:03:37.

running to represent. Ed Miliband understands the struggle that people

:03:38.:03:41.

are going through in Britain to make a living wage, to support their

:03:42.:03:45.

families, to retire with some dignity. He understands that a

:03:46.:03:52.

growing economy demands that you have brought prosperity and not just

:03:53.:03:56.

prosperity which is awarded by a few. I think you can build a

:03:57.:04:01.

movement. Even if he shares those big themes, it is a rather different

:04:02.:04:06.

endeavour. From a billion-dollar campaign with a candidate almost

:04:07.:04:12.

designed for Kodak moments. To the gentler charms of British

:04:13.:04:15.

campaigning, a budget of probably less than ?10 million and a

:04:16.:04:20.

candidate who the public has so far refused to fall in love with, even

:04:21.:04:28.

with the family snaps. But as Ed Miliband's senior strategic advisor,

:04:29.:04:32.

Axelrod is unlikely to be taking to the stump. And how useful can an

:04:33.:04:39.

Atlantic transplant actually be? In a way, I do think some of these

:04:40.:04:44.

advisers are taking candy from the hands of a baby by taking this

:04:45.:04:48.

money, these big fat contracts to work for British elliptical parties

:04:49.:04:52.

because the truth is they have not run a nationwide campaign. Their

:04:53.:04:57.

experience is very different. I am not sure how much of their wisdom is

:04:58.:05:03.

exportable to Britain but it will certainly make those advisers with

:05:04.:05:06.

DVD collections of The West Wing thrilled when they wake up in the

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morning and that is why they want him. But new Labour gained

:05:10.:05:17.

enormously from careful study of the Clinton playbook. If ever I get the

:05:18.:05:25.

reception that Bill gets anywhere, I am thankful I am not running against

:05:26.:05:33.

him! Axelrod is not the first hire from the Obama camp to Ed

:05:34.:05:38.

Miliband's Labour. But this man, Jim Mussina, has taken a different

:05:39.:05:45.

ticket. I want to take a minute to talk to you about what we are

:05:46.:05:51.

building on the ground. He has gone to work as a sometime adviser to

:05:52.:05:56.

David Cameron's election campaign. Certainly one politician gained

:05:57.:06:06.

massively from David Axelrod's dig commission. Sometimes conventional

:06:07.:06:18.

politics turns out to be wrong. Laura is here now. Are they playing

:06:19.:06:24.

this as a coup? They certainly are. They are delighted about this. David

:06:25.:06:31.

Axelrod is a big political player. He is not going to give his

:06:32.:06:36.

expensive time, let alone an expensive public endorsement is

:06:37.:06:40.

somebody he thinks is a bit of a loser. I think in terms of the

:06:41.:06:44.

Labour grassroots, it probably depends how far they are from the

:06:45.:06:48.

Westminster bubble in terms of their enthusiasm because sometimes big

:06:49.:06:51.

hires do go wrong. The thing that Labour HQ are frankly salivating

:06:52.:06:56.

over is not that they have Axelrod on the books but he is willing to

:06:57.:07:01.

say publicly he shares their analysis of what they think should

:07:02.:07:05.

be a really big elliptical appeal. When it started out as the squeezed

:07:06.:07:11.

middle, it got some fun pokes at it but he seems to have signed up for

:07:12.:07:16.

it in a very big way. Have front of house will he be? Labour are being

:07:17.:07:21.

quite cagey about how involved he will be. Depends how much money they

:07:22.:07:29.

are paying him. It does. I understand it is six figures. They

:07:30.:07:33.

did not say how much. He is a well-known man. They have signed up

:07:34.:07:38.

his firm until the general election. It is also worth pointing

:07:39.:07:42.

out the differences. These big hires do go wrong. Gordon Brown employed

:07:43.:07:47.

somebody which went wrong when he gave Gordon Brown a speech which

:07:48.:07:51.

John Kerry had more or less given previously. They do not always

:07:52.:07:55.

understand the system and fundamentally, they are working with

:07:56.:08:00.

completely different political animals. Obama was a change

:08:01.:08:04.

candidate, Ed Miliband is in the Cabinet. With me is Frank Luntz a

:08:05.:08:15.

strategist and Rachel saw Lester, the Times columnist. Frank, you have

:08:16.:08:19.

been up against him in the States. What is he like? Pretty quiet. He

:08:20.:08:25.

does not want to have his picture and name out there so I am surprised

:08:26.:08:30.

he filmed that little clip. I will tell you, families struggling,

:08:31.:08:35.

retire with dignity, this is Barack Obama's language and the danger is

:08:36.:08:39.

if he tries to take American language and apply to British

:08:40.:08:47.

politics, for example the spelling of Labour. Do you think this is the

:08:48.:08:56.

last role of the dice for Ed Miliband? Fire won he wants a big

:08:57.:09:01.

player and he wants to pitch for the squeezed middle. As Frank says the

:09:02.:09:07.

middle-class in America has a completely different meaning. The

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danger is you can have the best political message in the world but

:09:11.:09:12.

if the messenger is not appealing, it will not make any difference.

