14/08/2014 Newsnight


In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Fi Glover.

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Nouri al-Maliki steps down as Prime Minister of Iraq.


Can functional government now be restored to Iraq?


And can the insurgency there be squashed?


We broke the siege on Mount Sinjar, we helped more and more people reach


safety and we helped save many innocent lives.


And as America congratulates itself on a job well done, what exactly is


the humanitarian situation facing the Yazidis in Iraq now?


The pass rate falls, university admissions are up,


Why do so many more women get to university, and should we care?


We'll ask the head of UCAS and President of the


The shooting of a black teenager, a police force accused of racism,


And do you feel like a slave to your devices?


We start tonight with the news from Baghdad that Nouri al-Maliki


has agreed to step aside as Iraq's prime minister.


In a televised national address, he pledged support for his


replacement Haider al-Abadi, who has already been asked by the country's


Frank Gardner, the BBC's security correspondent,


This is deeply significant, isn't it? This really is. This is


potentially a turning point in Iraq's very sad fortunes it has had


recently. Nouri al-Maliki has been running the place for the last eight


years and increasingly he has been at queues of sectarianism and


favouring Shias over Sunnis. All those people thought, well, actually


we would rather have ISIS in charge of our interests than him. The


question now is whether his replacement can bridge that gap and


walk that very delicate tightrope between giving enough to the Sunnis


that they feel part of Iraq and not alienate it, but not giving so much


that the Shia feel, well, hang on, he has let us down. Are there any


signs of that change happening? Well, something very significant


happened in the last 24-hour in Iraq. The Governor of Anbar


province, a very Sunni-dominated province, Al-Qaeda territory, a lot


of it, he has reportedly asked the US military support defeat ISIS or


Islamic state, so what we're seeing is potentially just the beginning is


here of the repeat of what happened in 2006-2007, where the Sunni tribes


were so third up with the extreme brutality of Al-Qaeda that they


asked for help and drove out Al-Qaeda. -- so fed up.


Unfortunately, last time Nouri al-Maliki did not have advice and he


squandered the opportunity. This time the Sunnis will be very nervous


about trusting them. This could be a never say for Iraq. But also with


President Obama saying the country is going in the right direction, is


there A-level of optimism underneath where we should be wary? We should


still be very wary. Three months ago, nobody talked about Iraq in the


cabinet. In Washington, it was largely ignored. America had not


exactly washed its hands because they were still people in the Green


zone, but it was space to be about Afghanistan and they were moving on


from Iraq. But unseen and unnoticed by most people with hardly any


intelligence presence, they had moved on, and during this time, the


Islamic state has taken over the entire valley, so now they realise


they have to do something about it. You is going to deal with it? It has


to be local Sunnis. -- who is? For the moment, thank you very much


indeed. Suhair al-Nahar is a spokesman for


Nouri al- Maliki's Dawa party. It has to be said his legacy is


shocking. He has mutilated the country of Iraq, has he not? The


former Prime Minister had a very difficult task and many, many


different problems on many different levels to deal with. I believe he


did the best he could in the circumstances. However, the


replacement now, who is also from the Dawa party, there is a lot of


optimism regarding his ability. If anybody can heal the rifts between


the various Iraqi divides, he can. Can I just pick you up on one thing,


and we can look forward to that in that optimism if you wish. But


surely you have to recognise that Nouri al-Maliki, it was not just


that he acted under difficult circumstances. Some of those


circumstances he created himself. There were levels of corruption and


he was not providing the sort of inclusivity which he promised at


first. Those things are of his own making. It is not a situation he


just found himself in. Yes, you did have a role to play in that, and I


think everyone has learned from that. -- he did. Everybody is


learning from that, including the new Prime Minister. I think it is


time to move on. It is time to heal the rifts between the Iraqi


political divides and it is time for national reconciliation. And it is


time to fight the terrorists who have done so much damage to Iraq.


Exactly. So it is not just a question of politics and of what we


in the West might understand to be the need for a stable state. You


have this vicious force that needs to be fought and you do have to have


an incredibly inclusive, strong government in order to be able to


fight that. The legacy of Nouri al-Maliki, it is there in all the


ways the state works. It is there in the Army, the councils. What do you


do about that? Can one man really come along and change all of that?


