In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Evan Davis.
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Tonight, we talk to the man who organised it.
Suffering from the cold and hot weathers and bad nights and the
people here who don't like us because we make a lot of mess here.
We have got to go and walk, and see what Europe can do for us.
We'll also be focussing on the cause - the war in Syria,
hearing from the man in charge of the US-led coalition.
We have really never seen anything like this before so it is a global
fight, it is a threat to everyone, and something we need a global
coalition to confront. As he continues to dominate
the polls, Donald Trump's They are talking about Mexican
rapists. FROM AUDIENCE: They're
talking about the wall! They can only win...
They're talking about the wall. I love the idea of the
Great Wall of Trump. The polemicist Ann Coulter explains
the Trump phenomenon. We've got an official astronaut
in space, at last. Newsnight looks back at the lost
history of the British Europe is keen to end the year
repairing its vision of a continent In the face of a migration crisis
and security concerns, It is to bolster
the external border. Or to put it another way,
it's about helping Greece and Italy cope with those arriving
on their shores with a new European Border
and Coast Guard. It will replace the Frontex agency
which is actually only Well, as the year draws to a close,
this programme is looking at the migration issue by catching
up on some of the characters whose images were beamed around
the continent this summer. In the second of our series -
the faces of the migrant crisis - Katie Razzall meets the man behind
an event which proved a turning point in how the migrants
were perceived and received. It was the moment that changed the
course of the refugee crisis. When was this photo taken? In a train
station when I was explaining to people what we have to do and how we
will walk. That's you? Yes, that's me. When Muhammad led a column of
refugees on a march across Hungary, the pictures helps define the scale
of the crisis facing Europe. At the start of September, with Hungary
cracking down on migrants, thousands were corralled for days in
Budapest's main train station. I get this plant that we have got to walk,
no one can stop us. I told them, don't be afraid, we can do a break,
walk today for eight hours, tomorrow eight hours, and stop every time we
are feeling tired. We have got to walk and we have got to not do any
mess. The Hungarian people will give us a lot of food and water and
everything, and the most important thing is that we don't mess the
place or the town or the street. Why did you think that? Because with the
cameras shooting us, the European people will see that we are walking
and we are doing mess. They say, these people are not good, every
time they eat they throw the things in the street and it is not
acceptable. Ever strategic, he invited TV crews to join his march.
I think the police or the Government cannot hurt us because we will be
shot on the TV. You knew about the power of television to protect you.
Yes, when I was at the train station I requested three channels, they
said, OK we will go with you. This was just days after the Syrian boy
washed up on a beach. The migrants' plight was making headlines. Even at
night, when negotiating the arrival of bosses, Mohammed made sure the
camera was there. I said to them don't be afraid, I am going to send
with you a cameraman and I will send with you also one guy, he will have
a car and he will follow you. Clearly a natural organiser,
Mohammed is still leading. Another march to take asylum seekers to the
local gym for a kickabout. A Syrian who used to work in Dubai and found
he couldn't go back home when the war started, Mohammed is now in
Germany. You were all over the newspapers and
the television in September with that march, then you disappeared
like everyone else to start your new life. What is your new life like?
Sometimes I am walking in the street, I don't feel like I am in
Germany, it is like a dream. The place is very nice, the people are
very kind. There have been demonstrations against refugees,
haven't there? Yes, it is happening, but it is just small people,
walking. Me and my friend here, they organised the walk also on Saturday.
It is with refugees. And do you think Germany, at some point, will
have to say we cannot have any more refugees? I think they will not say
this. Why not? I think in Germany they need more people because there
is a lot of people here who are really old, and maybe after ten
years, 20 years, a lot of houses will be empty. Germany also wants
people to work so I think they want more people, they want good people.
If you look back to your childhood, as a child would you ever have
thought I'm going to go to Germany? Did you know about Germany? When I
was a kid, I like to come to Germany because I love cars. I really like
BMW and Mercedes. Lots of people in Britain look at pictures of young
men coming from Syria as refugees fleeing war, and they say your
country is at war, you should be fighting for your country, you
should be there fighting. What would you say to that? Actually you have
got to ask this question, it is correct to ask this question, but
the answer is you don't know which one is fighting for the good. If
something is coming from other countries, like for example other
countries want to come to Syria and take Syria, and they want to kill
people there, we won't go out of Syria and we will fight for our
country. So you would have fought against another country invading?