:09:13.:09:18.

Axelrod must have made a calculation that it was going to be a battle and

:09:19.:09:25.

if he can deliver, that will be the final feather in his cap? It is this

:09:26.:09:31.

analysis that you can either have a recovery which is a trickle-down

:09:32.:09:34.

recovery where the very wealthy do well and that trickles down to the

:09:35.:09:38.

rest, or it is people in the middle who feel left behind, you have got

:09:39.:09:42.

to help those people. It is the fact that both Miliband and Axelrod have

:09:43.:09:47.

agreed on that analysis which Obama also shares. I think it seems there

:09:48.:09:51.

is something on the centre-left which crosses both sides of the

:09:52.:09:55.

Atlantic. Whether Miliband is as good at articulating that is Obama

:09:56.:10:04.

is not clear. The fact that the district did not change and they

:10:05.:10:07.

kept the same boundaries which will be tough for the Tories, it is a

:10:08.:10:12.

different ball game. The Conservatives should be doing much

:10:13.:10:17.

better in polls. But also look at the communication. I think Douglas

:10:18.:10:20.

Alexander is the best strategist in all of Britain and I do not think he

:10:21.:10:25.

gets credit for that. If Miliband cannot score points off this

:10:26.:10:28.

government's failure to communicate, when can he? It is interesting

:10:29.:10:35.

because the Obama team is working for both sides. It is split. Would

:10:36.:10:41.

you have taken this job if the money was good enough? It is not the money

:10:42.:10:45.

but the chance to work with Douglas Alexander is an incredible

:10:46.:10:48.

opportunity. In the end, you have to be responsive to the local cultures.

:10:49.:10:56.

You have to be careful you do not put politics first, you put policy

:10:57.:11:01.

and people's concerns. I am nervous that this will make it sound like

:11:02.:11:04.

Americans are for hire. It should not be that way. Do you think you

:11:05.:11:11.

could get Miliband elected? You spotted Cameron. I know I would do

:11:12.:11:15.

things differently. I would focus on the team, not just the individual. I

:11:16.:11:19.

would focus on promises made and where they kept. And RU better off

:11:20.:11:26.

today than you were four years ago? Because even though the numbers are

:11:27.:11:29.

good, people do not feel it. It is smart that they are focusing on the

:11:30.:11:33.

cost of living but they should call it the cost of life. I should say it

:11:34.:11:39.

is not just Americans coming over. We have Lynton Crosby working for

:11:40.:11:44.

the Conservatives and Ryan Coetzee from South Africa working for the

:11:45.:11:48.

Lib Dems. It is almost as if they have lost confidence in themselves

:11:49.:11:54.

and want endorsement from outside. I remember David Cameron saying you

:11:55.:11:58.

cannot drop democracy from 20,000 feet and there is a danger that you

:11:59.:12:02.

cannot drop election victory from 4000 miles. Each culture is very

:12:03.:12:08.

different. Each country has a different nuance and emotion and I'm

:12:09.:12:12.

sure you can understand that if you are not the country. The true story

:12:13.:12:17.

as it was the British political elite went to America in 1979 to

:12:18.:12:22.

teach one of Reagan how to win in 1980. The British taught Americans

:12:23.:12:28.

how to do politics. As far as Miliband is concerned, there is no

:12:29.:12:33.

other place. He does have an American obsession. It is

:12:34.:12:37.

fascinating. He went to live there with his father when his father got

:12:38.:12:42.

a job at Harvard when he was 12. It was emotionally performative time.

:12:43.:12:51.

He follows the red Sox. He loves the optimism of America and it is also

:12:52.:12:55.

about that time that he spent with his father. Is there a

:12:56.:13:01.

misunderstanding? The point about what Axelrod did for a Obama, as

:13:02.:13:05.

Laura said, he was a change candidate, he was hugely different,

:13:06.:13:11.

he was presidential. It is a completely different electoral

:13:12.:13:15.

offering that we have here. His analysis is you win from the

:13:16.:13:19.

centre. Miliband has decided the centre of gravity in British

:13:20.:13:24.

politics has shifted. That is a huge gamble for Miliband. I'm not sure

:13:25.:13:28.

that the voters have become more left wing. Certainly in the past,

:13:29.:13:33.