Believe that, as I said, lessons have been learned and lessons will


be. -- I believe. He has the ability to make the difference, he has the


ability to make the turnaround. What is that ability? What is it about


him that makes you think you can do that? The ability is firstly that he


is a very listening person. He is very inclusive, very thoughtful. He


also has technocratic abilities, so he will build institutions and


systems and will fight corruption. In addition, he believes that he was


a leader of the Parliamentary committee on economics, so he has a


very deep understanding on how Iraq can improve economically and improve


in terms of services for ordinary Iraqis. Does he have that steel will


and resolve? And, in a sense, you need aggression, doesn't he, to


fight ISIS? -- he needs. ISIS is not a group that will respond to all of


those things you have talked about. They do not want to come and sit


around a Cabinet table and discuss the economic future of the country.


They want something completely different. Exactly. And one of his


main aim is that he has promised to carry out as soon as he took office


is to defeat the terrorists, ISIS. He will do this firstly through


national reconciliation, as I have said. Bring on board the moderate


Sunnis to fight the terrorists on their own areas. Secondly, he needs


and will reform the Army and security forces. Thirdly, he will


need the help of the world community, and this is where he also


excels, because he has communication skills and his relations and


contacts... The backline to America, that will certainly help. Thank you


very much for your time this evening.


And so Iraq finds itself on the brink of another chapter


With different views from every perspective, although President


Obama may say that today the country heads in the right direction.


Set this optimism against the picture painted


The UN has declared its highest state of emergency


for the country, and in a moment, we'll hear from one of its men


First, here's our security correspondent, Frank Gardner.


Thousands have been rescued in recent days, fleeing murder


by the militants of ISIS, the so-called Islamic state, or from


But now they face a deeply uncertain future.


The humanitarian situation in Northern Iraq can be described


Those terrible biblical pictures that we saw of people being helped


off Mount Sinjar here are only one small part of a much wider picture.


Across the region as a whole, around 300,000 refugees have arrived


in the last ten days and they all need help.


According to the Kurdish government figures, 250,000 refugees have


arrived in Dohuk, plus another 50,000 Christians.


In the Kurdish capital Irbil there are nearly 60,000 Christian


refugees and the numbers are growing.


We have, in the last ten days, had between 200,000 and 2550,000 people


With each displacement, they are able to bring with them


less and less of the key household items they need to survive,


The scenes from the mountain are what helped galvanise


the international community into rushing aid to Iraqi Kurdistan.


At one point it looked like tens of thousands could perish


Kurdish troops have since managed to escort most to safety.


The US Special Forces team flew in aircraft like these and assessed


there was no longer an immediate need for a rescue operation.


I have also heard President Obama say that a rescue mission is not


Frankly, I myself don't understand that.


These are people who have fled for their lives with nothing.


They are not mountaineers who are ready to climb up a mountain.


These are ordinary men, women and children, don't forget


that, and children can be very fragile in this kind of situation.


The biggest refugee crisis is now in Dohuk, a Kurdish city overwhelmed by


Aid is reaching them but not enough.


Most are from the displaced from the Yazidi community.


They've been driven out by the militants


ISIS as part of its sectarian cleansing really


has it in for the Yazidis, and very clearly wants to destroy


Sorry, in the province with a combination


of driving them out, a combination of taking them captive, and women


they consider to be property, like houses, like land, and they are


Then there is the wider fear of winter.