Yes, but when you don't know what is the good things and bad things,
better to go. There, they are just killing each other. They will go to
the army and they will send me to kill my brother or my uncle, this is
not acceptable. This is why people go out of Syria, they are running
away from the Army. What do you think about other countries like
Britain bombing Syria? I agree with this, and this is the solution for
them. Because the people who stay in Syria, they are very weak. It is a
good thing that the Europeans start to do Army or such things for them.
You see yourself as staying in Germany for your whole life? I think
I would like to stay here in Germany. I would like to build my
future here. Working, having a house, getting married. Spending my
life here. I think this is a good place to build my future, it is a
good country and everything here is good. And what does he think of his
role in this historic moment in the refugee crisis?
Do you think you will ever do something like that again in your
life? I think no, it is only once in my life and I am going to tell this
to my children when I have a family, and they will be proud of this.
And you can see the third film in that series tomorrow.
From the consequences of a migration crisis,
The man in effective charge of the American led coalition
fighting so-called Islamic State is President Obama's Special Envoy
He's been in post less than two months, but was in London today.
A good chance to take stock on the war.
In many ways this is different than anything we've faced before.
30,000 foreign fighters from all around the world.
100 countries of the world, coming into Syria.
We have really never seen anything like this before.
And it is something we need a global coalition to confront.
Just characterise the enemy for me, if you would.
Do you see them as rational in any way, in their own terms?
There is no question about their overall ideology.
There is no question about, as we see them on the ground,
in terms of the number of suicide bombers even in just daily
engagements, sometimes ten to 12 suicide bombers in
We have had in Iraq sometimes 60 suicide bombers in a single month.
All the suicide bombers we assess are foreign fighters,
so they're coming from all around the world.
So people like this cannot be reasoned with and that is why
we are determined, as the president said, to destroy Isil.
Do they have, what is your best guess, do they have much support
on the ground among the population over whom, whose territory
So Ramadi, Isil pretended to be the defenders of the people
Eventually, when they really took over Ramadi back in May,
they cleansed the city of anyone that disagreed with them.
They tried to impose their doctrinaire, eighth
And now in Ramadi as Iraqi security forces have been
on the counterattack for two months and as Daesh is focused on the core
centre of the city, they have blown the last bridge,
basically isolating themselves in the centre of the city
and eventually the Iraqi security forces are confident,
it will take some time, we'll clear them from the centre of Ramadi.
But importantly, the fighters in Ramadi, based on our information,
you have Chechens, you have people speaking Russian,
you have Egyptians, you have foreign fighters from all around the world.
Holding human shields, the citizens of Ramadi,
So any notion that this barbaric terrorist group was serving some
sort of legitimate end has really been revealed as a total lie.
So the objective is clear, it is to degrade and destroy Isis,
it is not to contain or to contain and degrade,
it has absolutely moved to destroying them.
Everybody says, in order to achieve that goal,
there has to be a ground force at some point.
And the great mystery of this war has been who's
Can you throw any light on who it is going to be that
Well, it's different forces in different parts.
Let me go around the Horn, I will go clockwise.
So if you just take Syria and Iraq and the core, again this is not
just about the core, it is the networks and affiliates.
But it really is the core that we have to focus on,
To the west of the Euphrates River there is about a 98 kilometre strip
of border which Daesh still controls, with Turkey.
We are working that very aggressively with the Turks
And also with a group of Sunni opposition forces near the town
of Mara, which we call the Mara line, to begin pushing
But I will say the Russian air campaign has made
The Russians say they are attacking Daesh, and they are in some
respects, but they're also attacking moderate opposition forces
So the Russians have made that particular terrain a little
So in that part, Sunni Arab opposition forces.
East of the Euphrates, the entire border region with Turkey
It is Syrian Kurds and also increasingly Arabs and Christians,
which we are prepared to work with to push down and isolate Raqqa.