Axelrod's analysis has been that you do not win from the centre. That

:13:34.:13:36.

will be an interesting dynamic to watch. If he supports the Red Sox,

:13:37.:13:42.

there is no way he will be Prime Minister! In terms of the left and

:13:43.:13:48.

the centre, because you have four parties, it will be like snooker. It

:13:49.:13:53.

will be balls bouncing off each other. You are not going to be able

:13:54.:13:59.

to tell who is going to win. What is it that Axelrod will do that will

:14:00.:14:04.

set Miliband apart? The theme seems to be get out there, speak to the

:14:05.:14:08.

people but actually Miliband has been trying to do that. There has to

:14:09.:14:15.

be some kind of huge slick campaign. Fine macro I do not think

:14:16.:14:22.

they can necessarily do that with Miliband. It will be about the

:14:23.:14:26.

wealthiest have done the row well out of this recovery but the

:14:27.:14:29.

ordinary people, the squeezed middle have not. It is reinforcing that

:14:30.:14:35.

message which is there will be super rich versus the rest. Miliband has

:14:36.:14:41.

started on that and he has got to hope Axelrod can sharpen that

:14:42.:14:45.

message which appeals to people. There is an alternative message

:14:46.:14:50.

which is hard-working taxpayers. You can argue over whether you are

:14:51.:14:57.

middle-class or working class. Almost everyone defines themselves

:14:58.:15:00.

as a hard-working taxpayer. If Cameron focuses on that, that is the

:15:01.:15:05.

answer to this class -based politics. There will then be no

:15:06.:15:10.

cigarette paper in the way they will campaign. That requires Cameron to

:15:11.:15:16.

be laser focused on communicating the efficiency of government, the

:15:17.:15:20.

effectiveness of government, accountability of government, so

:15:21.:15:24.

they cannot run an anti-incumbent campaign. And secondly, if you shown

:15:25.:15:28.

to be fighting for hard-working taxpayers, and they have not done

:15:29.:15:32.

it. It is all about the West Wing and as Laura says, they are all

:15:33.:15:38.

salivating. But you wonder what kind of heartland Labour supporters will

:15:39.:15:46.

make of this? Last year the Labour team said let Bartlett be Bartlett

:15:47.:15:53.

talking about the West Wing. Miliband isn't Barlet or Barack

:15:54.:15:58.

Obama. The they are imposing their fantasy politics on a less glamorous

:15:59.:16:04.

reality. The idea of fantasy politics! Thank you very much. All

:16:05.:16:08.

this week, the maelstrom over an alleged takeover plot of Birmingham

:16:09.:16:14.

schools by Muslim hardliners has been intensifying. The decision by

:16:15.:16:18.

the Department of Education to appoint the former head of

:16:19.:16:22.

counter-terrorism to investigate the accusation affecting 25 schools did

:16:23.:16:26.

nothing to calm matters. It was described as "desperately

:16:27.:16:29.

unfortunate" by the Chief Constable of West Midland Police. Accusations

:16:30.:16:33.

over the segregation of girls and boys within classes, related visits

:16:34.:16:38.

to 15 schools by Ofsted, the supposed banning of sex education

:16:39.:16:44.

have all become part of the mix. We have been digging for clues in

:16:45.:16:49.

Birmingham. In the past few weeks a storm has grown around Birmingham

:16:50.:16:54.

schools and the so-called Trojan horse letter. The document, sent

:16:55.:16:59.

anonymously to figures across the city, claims to detail a plot by

:17:00.:17:05.

hard line Muslims to infiltrate Birmingham's state schools. Step

:17:06.:17:09.

one, identify the schools that are based in Muslim areas, to influence

:17:10.:17:15.

and take over. Step two, tell each parent that the school is corrupting

:17:16.:17:18.

their children. The local rumour mill assumes that it is a forgery

:17:19.:17:22.

and one that may have been cooked up to help one side in a local legal

:17:23.:17:28.

dispute. For some liberal Muslims said it shed light on a real issue.

:17:29.:17:35.

They worry that a small cliche has pressed auto conservative Muslim

:17:36.:17:38.

line into secular state schools. The authorities are now worried too.

:17:39.:17:42.

There are four separate investigations covering 25 of

:17:43.:17:48.

Birmingham's schools. The council, which has had 200 approaches from

:17:49.:17:52.

members of the parliament. The Department of Education asked Peter

:17:53.:17:55.