How will Kurdistan shelter such vast numbers of refugees


Homes will have to be found for the thousands now sleeping rough


And just over the horizon, the militants of ISIS bent


Unless they are dislodged, the refugees have no chance of ever


A little earlier I spoke to Kieran Dwyer from the


United Nations Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian


Affairs about the situation on the ground in the Kurdish city


I wonder whether you can start where you -- by telling us where you have


been today and what you have seen? We went to the border crossing at an


area where the large numbers of people coming in from the mountain,


the Saint John mounting crisis, had been flowing through in the last few


days in large numbers. -- Mount Sinjar crisis. So people are still


coming over today. More a steady flow than the large numbers in


previous days. And then to a transit camp, which is where many people who


have come across the bridge are being stabilised and spending some


time before they moved to other areas that are being set up,


because, frankly, many of these people will not feel safe to go home


for the foreseeable future. Can I ask you about the situation on Mount


Sinjar? President Obama has said that US forces have broken the siege


there and as you know, there will be no future humanitarian efforts


through the air from America because they believe that the situation is


good enough to leave alone. Do you and your colleagues accept that


assessment? Well, I am aware of the statement that was made, of course,


and we know that the American military team conducted its


assessment. As humanitarians, we know there are still several


assessment. As humanitarians, we know there thousand people on top of


the mountain. We don't know the precise number. And that is one of


the Kiwis and also we are here in Dohuk today, to speak with as many


people as we can, including people still coming off the mountain and


crossing the bridge today. -- one of the reasons we are also here. Some


need to urgently still get down. We need airdrops possibly to still get


those people supplied on that mountain. Letmember, nobody went up


that mountain who was not forced because they were afraid for their


life. -- re-member. Can I just ask you this - do you believe President


Obama was right to make that assessment? Is it very different to


how you would have assessed the situation? This was a military


assessment for a potential operation and I don't know what went into the


assessment. That is one process. As humanitarians, we look at what is


necessary to keep people alive and what is necessary to create


conditions where they can safely and freely come down from the mountain.


Those things are not separate. The UN have said that Iraqis at a level


three emergency status which is extremely high, so set against that,


it is hard to understand when President Obama says that the


country is heading in the right direction. Those seem to be two very


different perspectives. I won't make a military commentary or political


commentary. I'm here as a humanitarian person, working with


the international community, which includes a broad spectrum of the


international community and efforts who are trying to help Iraqi be more


secure and safe, protect the civilian population -- help Iraq.


1.2 million people alone this year have been rapidly displaced from


their homes, so to help keep them alive with emergency assistance and


help the local authorities set up white media to be protective


measures and assistance measures for quite some time to come. -- setup


humanitarian measures. There are now as many refugees in the city as


original inhabitants which seems an extraordinary position to manage.


The senior officials we have met have been impressive in their


commitment and in the actions they are taking to deliver, but it is


plain, and they are humble and they understand this, they are stretched


to the limit. They are asking the UN for assistance and we are scaling it


up as fast as we can, but they are asking for further international


assistance to help them do the job they want done. They are stepping up


and they need us to step up with them, and the UN is certainly doing


that. Thank you very much for your time this evening. We appreciate it.


If you've had teenagers in the house this summer you'll know


Anxiety, hysteria, occasional giddiness.


Either someone knows the ending to Game of Thrones,


Overall grades are slightly down with fewer A and A* grades.


But that might not really matter because there are a record number


of university places available - an extra 30,000,


which means that even some of the most elite universities are


Here's Chris ?Four Straight As? Cook.


