08/03/2016 Newsnight


08/03/2016

Is Europe giving Turkey control of the migrant crisis? The Bank of England stance on the EU referendum and Donald Trump's Scottish mum. With Emily Maitlis.


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Slovenia restricts its borders from midnight tonight.

:00:00.:00:07.

A plan is hatched to stop the migrant flow, but it's messy,

:00:08.:00:18.

morally complicated - possibly illegal.

:00:19.:00:24.

We are outsourcing problems to Turkey. They will decide who is a

:00:25.:00:32.

refugee, that is now the Turkish government who will decide and no

:00:33.:00:34.

longer the European Union. Would Europe solve the migrant

:00:35.:00:35.

crisis better without the EU? And what place would Britain

:00:36.:00:38.

want to play in it? The plan is to let more than one

:00:39.:00:40.

train company run a local franchise. Will they just cherry pick

:00:41.:00:47.

the most profitable routes? A lot of competition sounds great

:00:48.:00:57.

but where is the public interest, who will run services that do not

:00:58.:01:01.

make a profit, and who will allocate the use of an already congested

:01:02.:01:05.

line, which trains will get permission to run?

:01:06.:01:06.

We visit the Isle of Lewis - now better known as Donald Trump's

:01:07.:01:11.

What light can locals shed on the Republican frontrunner?

:01:12.:01:19.

He does not behave as people up here would behave. He is extremely full

:01:20.:01:25.

of himself. And will three-quid lobster

:01:26.:01:28.

be the new spag bol? We talk democratisation

:01:29.:01:30.

of the elite crustaceon. From midnight tonight,

:01:31.:01:40.

the main Balkan migration route into Europe

:01:41.:01:42.

will effectively be closed down Slovenia will enforce the demand

:01:43.:01:50.

for valid EU visas at its borders. The move will have

:01:51.:01:53.

a knock-on effect. Serbia will shut down its borders

:01:54.:01:55.

with Macedonia and Bulgaria, which means the thosuands

:01:56.:01:57.

of migrants currently stranded EU leaders talking long

:01:58.:01:59.

into the night to find a solution to this flow have come up

:02:00.:02:03.

with an improbable sounding one. The Turkish Prime Minister has

:02:04.:02:05.

agreed to readmit all those leaving his country -

:02:06.:02:09.

if the EU agrees to take refiugees -- refugees from Turkish

:02:10.:02:15.

camps in exchange. The practicalities sound fraught,

:02:16.:02:17.

messy, even illegal. But the underlying message

:02:18.:02:19.

is becoming clearer. The days of irregular migration -

:02:20.:02:22.

as Donald Tusk remarked - are over. Tonight, we look at the refugee

:02:23.:02:24.

crisis not just through the prism of Brexit, but through questions

:02:25.:02:31.

about what the European Union Our first report comes

:02:32.:02:34.

from Gabriel Gatehouse. If the announcement of the deal

:02:35.:02:41.

was designed to send a message, then it hasn't reached

:02:42.:02:44.

its target audience, They continued to arrive

:02:45.:02:46.

on Greece's eastern islands. More than 700 of them today,

:02:47.:02:58.

adding to the tens of thousands already in the country,

:02:59.:03:01.

hoping to make their The agreement has yet to be

:03:02.:03:03.

finalised, but if it is, Turkey will take back

:03:04.:03:06.

all irregular migrants. That means people like these,

:03:07.:03:11.

making cold perilous journeys in rubber dinghies without

:03:12.:03:13.

the proper documentation. In return, Turkey, already home to

:03:14.:03:23.

2.7 million Syrian refugees, gets a mass resettlement programme under

:03:24.:03:29.

the principle of one in, one out. Here is where things get

:03:30.:03:33.

controversial. Here is how it is supposed to work. Let's say a boat

:03:34.:03:39.

with 18 people aboard is intercepted in the Aegean and half of them are

:03:40.:03:43.