Clarke a counter-terrorism official to take a look. All of that focus

:17:56.:18:00.

and attention is going into a relatively small part of the city.

:18:01.:18:04.

Birmingham's Muslim population is compacted very tightly. It is a

:18:05.:18:10.

rather selling agree gaited city -- egg agree gait city -- segregation.

:18:11.:18:20.

This concentration means that Birmingham has a number of schools

:18:21.:18:25.

where Muslims make up almost the entire student body. Some worry that

:18:26.:18:31.

allows so-called Islamisation of secular schools. A teacher, at one

:18:32.:18:34.

of the schools at the centre of the investigation, spoke to Newsnight on

:18:35.:18:38.

the condition of anonymity. His voice has been disguised. I don't

:18:39.:18:43.

think will is a problem with teaching Arabic, or having haogical

:18:44.:18:50.

food. When there is an idea behind the thought ho cress to Islamise the

:18:51.:19:01.

schools, it's a problem. The local MP, Khalid Mahmood, is worried. It's

:19:02.:19:06.

an issue of people fitting into the wider society. If you take that away

:19:07.:19:17.

they will be less able to get on in wide society. Lots of the

:19:18.:19:21.

allegations are focussed on Park View, a comprehensive school.

:19:22.:19:26.

Academically, the school is a great success. Sources say that, for

:19:27.:19:31.

example, romance between pupils is severely punished. A socially

:19:32.:19:36.

conservative reading of Islam is said to underpin it. The Chair of

:19:37.:19:43.

Governors, named in the Trojan horse documents, said the school is

:19:44.:19:49.

mainstream and and it reflects the local area. We cater for the

:19:50.:19:58.

communities we serve. I don't apologise for any of that. Nobody is

:19:59.:20:05.

asking for any favours. We don't want any favours. This former Park

:20:06.:20:10.

View parent said the school gave his daughter the education she had

:20:11.:20:16.

wanted for her. This is majority Asian area and Somalis. Therefore,

:20:17.:20:22.

we would like, not anything special, but because this area is a social

:20:23.:20:30.

conservative area, you would expect some kind of values that would

:20:31.:20:34.

reflect the overall majority. The issues in Birmingham are

:20:35.:20:38.

crystallising a problem that has been discussed widely in government

:20:39.:20:42.

for several years. That is, how much should we worry about extremism if

:20:43.:20:45.

it's not violent? There are some people in government, like Michael

:20:46.:20:49.

Gove, the Education Secretary, who think that religious conservatism,

:20:50.:20:54.

if it's extreme enough, is dangerous because it can be the ideology for

:20:55.:21:00.

terrorism. There is resistance to that view. I'm not going to accept

:21:01.:21:06.

that the pressures from the Muslim community in Birmingham to respect

:21:07.:21:10.

Islam within the school is going to lead to terrorism. I think that is

:21:11.:21:14.

stretching this argument far too far. This dispute has now spilled

:21:15.:21:19.

over into concern at the choice of this former terrorism official to

:21:20.:21:23.

investigate what people in the ground think of as an argument about

:21:24.:21:27.

religious conservatism. Peter Clarke is a former Head at Scotland Yard of

:21:28.:21:33.

counter-terrorism. We are dealing with allegations here. We are not

:21:34.:21:37.

dealing with Al-Qaeda, who had a number of issues in the city before,

:21:38.:21:41.

and there has been some mistrust, this will add to it. I don't think

:21:42.:21:46.

it's sensible. There are worries among moderate Muslims in Birmingham

:21:47.:21:51.

about whether some conservatism may have shaded into extremism. We have

:21:52.:21:55.

new evidence that their concerns have existed for a number of years.

:21:56.:22:01.

And, have been known to officials. Newsnight has seen documents which

:22:02.:22:04.

show the police were notified about two figures at Park View School in

:22:05.:22:10.

2010 suspected of spreading radical ideas. No action was taken, but last

:22:11.:22:15.

year the Department for Education declined to allow Park View to open

:22:16.:22:19.

a new school, in part because of fears about extremism. The events in

:22:20.:22:24.

Birmingham raise big questions about what role religion should play in

:22:25.:22:28.

the education system. And about when it is that devotion become a worry.

:22:29.:22:39.

View Educational Trust deny there have been instances of extremism at

:22:40.:22:43.

the school. They say if they were aware of any allegations about such

:22:44.:22:46.

behaviour they would have investigated it. The agreement over

:22:47.:22:51.