Today, on a level results day, parents will be congratulating and


commiserating with their children about their university choices. It


is a decades-old story, but there is a wrinkle, because sons are more


problems than daughters these days. Outside Scotland, a level of the


main entry qualifications for university. This year they were


taken by around 260,018 -year-olds in the UK, about 38%. So today is a


day that the university reforms are very obvious. A key plank of the


reforms are the university should be able to expand so they can compete


to win students. To help them along, 30,000 extra places are being


funded, an increase of 8% and that will rise by another 30,000 next


year. This is hardly the first big university expansion. The share of


people you went to university by the age of 30 rocketed from 5% in the


early 1960s to around 35% by the turn-of-the-century. This was a


legacy of a report from 1963, lip -- written by Lionel Robbins, an


eminent economist, which advocated a big rise in the university


population. Will bigger numbers mean lower standards? Not on our


computations. When people think of the recent story of universities,


they probably think of this. Demonstrations, disorder, fees, and


the Liberal Democrats. # I'm sorry, I'm sorry. The cap on


fees rose most recently in 2012, but at the same time participation rose


as well. Since fees came in in the late 1990s, the story of growth in


higher education has been similar to the previous story, which is more


and more young people on their way to university. Interestingly, the


growth is now concentrated amongst people from less well-off


backgrounds and we have seen it in the data from UCAS, with 8000 people


from the poorest backgrounds on their way to higher education. But


there is still an unusual gap here. Undergraduate admissions are one of


the areas where women dominate. 48% of 18 or 19-year-old women go to


university, compared to 35% of men, and the gap is riding. UCAS said


today that there had been 107,000 acceptances for -- 172,000 men, and


more for women. The missing numbers are from poorer communities. There


are more women than university going -- there are more women than men


going to university, and that makes sense because apprenticeships pay


less for women. It's not surprising that women feel they have to go to


university to compete with men on an equal level. There are other


explanations. It might be schooling, or the advice about career choices


that women and men make. It is a rare area of public policy though


where women do better than men. Mary Curnock Cook is the Head of


UCAS and Alice Philipps is President Mary, to start with you, why does it


matter if young men are not choosing university as much as women because,


actually, further down the line, they enter what is clearly a man's


world where they get paid more and seem to find it easier to make it to


the top? I don't think that is really the case. If I could just set


out the picture that we see today from mission control, if you like,


at UCAS. 400,000 people have been placed today, but 50,000 more young


women than young men, and what we now see is that women are one third


more likely to enter higher education than men. In fact, women


are more likely to enter than men are to apply. Surely that cannot be


a good thing in terms of balance in the potential for young women and


young men, and their future career and life. Do you know anything about


why that has happened, why the choices made? -- the choice is


made. The background is that young men are not getting the achievement


coming out of secondary school, so the pipeline coming through for


admission to higher education is worse for young men than for young


women. Women reach level three A-level equivalent at the same level


that young men reach level two. Why does that happen? Is it the fault of


the schools? Is it something in young men, or is it that young women


are just terrific? I'm not an expert educationalist, but I can tell you


that young women outperform young men right through the school system,


through primary school and secondary school, and, surely, the potential


of young men is somehow being let down through that system. And, of


course, we see it in university admissions. So what would you do?


And I would like hard plans and proposals, please. I think somebody


needs to look vary carefully at the issue. We can see that while the gap


between... Shouldn't it be you? I don't think it is the job of UCAS.


We are using evidence to show something. But you could be a good


advocate for change and stir for change? Well, that is why I am here


this evening. We want to see more young men coming through the system


to balance it out, not least because there is probably a better


university experience if there is more of a sex balance on campus. But


how do you do that? In practical terms, what does that actually mean?


Clearly the young men are not really listening to lots of people saying


that you are not getting as far as the girls. They are in school and


watching the girls outperform them, so what can they do? It is important


to look at the underlying causes. They must be to do with teaching and


learning. They must be to do with the curriculum or qualifications, or


the assessment regime. But for some reason, boys are coming through


school and not doing as well, in aggregate, as the girls are. Alice,


you come from the girl school perspective, but you have also


taught boys as well. Through your expertise, what do you think the


problem is, so what might the solution be? One of the problems


might be, if we go back to primary schools, the shortage of male role


models as teachers. If you are going to go into the educational context


as a child and be inspired by grown-ups around you, you want


people who suggest to you as a small boy, from whatever background, that


education and learning is fun and to have a male role model that will be


helpful alongside the female ones. We know there are many strong female


role models, but increasingly fewer and fewer male role models at the


earliest age. That is a sensible suggestion that there must be more


you can do further down the line -- but there must be more you can do


further down the line as the young men approach a levels and are given


careers advice. Something must be falling short. Could we have more


positive discrimination? If we talk about this as a different group, a


different socio- economic group, or cultural group, then I think we have


already had in place some kind of positive discrimination and helpful


schemes, but people seem to be wary of saying let's do it for the boys.


Certainly, and if you take the story at the start, it's a great story of


celebration for girls and women, and there was a time when it wasn't


thought worthwhile to educate women. We should not try to imply in the


statistics that it is the fault of women that men are falling behind.


What UCAS dies, and it has been a tough day for the organisation, and


I would like to thank her for the work done today, but they gather the


data and now it is here we can work with it. So what would I do? I would


turn to the new Secretary of State and listen to serious


educationalists and gather people who have succeeded with these


minority groups who struggled, and there are head teachers out there


who have a strong track record, and get them to talk together and frame


policy and plan. Is there ever a place for something as bold as


weaker offers for young men approaching their A-level results?