Those forces are actually having some real success.
Over to the east near the Iraqi border they have now cleared
an operation in just the last three weeks,
1000 square kilometres of very critical terrain.
We hope to continue and advance this process and eventually begin to
de-escalate the conflict between the opposition and the regime. 70,000
would-be above your own estimate? I think it is with -- within our own
estimate. We cannot get to a ceasefire unless we have a very
credible political process, but that will free up an awful lot of force
to focus on extremist groups. Special envoy Brett McGurk, thank
you. The last official inflation figure
to be published this year was released this morning,
and continued the extraordinary pattern that's been
with us through 2015. Not deflation, but not
really inflation either. This year of no-flation
is another of those massive To think that two years ago,
Bank of England economists were expecting inflation now
to be at the target 2%. We'll be looking back and looking
ahead with two commentators in a moment, but first
think about this year. As a measure of what a special year
this has been, just have a look That flat bit at the end,
that's inflation This is how far you have to go back
to get to a comparable period. Yes, all the way back to 1960,
when Harold Macmillan was Prime Minister, so long ago
no-one had even heard Now there is another way this year
has been interesting. 2015 saw the end of the long great
squeeze. Post-crash, we've had the longest
fall in average wages that Inflation - the red line,
was above pay rises - the blue one, leaving
ordinary people worse off. Years in which companies have had it
easy, profits have been high and workers have
suffered, has shifted. Not from higher wages note,
but from lower inflation. Well, inflation probably can't
stay as low as it is, as oil prices can't
keep falling as much as they have. tomorrow and we could follow
in the next 18 months. New hazards may come along,
but at least at last, we've had the first proper
respite since the crash. Well, joining me now to chew over
all of this are George Magnus, the economist and writer,
and Rain Newton-Smith who is the head of
economics for the CBI. Welcome. George, this year is
interesting, did you see it coming. The has has performed this year was
pretty double. -- predictable. The alp turned is not bad. -- out turn.
Low inflation also was not a surprise, what we did not see was a
further drop in oil prices which has just begun. The scorecard for the
year probably better than you could have hoped for. Rain, has it been
OK, for business, our businesses seeing profits squeezed with low
prices or do they love the low oil prices. If you talk to businesses as
a whole they see the UK as one of the bright lights in the global
economy this year and in the next couple of years, driven by the twin
engines of consumption and investment. One of the things that
struck me talking to businesses for the past six months is how resilient
the recovery is. It is more related to the sector you're in how you feel
about that and party that is how oil prices affect businesses and the
exchange rate. Living standards were a big thing this year, years of
unpleasantness for working households on average, that turned.
Can that continue. Of course economic slipknot known as the
dismal science for nothing. It would be churlish not to sound a little
note of caution for the year ahead. Everyone has their own favourite
issues they worry about. The three things I worry about in the UK,
productivity, which has started to turn after years of terrible
performance. The hourly output. Exactly. The efficiency of labour.
We have got to be, we hopefully can be confident that will keep going.
If not then the real incomes you pointed out in your package will
start to go in the other direction. Secondly is investment, although
that has picked up, the rate of investment in the UK is still many
percentage points of GDP lower than ten or 15 years ago. And third, the
corrosive impact of inter-generational inequality. The
difference between the way in which older citizens have made out during
the last few years and younger people. Young people really in terms
of income, housing, affordability, education, they have been screwed.
That is a terrible condition, it is corrosive. I think it should be a
big issue for the government. Do you agree with that. I think over the
longer term there is a concern about some intergenerational shifts we're
seeing at the moment. In a way the key to improved living standards in
the long term is productivity as George said. On that we are seeing
encouraging signs, economists have got it wrong before so we do need to
have some humility. But I think we expect business investment to
contribute around one third of growth in the next couple of years
and that should help productivity now and in the future. And there was
room for upward expansion in productivity, it is an opportunity
as well as a problem. Well we can ask where this goes now because
interest rate, tomorrow the US will make the decision. Expect patient is
they will move. What do you expect for the UK. Things have changed a
lot. Mark Carney said earlier this year he thought the situation would
become clear by the end of the year and he said today it is not clear!