Syrians, under the agreement all will be returned to Turkey but in

:03:44.:03:47.

exchange nine of the Syrians living in refugee camps in Turkey will be

:03:48.:03:52.

flown to the EU for resettlement. No doubt with more than half an eye on

:03:53.:03:57.

the EU referendum, David Cameron made it clear Britain will not take

:03:58.:04:00.

part in resettlement programmes. We have a rock-solid, he tweeted last

:04:01.:04:09.

night. The Danish have a similar get out clause, but other EU nation

:04:10.:04:14.

state. It does not mean they will throw open their doors. This is the

:04:15.:04:21.

only country where refugees are considered a rock-solid vote loser.

:04:22.:04:26.

Slovakia and Poland are hostile to the idea. If this is to work, it

:04:27.:04:31.

will be Germany, putting together an ad hoc coalition of the willing. The

:04:32.:04:36.

Czech republic and Greeks are in and the Dutch would like to join and

:04:37.:04:40.

probably others, but that leaves questions, especially over numbers.

:04:41.:04:47.

By way of precedent the EU last year agreed a quota system for 160,000

:04:48.:04:54.

refugees already in Europe. To date, fewer than 700 have been rehoused.

:04:55.:05:00.

Critics of the agreement say it is pointless doing deals in Brussels

:05:01.:05:03.

without getting individual member states on board. We see member

:05:04.:05:10.

states are not capable, not in the capacity to find a common European

:05:11.:05:15.

response. It is not the first time. We saw it with previous crises. Why

:05:16.:05:27.

is this? Because they think is a European Council and con federation,

:05:28.:05:33.

deciding by unanimity, they can solve the problem. That is not true.

:05:34.:05:39.

We need a common European response. We need a European coastguard,

:05:40.:05:44.

asylum system and migration system to tackle this. If the countries are

:05:45.:05:52.

not willing to establish common policies, European policies, we will

:05:53.:05:56.

have more problems in the future and more crises to come. If the deal

:05:57.:06:01.

does not run into political difficulty it is likely to face

:06:02.:06:06.

legal obstacles. The UN says the arrangement could contravene

:06:07.:06:09.

international law. It only talks about refugees from Syria, that

:06:10.:06:13.

account for less than half arriving in Greece. What about people from

:06:14.:06:19.

Iraq, Afghanistan? It is difficult to do blanket -based returns of

:06:20.:06:22.

people on nationality without looking at individual claims. I

:06:23.:06:29.

think it is inevitable the returns will be challenged. Individuals in

:06:30.:06:34.

Greece will be able to access Greek courts and make applications to the

:06:35.:06:39.

European Court of Human Rights and there are basic principles of

:06:40.:06:43.

international law, which means the consequences of return in each case

:06:44.:06:48.

must be examined. Meanwhile migrants and refugees keep on coming, piling

:06:49.:06:54.

up on Greece's closed northern border. Turkey will receive the

:06:55.:07:02.

lives of euros, visa free travel, it has called it an important victory

:07:03.:07:06.

for its citizens. In Europe they could soon be asking if they have

:07:07.:07:10.

paid too high a price for something that might not work.

:07:11.:07:11.

So does a union of 29 European countries look like the best way

:07:12.:07:15.

And would Britain find it easier to work out its own response

:07:16.:07:18.

to immigration from the inside or the outside?

:07:19.:07:20.

Joining me is Labour MP Gisela Stuart and the Conservative

:07:21.:07:28.