That is not the problem because it is in the pipeline. The acceptance


rate in university for men is a smidgen higher than girls, so it's


not about the admissions process, it is about what is coming through. But


you could change that, couldn't you? There would always be a place where


you could say, here you have a girl with 28 results and be, but we need


more boys in the system, so we will take them with a B grade and a C


grade? -- to a great results and a B grade? I don't think that is really


the solution. I think the suggestion about more men in teaching in


primary and secondary school, that is interesting, because there are a


lot of initiatives to get girls to do science and computer science and


stem subjects, but what about the huge imbalance in the number of men


going into teaching and social work and nursing, which are massively


showing a bigger gap the other way round? I think it would be good to


see initiatives to show young men that there are a range of careers


they could pursue that are outside of the traditional comfort zones. It


is definitely a subject we will return to. Thank you for your time


this evening. To Gaza now, and day one


of a new five-day ceasefire, Neither side has relinquished any


of its demands, although Egyptians sources have said


that Israel may be willing to lift But the let up


in the fighting gives citizens on both sides the opportunity to affect


some normality - whatever that means The BBC's Yolande Knell


in Gaza has been talking to the people trying to keep the lights


on and the water flowing. Gaza took a pounding during recent


Israeli air strikes. This is the third conflict here in five years.


And it has been the most deadly and destructive. Israel says it is


targeting militant sites, but civilian infrastructures are not


being spared. Gaza's only power plant was shelled two weeks ago,


setting its fuel tanks on fire. The Israeli military says it is


investigating, but the effects are clear. As you see, this is total


damage. It can't be used any more, and without the fuel, we have no


operation. The manager has been here since the electricity plant opened a


decade ago. It was supposed to make use of the latest technology to meet


rising demand. Instead, it has faced constant challenges. It has been


caught up in previous fighting between Hamas, which controls Gaza,


and the groups sworn enemy, Israel. Tight border restrictions limited


fuel imports. Although power cuts were common in Gaza before, now they


are much worse. The electricity that the whole population, almost 2


million people, they will suffer. -- for the whole population. When you


talk about electricity, you talk about the water supply, water


treatment, sewage, we are talking about hospitals and schools. All


aspects of basic life require this not existing. In this home they are


used to blackouts. But the sisters carry out what household chores they


can in the dark. They organise their lives around the six or so hours of


power they get each day. The first thing, of course, is charging our


flashlights, turning on our water well and doing laundry and stuff


that has to do with electricity. And they tell me even keeping clean is


difficult, because without power, the water filled ration and pumps


don't work. And we are like, I wish I could go take a shower, but there


is no time and no water and no electricity. You can't do anything,


really. Entire neighbourhoods of Gaza were reduced to rubble during


the ground invasion by Israeli Armed Forces. In the East, they said they


destroyed tunnels used by Palestinian fighters. But they also


damaged underground water and sewage systems. Already, these were in a


fragile state. A blockade of Gaza are forced by Israel and Egypt had


made maintenance hard. Now there is contamination and widespread water


shortages. Across Gaza, emergency efforts are under way to fix or just


to patch up basic infrastructure, often in incredibly difficult


circumstances. Here, the workers are struggling to restore basic water


supplies. They have got miles and miles of broken pipes.


Hospitals are already seeing diseases spreading. As more and more


Gazans displaced by this conflict are forced to put up with dire


living conditions. And here, the growing problems with


Gaza's infrastructure can be a matter of life and death. The


machines in this intensive care unit are now relying mostly on


generators, which are meant to be used for back-up purposes only. So,


imagine if the electricity of the generator went off in addition to


the normal electricity being off before. Imagine what will happen to


the blood banks and the stores. Imagine what will happen to patients


in the ICU. And what will happen to the nursery where the newborns are


there. For years, Gaza has struggled, but the latest conflict


has left it on life support. A temporary truce is giving some


breathing space, as Egyptian Wiggo shooters try to secure a longer term


cease-fire between Israel and the Palestinians. -- Egyptian


negotiators. Now they need to address security concerns and open


up Gaza's borders so a full recovery can begin.


An 18-year-old black man, shot by American police


in disputed circumstances, described by witnesses as unprovoked.