So the consensus seems to be interest rates in the UK will not
move until the end of 2016 or even to those on they may go earlier, by
the middle of the year I think we will have the first rise in rates.
Well we are at the point at which there is no inflation. We do not
want to make the mistake of looking at inflation now and making a
decision on policy based on that, we need to look to the future and when
we talk to businesses they speak about skill shortages and how
difficult it is to find the right people to expand their business. I
think that is why all eyes are on the labour market and whether we
could see page picking up more strongly than expected. What is the
CBI predicting for growth next year. 2.5%. Sort of average. It is a lot
of consensus around the UK economy but there is a lot of fragility as
well and concerns around some global risks. But also whether some
headwinds could have more of an impact on investment than we
currently expect. In less than two hours,
Donald Trump will take part in the latest US Republican
Presidential TV debate in Las Vegas. Other candidates will of course be
there, but in truth, the debate in the Republican party
is mainly about Mr Trump. He continues to flourish
in the polls, notwithstanding his controversial proposal that foreign
Muslims should be barred He is not the bookies' favourite
to be next president, One of his supporters, possibly even
one of his inspirations, is the right wing polemicist
and best-selling author Ann Coulter. She introduced Trump,
and praised his stance on immigration, at a campaign
rally in Iowa in August. Since Donald Trump has announced
he's running for president, I can't believe I turn on TV,
he's on prime time TV every night about anchor babies,
they're talking about sanctuary cities, they're talking
about Mexican rapists. FROM AUDIENCE: They're
talking about the wall! They can only win...
They're talking about the wall. I love the idea of the
Great Wall of Trump. Well, Ann Coulter joins
us now from Las Vegas, where that debate
is soon to be held. Is it correct that Donald Trump took
some inspiration from you, Is it correct that Donald Trump took
talked about Mexican rapists before he talked about them. I have tried
to push the immigration issue on a lot of Republican candidates. A few
in particular I had long conversations with. And sent
advanced copies of my book adios America too. Donald Trump saw me in
an interview one week before my book came out, I was on the way to the
airport in Miami and got an e-mail from him asking for an advanced copy
of my book. My book has a lot of startling facts in it and is
carefully documented. I think it is the first time there was a lot of
discussion about a lot of the criminal cultures and launched my
country and the country just has no unity to that. -- immunity. We are
used to criminals being dumb and living there DNA all over the place.
A lot of people come into the country have a lot of criminal
habits, massive insurance frauds, and we have no immunity to that.
Have you had contact with European counterparts who think in a similar
way to you, the National front in France for example, are you talking
to these guys or in completely separate worlds. I guess I wish you
the best, I used to like to go on vacation there but I am American and
care about America. As we are finding out, so do a lot of
Americans. I want to talk to the language and tone of the campaign.
You have used words referring to Muslims or people of Arab descent,
rag headed camel jockey, is that right. It was a joke and a funny
joke and people did laugh. You have to give the full context of my
remarks. It is interesting, Donald Trump I do not think is used these
kind of terms. He has steered clear, why do you think he does not use
that language? I think you're wrong, I think we used similar language and
get attacked in the same way which is completely lifting little
snippets out and acting as if it was said with earnest anger which is why
two weeks after Donald Trump announced I brought some Hollywood
friends speaking out to group in LA and they were sceptical of him. They
walked out of the room saying that they laughed more than they do at
comedy clubs. He is extremely funny and when you see these clips of him,
or of me, where you cut off the point, cut off the job, it is just
one of the many ways that the media lies. I think in much of western
society people would avoid making jokes using racially disparaging
words. I wonder if you think it is acceptable or would be helpful to
the Donald Trump campaign if he started to use racist language more
overtly. I do not use racist language. You have to go back to a
speech from 2006 and take two words from a joke, a joke about political
correctness. And things going on in the world at that time. 10,000
people in the room laughed, that is funny. What Donald Trump is doing is
not, the big issue of the campaign is immigration. A lot of that has to
do with this always being the pushback. We try to speak about what
is good for the country and the only response is to hear epithets, you