Ukraine, that was thrashed out today in Geneva by diplomats from the US,

:22:52.:22:56.

EU, Russia and Ukraine, to reduce the unrest on the ground, called for

:22:57.:23:00.

all sides to refrain from violence and provocation, the disarming of

:23:01.:23:05.

all illegally armed groups and for the control of buildings seized by

:23:06.:23:09.

pro-Russian separatists to be handed back to the authorities. The

:23:10.:23:14.

response from Donetsk in the east of of Ukraine was immediate.

:23:15.:23:17.

Separatists occupying a local government building said they would

:23:18.:23:20.

not leave until supporters of Ukraine's new government quit their

:23:21.:23:25.

Maidan Square in Kiev. So has today's Geneva deal removed the

:23:26.:23:29.

threat of more sanctions against Russia and increased the chance of

:23:30.:23:33.

the planned elections taking place next month. I'm joined by Mark

:23:34.:23:37.

Urban. Was it a breakthrough? It's important and progress. Up until

:23:38.:23:41.

today, there was a real prospect that elections, due on the 25th May,

:23:42.:23:45.

to give that country an elected government, an elected President,

:23:46.:23:49.

were going to be disrupted by this trouble in the east. That the people

:23:50.:23:54.

there would press their demands for federalism or a special deal for

:23:55.:23:59.

Russian-speakers within Ukraine, by doing that, stop a national election

:24:00.:24:03.

happening. Now, all of these things, which you mentioned in the inrow,

:24:04.:24:08.

are now supposed to happen to de-escalate the crisis. Get people

:24:09.:24:11.

out of the government buildings, all the rest of it. Sergei Lavrov, the

:24:12.:24:17.

Russian Foreign Minister, hied that Russia exists that addressing those

:24:18.:24:23.

grievances will only happen after that 25th May election. That is a

:24:24.:24:27.

very important point. Earlier today I spoke by Skype to the US

:24:28.:24:35.

Ambassador in Kiev to ask how it might go from here. The

:24:36.:24:39.

constitutional commission, formed by RADA, will offer recommendations by

:24:40.:24:44.

the 15th May. There will be further consultation with Ukraine's

:24:45.:24:48.

Constitutional Court, changes to the constitution require separate

:24:49.:24:52.

readingses in two separate sessions of the RADA. You are looking, as you

:24:53.:24:56.

say, a process of several months to make these changes to Ukraine's

:24:57.:25:00.

fundamental document. In the meantime, Ukraine has functioning

:25:01.:25:04.

democratic institutions. Our belief is those institutions need to be

:25:05.:25:08.

allowed to function. That means the Presidential elections on the 25th

:25:09.:25:13.

should go-ahead. But, should we read this as a back down by Russia? Well,

:25:14.:25:19.

there is definitely been more diplomatic language - From Lavrov

:25:20.:25:23.

You can say some of the interpretations, the armed groups,

:25:24.:25:27.

do those armed groups include the new National Guard, formed by Maidan

:25:28.:25:34.

supporters to act as the strong arm of the interim government. Should

:25:35.:25:37.

they be disbanded. Russia could press that point. Critically, many

:25:38.:25:41.

countries have said to the Russians, if you want to de-escalate this, you

:25:42.:25:47.

have 40,000 troops on the borders of Ukraine, rescind the permission

:25:48.:25:52.

given to you by the Upper House of the Russian Parliament to go in and

:25:53.:25:56.

use those troops in the Ukraine if you want to calm this situation.

:25:57.:25:59.

This morning, in Moscow, Vladimir Putin, when asked about it,

:26:00.:26:02.

specifically wouldn't give such a guarantee.

:26:03.:26:09.

TRANSLATION: I would remind you that the Federation Council of Russia has

:26:10.:26:12.

given the President the right to deploy armed forces in Ukraine. I

:26:13.:26:17.

very much hope I will not have to examiner countries that right. I

:26:18.:26:22.

hope the the acute problems affecting Ukraine can be resolved by

:26:23.:26:26.

political and diplomatic methods. How much has Russia been (inaudible)

:26:27.:26:33.

with the idea they are facing an appalling economic response from the

:26:34.:26:39.