And a town erupting into protest at what is seen as deep-seated racism.


It's a story told before, too many times.


This one in a small suburb of St Louis in Missouri called Ferguson.


It has been four nights of anger, protest and clashes with the police


in the US state of Missouri following the fatal shooting of


black teenager Michael Brown last Saturday. Details of the killing


have been disputed, with eyewitnesses saying the 18-year-old


was unarmed and had his hands raised. The police say he was shot


several times after a struggle and have not yet released the officer's


name. Last night, heavily armed riot police fired tear gas at


demonstrators in Ferguson who had ignored an order to disperse.


Several people were arrested, including two journalists, who said


they were assaulted before being released. On social media, the town


is starting to be referred to as Fergus-stand. People should not be


brilliant journalists who are just rang to do their jobs and reporting


to the American people who see what is going on on the ground. We need


to hold ourselves to a higher standard, particularly those of us


in positions of authority. There was also a recognition of the ground


swell of emotion on the -- in that immunity with efforts to bring


around a more peaceful resolution. Or we also need is for folks to be


able to be allowed to express their energy in an appropriate way. They


have the absolute right to do that. Because we will not get the healing


that we all need is the only response from the public is "I'll


just be quiet". Two thirds of Ferguson's community is black, in


stark contrast to 50 out of its 53 police officers being white. The


town has come together in grief, sorrow and anger. A common chart


against the police is "hands up, don't shoot". It has erupted on


social media and touched at the core of one of the unresolved fault lines


in America. With me now are Mike Colombo,


a local reporter, and Lester Spence, a Professor of African and


American Studies. A very good evening to you. Mike,


can I start with you? Can you describe the mood in Ferguson


tonight? Pardon me. At this moment, we are still learning more and more


about what is happening on the ground in Ferguson but the shift to


the state police has been absolutely huge already. It seems as if the


captain, who is actually a Ferguson resident originally, an


African-American officer, he being on the ground is orally having a big


impact just seeing some of the tweets sent by my colleagues. --


already having a big impact. He has said he will walk with them and the


police line they have experienced over the last several days will be


far less than it was, so it is a very interesting change of


circumstances as to what we have been dealing with for the last


several days. Can you just explain what that differences with the state


police coming in? And what does it say about the police before? So much


of what we have heard from the residents of Ferguson and the


different processors has been that the police have been taking a very


heavy-handed approach. -- protesters. I think all of us are


hoping that with the change of guard, there may be some differences


and that might actually allow us to see whether it was the police who


were in fact being heavy-handed or if it may have been protesters with


some unreasonable thoughts and feelings about what had been taking


place. So I guess you could release a only time will tell as far as that


is concerned but very early on, it seems the people are well receiving


the new police who are investigating and helping work with the


protesters. Obviously this was a tragic death of a very bright young


man. But can you explain to us why it was everything kicked off so much


afterwards? You can understand the grief and anger of the family and


the problems of a death in custody. But what you have seen on the


streets of Ferguson is we quite extraordinary. The scenes we have


just showed, it is something akin to the Los Angeles riots, isn't it?


They are, and one part of this story that runs parallel to the shooting


death of Michael Brown is that there are some very deep-seated racial


issues that have gone on in this community and many communities in


this area for decades. The shooting death of Michael Brown bringing


those issues to the forefront. And the people there, especially with


the way many of them feel the police handled the situation from the get


go, they are stepping up and saying, enough is enough, we have dealt with


issues here and felt like second-class citizens for a very


long time, and we are sick of it, and they are using this as their


platform to bring those issues to the forefront and let people know


real change has to come or they are going to continue to see some of the


protests and some of the people's unhappiness that has really shown


over the last several days. Thank you. And thank you for your


patience. Does everything you hear mics they ring true to you? Yes, it


does. -- Mike says? A week before the 11th of September, it was a week


before Labor Day, and there was a kid who was killed by St Louis


police, and they shot him in the alley and they accused him of firing


at them. The gun had not been fired, though. Police were not even


charged and there was a number of incidents once this happened. I went


back and a student had collected three or four binders from me on


research I was doing, and there was just incident after incident of


police being heavy-handed in the city and in Saint Lewis County and


people calling for Citizen review boards and their calls going


unheard. Said President Obama has called for calm but also


transparency, and that is a very interesting word, isn't it? What


does that mean to you? If you think about the militarisation of the


police, it happens in a number of different ways. It starts in the 60s


as a result and in response to black protest. Then it moves to the 70s


and 80s in response to the war on drugs. The 90s is the war in Iraq.