are racist, you are a bigot. He is challenging that as well, that PC
regime that people are fed up with. I'm getting a slightly different
point, whether the tone that you adopt and which I think he has been
less adopting off, whether that tone is helpful to the cause you're
trying to promote. Whether for example using terms that disparage
people weren't that are rather coarse in the way you characterise
people, it is whether that makes those people better American
citizens and better disposed to you and less happy to think of you
getting killed in a terrorist outrage. It is whether these things
work or not. I call it funny. The New York Times euphemism for funny
is Softworks. Other people find it funny and it is a good way to get
the message across. People do listen to me and of course, Winston
Churchill gave speeches, of course he was self promoting, that is how
you get heard. And to be nit-picking a joke from eight years ago, it
shows you the pushback whenever we try to talk about immigration which
is driving down wages. Every one of your topics tonight, it is a
question of immigration. Dumping more and more poor and needy people,
demanding people, on the country, who sometimes flip up and commit
mass murder. But we cannot talk about that. I have not said you
cannot talk about immigration. We are talking about my language. That
was the languished you used, not immigration. One thing I do not
understand about Donald Trump, what he says about his daughter. Yes,
she's really something, what a beauty. If I were not happily
married and did not know her father... Or perhaps I would be
dating her. And a reference to her in Playboy magazine. What is he
talking about? He's just being funny that he has an
attractive daughter. He is famous for dating models, it is
self-deprecating. He is saying I have a beautiful daughter, a lot of
fathers say that about their daughters. You are against gay
marriage. What's worse, two men getting married or a 69-year-old
talking about dating his daughter, which is more creepy? I thought we
got our sense of humour from the British! He says his daughter is
pretty, and again we are nit-picking a joke rather than discussing the
important issues of the day, which is that Donald Trump is soaring in
the polls because he is the only one talking about immigration, something
American people have been asking for for 40 years. After this debate
there will be no one else on stage and Donald Tripp will have to start
doing card tricks or something because they will be wiped out.
Thank you. You probably didn't know
there was such a thing as a digital age of consent, so it can only be
a surprise a proposal is afoot The most striking consequence
would be that no one would be able to process data of an under
16-year-old So young teens would not be able
to go on social media Which raises the question -
is social media a healthy pastime Joining me now from Dublin
are Mary Aiken, a cyber psychologist and adviser to the UN on this issue,
and vlogger Lex Croucher. Mary, what do you think is the
problem with 13, 14, 15-year-olds unregulated by adults going into
social media sites? The issue we are talking about at the moment, the
current guidelines centre on those who are under 13. What we know in
terms of studies is that 39% of 9-12 -year-olds have social media
accounts. Clearly the current guidelines are not being adhered to.
This is another step forward in terms of data protection, where the
EU is proposing to adjust that age to 16, which effectively means
15-year-olds and under. Take me through what some of the
psychological problems are with those 15-year-olds being on Facebook
chatting to each other and whatever. I think chatting on Facebook doesn't
cause psychological problems, I think the issue is about periods of
development. For example, if you take a young child who is eight or
nine and develops a large network, really are they developmentally
mature enough to be able to cope with huge numbers of friends,
whether they are eight, nine, ten or 11, and particularly prior to
fundamental development periods such as Ericsson 's identity formation,
which happens between nine, ten, 11, 12, 13. There's a recommended number
in cyber psychology, for relationships it is actually 150. As
humans, once we build networks beyond that number, we begin to
suffer from social stress and exhaustion. Can you imagine the
burden for very young children with thousands of connections? Lex, how
many Facebook friends do you have? Not that many, only about 300. Do
you recognise any of this problem Mary was describing? I think when we
are talking about 9-12 -year-olds, that's a bit of a different issue
but I also see different changes coming about. I find that people who
have similar interests may be made friends they wouldn't be able to on
the Internet. So you can find niche groups. You are in your 20s now and
you started at what age? I was on social media forums from the age of
about 14. So you would have been affected by the raising of the age.