West Well, the fascinating thing in this crisis, different methods being

:26:40.:26:44.

used by the two sides, just as President Putin signalled there that

:26:45.:26:47.

he will keep his hand, if you like, on the hilt Or the handle of his

:26:48.:26:52.

sword, his army on the borders of Ukraine to ensure an outcome that he

:26:53.:26:59.

wants, so the US today explicitly signalled that its financial weapon

:27:00.:27:08.

is not being (inaudible) either. John Kerry explicitly said this

:27:09.:27:12.

afternoon in Geneva, if we don't get what we want over the weekend,

:27:13.:27:19.

progress to de-escalate to come out of the occupy government buildings

:27:20.:27:21.

we will use further sanctions. If you look at the Russian economy in

:27:22.:27:26.

the past few weeks. It has been suffering. People pricing in some of

:27:27.:27:30.

the things they think might happen. T stobgck market tumbling by 10%.

:27:31.:27:35.

Capital flight from Russia since the crisis started. Some people say $70

:27:36.:27:40.

billion. The key thing, it appears, that the Russians fear is US Tressy

:27:41.:27:46.

Department blacklisting of some of their financial institutions, the

:27:47.:27:49.

Red Letter approach, which has been used against Iran, that could

:27:50.:27:53.

absolutely freeze up the movement of capital and cause them serious

:27:54.:27:57.

damage. That is the balance now between the US and Russia. As they

:27:58.:28:01.

wait for this to play out in Ukraine. Mark, thank you very much.

:28:02.:28:07.

The UKIP leader, Nigel Farage's, role as chief scourge of the EU in

:28:08.:28:12.

Europe is being challenged by the French Front Nationale leader,

:28:13.:28:15.

Marine Le Pen. Such are her party's opinion poll ratings ahead of the

:28:16.:28:19.

European Parliamentary elections, she might just be about to become a

:28:20.:28:24.

lot more powerful. Pollwatch 2014, based on opinion polls across

:28:25.:28:27.

Europe, suggest she is on target to form part of a far-right bloc in the

:28:28.:28:31.

parliament and so, for the first time, be entitled to a share of

:28:32.:28:35.

public funds. At the same time, her bloc would be a challenge to UKIP's

:28:36.:28:40.

right-wing Europe f free Europe of Freedom and Democracy bloc. Laura

:28:41.:28:43.

Kuenssberg travelled to Strasbourg to interview Marine Le Pen. She

:28:44.:28:48.

asked her, how her party could reach beyond the protest vote.

:28:49.:29:21.

That united front of refusal in the UK, Nigel Farage is part of what you

:29:22.:29:27.

describe as that, isn't he? You see him as part of your

:29:28.:29:39.

movement? Perhaps politicians in the UK are

:29:40.:31:10.

simply put off by your views? You say you would ban pork free meals

:31:11.:31:14.

for Muslim children in the towns you control. One of your allies in

:31:15.:31:18.

Holland said he would take care of the number of Moroccans in one town.

:31:19.:31:22.

Maybe British politicians do not want to have anything to do with you

:31:23.:31:24.

because of the views you hold. You said yourself it makes sense for

:31:25.:31:42.

you and Nigel Farage to work together in a strategic way because

:31:43.:31:46.

you have a lot of things in common but he does not want anything to do

:31:47.:31:49.

with you because of your views? But isn't it the case that some of

:31:50.:32:21.

the views you have put forward understandably do not appeal to

:32:22.:32:25.

British politicians because they can be at worst offensive and at best

:32:26.:32:29.

prejudiced? You said Muslims in France were almost like having the

:32:30.:32:31.

Nazi occupation. That is what you said. You said it

:32:32.:32:44.

was like an occupation. And there is nothing offensive

:32:45.:33:56.

towards European Muslims in your view about saying those kind of

:33:57.:34:02.

things, that it is against the identity of France or somehow

:34:03.:34:04.

unacceptable for Muslims to be praying in public places?

:34:05.:34:32.

Is your invitation to Nigel Farage to be part of your campaign still

:34:33.:34:35.

open? Would you hope to work with him in

:34:36.:34:52.

future? WorldCom in a statement to

:34:53.:35:22.

Newsnight, UKIP said they were not interested in any deal with Marine

:35:23.:35:28.

Le Pen and her party because of anti-Semitism in her party. Tonight

:35:29.:35:33.

we learned of the death of one of the greatest 20th-century authors,

:35:34.:35:40.