And then now it is in relation to 9/11. And what you have with that


militarisation move is a kind of gap being placed between citizens and


the police, and then a significant part of that gap is increasing the


way that the police don't feel they have the obligation to do anything.


They don't have the obligation to report a citizens, they don't have


the obligation to reveal themselves to journalists, they don't have the


obligation to let themselves be photographed, and they definitely


don't have the obligation to allow people to protest peacefully,


particularly black people. And from what you have seen of the developing


situation over the last four nights and other state develop and come


with President Obama making his speech, do you think this could be a


turning point for the residents? Yes, I do. Just that move to replace


the Ferguson police with the State Highway Patrol and led by somebody


who actually knows that neighbourhood, I think that is


really, really important. But the important thing is going to be for


us and the people of Ferguson to continue to move, because what we


don't want is a circumstance in which this moment happens and this


boy is killed and we find justice but then the systems that actually


allow that to happen remain in place. So that is the struggle we


have in front of us. A real pleasure to talk to you tonight. Thank you


for your time, and also to Mike. You'd be hard pushed to find a


more modish fashion than detoxing. But if you think you've done them


all, you haven't, because this summer sees the arrival


of a whole new type of detoxing. Newsnight's David


Grossman is all over it. Now, be honest, is this what your


holidays look like? Is this your night out at the pub? Is this that


special romantic meal with the love of your life? We are still in the


early days of this new world and it is pretty clear we are already


struggling. Struggling to know when we should connect and when we should


switch off. There are some pretty easy rules to make, like driving.


But the rest of the time? What it has done to us is it has made us


afraid of absence, afraid of solitude and daydreaming and quiet.


Everybody that I see with a moment of absence in their lives, they dive


into their phone. This is how this work used to be. An analogue world


of pens, typewriters and landlines. When we went on holiday, it was a


struggle to get a week old copy of the Daily Mail, let alone a message


from work! And then, well, this happened. Mac this keeps you in


constant in indication with these transportable, affordable cellular


phones. We thought this could meant we could -- could mean we could be


on the beach, the golf course or in the shopping centre and not be found


out. But there has been a price to pay. Being able to work anywhere


means anywhere we are, we are at work. The company Daimler is


offering its staff and email holiday when they go on leave. Their inboxes


blocked and incoming messages are simply deleted! Naturally, we wanted


to talk to the executive who came up with this new policy. What you mean


we can't get hold of an?! It is 2014! But it turned out he was on


holiday. So he sent us this statement.


We get a load of individuals who come, and then we take their phones


away and lock them away. Vicki runs digital detox weekends. She says


periodically dumping the smartphone is vital. We quite often find


situations where if people did have their phone, instead of making an


effort to chat to someone if they were bored, they would just get


their phone out and do that, so we have loads of feedback saying they


have much more interesting and deep conversations when they are talking


to people and they are not distracted by their phone going off


on the side and then there attention getting diverted to their phone. And


it is only going to get worse. Technology is in its infancy. This


watch can tell me when I get a message. But in future, connectivity


will be sewn into the fabric of our lives. Perhaps we need to work out


some rules. As much for employers as employees. Part of the thing that


work that managers should know is that we are at work but we are also


at play. So watch back. Facebook and Twitter, if you look at the numbers,


you will find the busiest times for those websites are when everybody


says they are at work. So we know it has become this... This giant


no-man's-land of work and play meshing between each other. And it


creates a kind of ambient anxiety throughout our lives. So, live in


the modern world, in Bray six technology, but once in a while, for


the sake of your health, take a trip back to the past. -- embrace the


technology. That is all we have time for court


the liberal and I have emails to check! Good night. -- all we have


time for and I have. Friday looks the best day of the


week with more wins and sunshine around. The small chance of a few


isolated showers but hopefully they will be just


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