Mary, take me through what it goes to somebody in a state of
development, the harm it can do to them. What harm can come to someone
who is 14 or 15, and has created an avatar online and they are out there
being that person? It is an interesting construct. As a
behavioural scientist, this is an area we study. I think behavioural
scientists are lagging behind in terms of being able to advise
caregivers in relation to these issues. For example, if a child
creates an idealised version of themselves on a social media site,
which is a highly manipulated self, I mean physically manipulated,
better skin, more shiny hair, stretched to be five pounds lighter,
that virtual self may be increasingly distant from the
real-world self which can lead to psychological conflict,
hypothetically. I conduct research in this area, we are looking at
these transitions over time. In ten years we will be able to tell you
the impact of spending that amount of time on social media for children
at certain ages, but we would recommend that we don't have to wait
for the longitudinal studies and we pay attention to the issues now.
That's interesting, that there is a gulf between the online self and
your real self, is that true of you, do you think? Were you jealous of
others with clean skin and fewer spots online? It was a different
culture from the ten years ago, so these issues might be more prevalent
now. I just felt I made more connections with people, I found
friends online that I couldn't interact with in person so for me it
was positive experience but the culture is changing. Do you agree
with changing the age and saying you have got to have parental consent? I
just cannot see how it would be enforced. Would you advise parents,
Mary, to say yes to their 14-year-old who says can I go on
Facebook? If the law stipulated that they should be 16, I would never
advise a parent... But that law would state with parental permission
you could go on. What an adult into that space that is at the moment not
governed with an authority figure. I think it depends on the child.
Parents are best placed to decide how their child should proceed on a
particular platform, but I would also question, how much do parents
really know about what their children are doing online? When an
app is developed to allow a minor to take an explicit image and send it
and the image dissolves, now you are into an ethical and moral issue. We
have just had a case in Colorado where a group of young people were
using ghost apps which effectively can look like a screen calculator,
with collections of images which they were sharing, and parents had
no idea. Mary, we do need to stop now. I know there are many parents
desperate for advice of the kind you can give. Thank you to you both.
There is no doubt what has been the top story of the day
British man gets to space, without having to emigrate
Well done to flight engineer Tim Peake who arrived at the door
of the space station at half past five and who had to wait another two
Well done to flight engineer Tim Peake who arrived at the door
of the space station at half past five and who had to wait another two
It's like the immigration queue at JFK.
Tim Peake is described as the first "official" British astronaut,
but don't let that mislead you - Britain is not a newcomer
to the space race, though many schemes have sadly
Talking of which, here's Stephen Smith.
Perhaps to Tim Peake's surprise, he is on the left here,
and certainly to ours, Britain has found herself
involved in a bone fide space launch today.
You might never guess at the heartache and manly tears
witnessed in lonely corners of our island as the unsung British
space programme struggled for liftoff.
My name is Doug Millard and I am the space
The secret history goes right the way back to
We had a rocket called Skylark and that was one of the first
Way back in something called the international geophysical year.
The rocket downstairs, that was built on
At least it was tested on the Isle of Wight.
Black Arrow launched a British satellite in 1971.
The Americans launched their rocket from Cape Canaveral,
Multicoloured sand and chalet bungalows.
There is a glorious juxtaposition, so you have
a satellite manufacturing centre in Stevenage.
You have smaller satellites being put together in Guildford.
There is a bit of a spacecraft that landed on Titan,
Saturn's largest moon, it is about the size of a pencil
and that was built, well they started building it
in Canterbury and then they moved up to Milton Keynes.
The first bit of that spacecraft to hit Titan was made in England.
Is that the nose cone or is that the foot?
So it is a little thing about the size of a pen.
And it actually went kind of crzsssh.
Tim Peake arrives on the International Space Station
Even though he has put years of British
underachievement in space behind him, some things never change.
With classic English reserve, the astronaut keeps his feet
I think you would call today a spectacular day in the office.
You may remember the story of Lonesome George.
He was the century-old tortoise left wandering alone for decades
after all of the other Pinta Island tortoises died out.
His death in 2012 was thought to be the end of his species.
An expedition in the Galapagos Islands has discovered
what scientists believes are some of his blood
With careful breeding, they're hoping they can
So, we thought we'd leave you with some of George's best bits.
# I hope I live to relive the days gone by.
# Well tonight I'm gonna live for today.