Gabriel Garcia Marquis, whose novel One Hundred Years Of Solitude was a

:35:41.:35:42.

literary masterpiece. He was 87 and had been ill for some

:35:43.:35:49.

time with pneumonia. His writing transformed Colombian literature and

:35:50.:35:53.

his use of magical realism inspired other writers to explore those

:35:54.:35:57.

worlds. Here is a look back at his life. Until tonight, he was perhaps

:35:58.:36:02.

the greatest living novelist, the most notable literary voice and

:36:03.:36:08.

spokesman of his continent, Latin America and the godfather of a

:36:09.:36:12.

style, magic realism. Gabriel Garcia Marquis was born 87

:36:13.:36:18.

years ago and raised in a dirt poor banana growing town in a lonely

:36:19.:36:23.

corner of Columbia, that beautiful but often benighted country. The

:36:24.:36:29.

family built its definitive shelter, a linear house with eight successive

:36:30.:36:33.

rooms along the hallway with an alcove filled with begonias where

:36:34.:36:37.

the women and family would sit to embroider on frames and talk in the

:36:38.:36:41.

cool of the evening. The rooms were simple and did not differ from one

:36:42.:36:44.

another, but a single glance was enough for me to know that in each

:36:45.:36:52.

of their countless details, they had a crucial moment of my life. The

:36:53.:36:57.

landscape and people of his childhood furnished his fiction,

:36:58.:37:00.

including perhaps his most widely read book, One Hundred Years Of

:37:01.:37:06.

Solitude. It sold 20 million copies and was translated into 30

:37:07.:37:10.

languages. I invent nothing, he protested. People always praise my

:37:11.:37:15.

imagination but I believe I am a terrible realist. Everything I

:37:16.:37:22.

invent was already there. This was his answer to the charge,

:37:23.:37:26.

if it was a charge, that he wrote magical realism. In fact, he trained

:37:27.:37:32.

as a reporter and alongside his novels was a shelf of great

:37:33.:37:37.

nonfiction, documenting his country's problem with kidnapping,

:37:38.:37:41.

for example. He was that rare writer, one who fully deserved his

:37:42.:37:47.

Nobel prize, awarded more than 30 years ago now. Nor did it become a

:37:48.:37:53.

premature headstone on his career. He continued to publish, to travel

:37:54.:37:57.

and interest himself in the politics of his hemisphere. He was confident

:37:58.:38:06.

of Fidel Castro of Cuba. Some thought a strong man in a novel was

:38:07.:38:10.

based on the leader in Havana. The writer was variously compared to

:38:11.:38:17.

Cervantes, Mark Twain and Dickens. He was known to his adoring fellow

:38:18.:38:26.

Colombians as Gabo. Joining me now in the studio are the writer a R

:38:27.:38:38.

Kennedy and from Scotland's Ian McEwan.

:38:39.:38:40.

What was so enriching about his stories? A translucent quality about

:38:41.:38:48.

the prose itself, an extraordinary experiment with time, driving Miss

:38:49.:38:55.

and fiction with one other unknown and unusual element. He really was a

:38:56.:39:03.

one-off and one would have to go back to Dickens to find a writer of

:39:04.:39:10.

the very highest literary quality who commanded such extraordinary

:39:11.:39:13.

persuasive powers over whole populations. It really is an

:39:14.:39:20.

extraordinary phenomenon, his literary career. You heard him say

:39:21.:39:24.

that he is a realist and he has been putting this idea that he was not

:39:25.:39:31.

about magic realism but wasn't it about the stories that his

:39:32.:39:35.

grandparents told him that he remembered and if used his whole

:39:36.:39:39.

idea of what fiction would be about? -- ends used his whole idea.

:39:40.:39:47.

People rightly remember One Hundred Years Of Solitude but Love In The

:39:48.:40:03.

Time Of Cholera was one of the best. This unknown Colombian town, the

:40:04.:40:06.

heat, the corruption, the Swamp Younis of it all is named in the way

:40:07.:40:16.

that is important. This runs against the current of the magical but still

:40:17.:40:20.

it is there that magical element and that is what makes him so

:40:21.:40:25.

extraordinary. I thought it was amazing that it was only recently he

:40:26.:40:28.

decided he would write his memoirs and he was going to take his time.

:40:29.:40:34.

First one volume and then a long time before the second volume came.

:40:35.:40:39.

This idea that he was denying that he was ever going to start writing.

:40:40.:40:45.

There was a sad quality to this because he had a neurodegenerative

:40:46.:40:49.

disease. He was making pronouncements about how he would

:40:50.:40:53.

never stop writing but in fact he had. There was an element of tragedy

:40:54.:40:58.

that we will all come to, I guess, at some point or other for

:40:59.:41:05.

ourselves. Ian, thank you for now. Ian talks about Love In The Time Of

:41:06.:41:10.

Cholera being his favourite. But One Hundred Years Of Solitude was

:41:11.:41:17.

translated into 30 languages and a bestseller, or what was it about

:41:18.:41:31.

that book? It comes from a whole set of beliefs, if you write something

:41:32.:41:37.

true enough and full enough, it has the capacity to change the world. If

:41:38.:41:42.

you set out on that premise, it will. You have these incredible

:41:43.:41:48.

swathes of time that you will accomplish and take on all kinds of

:41:49.:41:51.

technical challenges because you believe you can do it and because it

:41:52.:41:56.

is worthwhile and you have a definite aim insight. There is a

:41:57.:42:01.

huge beautiful confidence. When I read him as a student I was not

:42:02.:42:06.

thinking of writing and he literally blew my mind because you can do

:42:07.:42:09.

anything, your mind can do anything. Within reality, there is a

:42:10.:42:14.

reality which is magic. If you dream you kiss your boss and you see him

:42:15.:42:23.

in the morning, you look at him differently. That is real. It is a

:42:24.:42:29.

different book in Spanish than it would be in other languages. The

:42:30.:42:40.

child with the kick's tale in One Hundred Years Of Solitude, in

:42:41.:42:45.

Colombia you can take that as a given. Not necessarily because that

:42:46.:42:50.

has happened but because the folkloric is part of your

:42:51.:42:53.

experience. In the world we live in today, the folkloric is not

:42:54.:42:58.

celebrated in the way it was. In South America and other countries

:42:59.:43:02.

the folkloric was incredibly important. If you look at his

:43:03.:43:09.

influence it is difficult to trace. If you imagine his influence more

:43:10.:43:13.

tangible tea, you might think Sam and Rushdie -- Salman Rushdie,

:43:14.:43:27.

Midnight's Children. The permission to tell a story in that way. It is

:43:28.:43:34.

the permission to make something out of absolutely nothing. We have this

:43:35.:43:40.

special voice where we say folkloric. These are stories which

:43:41.:43:45.

have stood the test of time for centuries. There are extraordinary

:43:46.:43:50.

good. It is not just that I will make up some fan fiction and then

:43:51.:43:56.

turn someone into a parrot. You have to explain so much more and those

:43:57.:44:02.

guys go for it. Ian McEwan, you talked earlier about Dickens but

:44:03.:44:05.

where would you put him in the pantheon of writers? Right at the

:44:06.:44:11.

top. Talking of his influence, I think he had a massive effect, not

:44:12.:44:17.

only of Angela Carter and Salman Rushdie in say the British literary

:44:18.:44:22.

scene, but I think he loosened asked up in our little corner of

:44:23.:44:26.

north-western Europe. All kinds of writers who you would not associate

:44:27.:44:32.

with magical realism, suddenly were able to break free of a kind of

:44:33.:44:37.

literary inhibitions into thinking for themselves and how they might

:44:38.:44:46.

experiment with time and space and fiction. I would place him right up

:44:47.:44:54.

there in the best Parnassus, almost of a Shakespearean quality. And the

:44:55.:44:59.

other side of his life, the opposition to Pinochet, the row but

:45:00.:45:07.

went on for years and years and years. He was capable of very

:45:08.:45:13.

obstinate principled behaviour, wasn't he?

:45:14.:45:21.

He was. I was there three or four years ago having dinner and talking

:45:22.:45:27.

about that great rupture. In fact, behind it I think there was great

:45:28.:45:31.

fondness and great mutual admiration. This was really the

:45:32.:45:37.

battle of giants. He was often cast, I think, unfairly in the context of

:45:38.:45:43.

Latin and American literature as an extreme right-winger. This simply

:45:44.:45:50.

wasn't the case. He had strict (inaudible) against Castro. Many

:45:51.:45:53.

which were true. There were writers and journalists in prison in Cuba.

:45:54.:45:58.

He dared say so. I think there was a kind of... A rather (inaudible)

:45:59.:46:09.

quality to this discord. Now I think the death will settle this. Thank

:46:10.:46:13.

you very much. There are a few more beautiful sounds in the song of the

:46:14.:46:18.

Nightingale. The nightingale is in decline. There is a petition to

:46:19.:46:22.

bring the nightingale back, to the BBC airwaves. On midnight on 818th

:46:23.:46:28.

May 1924 a million people tuned into BBC Radio to hear the first ever

:46:29.:46:35.

loud outside broadcast, a nightingale in full song accompanied

:46:36.:46:44.

by a chelist. We thought you might like to hear it right now tonight.

:46:45.:46:53.

-- cellist Beatrice Harrison. The second-half of the weekend sees

:46:54.:47:30.

more unsettled weather, rain around as well. We start in Good Friday on

:47:31.:47:36.

a chilly note. A beautiful sparkling blue sky sort

:47:37.:47:37.

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