You are an inner. You have seen this for yourself and visited the

:07:29.:07:40.

islands. When you look at the proposal the Turkish PM is putting

:07:41.:07:44.

forward, does it sound workable? It does provided some of the week

:07:45.:07:51.

processing eyesore is corrected. The islands are in utter chaos, with

:07:52.:07:57.

nobody doing processing of paperwork or human beings, yet they were

:07:58.:08:04.

promised money. I think the theory of this deal, putting aside legal

:08:05.:08:09.

debate, is potentially great, but it must be complemented by processes on

:08:10.:08:12.

the ground and somebody needs to organise it. The idea it is a

:08:13.:08:19.

blanket ban, returning people without questioning where they have

:08:20.:08:25.

come from, it sounds on workable and illegal. I am not an expert on

:08:26.:08:32.

asylum law. It seems Europe is trying to find a solution and if

:08:33.:08:35.

that means parking the rule book for a moment to better the life chances

:08:36.:08:41.

of this people, it must be worth looking at. They have come up with

:08:42.:08:47.

something, a plan that is potentially workable. Do you commend

:08:48.:08:52.

them? Do you see the importance of the EU at a time like this? Part of

:08:53.:08:58.

the reason we have the problem is of their own creation. If you go back

:08:59.:09:04.

when we had the crisis in Libya and the Italians tries to control

:09:05.:09:11.

borders and it was not financed by the EU. It failed in Malta, Italy,

:09:12.:09:18.

it goes on failing. We have this situation where in your PC said we

:09:19.:09:25.

need to find a common answer. There comes a point where you say you are

:09:26.:09:29.

failing to find a common answer. Because they are wedded to the

:09:30.:09:35.

single currency and free movement of labour, they are refusing to accept

:09:36.:09:39.

there was a problem with Schengen when you did not have internal

:09:40.:09:45.

borders, this isn't working. Are you suggesting Europe has created this

:09:46.:09:51.

problem? He was right when he said the countries are outsourcing

:09:52.:09:57.

controls of the Borders. Large European countries, Germany and

:09:58.:10:01.

France, have for many years outsourced the responsibility to

:10:02.:10:07.

Greece, Italy, southern borders of Spain, without accepting the

:10:08.:10:11.

consequences. This is what is happening, the consequences of that

:10:12.:10:15.

failure. Outsourcing, it sounds like it comes at a price, the concessions

:10:16.:10:20.

Turkey is asking for that Turks would have visa free travel. And we

:10:21.:10:30.

are putting membership of the EU for Turkey on the table. It is massive?

:10:31.:10:36.

It feels a massive price to pay. I do not disagree with anything you

:10:37.:10:40.

have said. I think Britain feels like that, we have received between

:10:41.:10:46.

us, we are all right, Jack, but it is now coming to everybody's doors,

:10:47.:10:50.

which means an opportunity for Europe to work together. 90% of the

:10:51.:10:56.

1 million who came in in the past year are people who came through

:10:57.:11:03.

that route. Nothing of this is addressing it. Turkey, which is

:11:04.:11:09.

behaving in liberally, more than it has for a long time, we would not

:11:10.:11:13.

grant membership. We are suddenly saying it is fine. We have a

:11:14.:11:18.

sequence of short-term solutions that rather than solving down the

:11:19.:11:23.

line problems, aggravates them. If the politicians who made those

:11:24.:11:26.

decisions would pay the price, I would say OK. It is the thousands of

:11:27.:11:33.

people and children paying the price for political failure. Would you

:11:34.:11:37.

concede membership of the EU for Turkey is worth it? That they will

:11:38.:11:43.

help solve this. It is not a perfect and instance acceptance. There are

:11:44.:11:49.

hurdles to be accepted and I do not think it should circumvent those,

:11:50.:11:55.

but do I think we have to put ourselves in a Brave new world of

:11:56.:11:58.

finding a deal that helps everyone, because it is so large now. Turkey

:11:59.:12:08.

in the EU? If it means we have to get around a table that feels

:12:09.:12:15.

unpalatable to start with... Do you think David Cameron, George Osborne,

:12:16.:12:19.

arguing to remain in, would be comfortable with an enlarged EU

:12:20.:12:24.

including Turkey? I think they feel reasonably confident because despite

:12:25.:12:34.

the potential deal with Turkey, we are not obliged to take any

:12:35.:12:39.

migrants. I think morally we should take more. There is no necessity for

:12:40.:12:45.

us to do, so in some ways we have the special relationship. I find it

:12:46.:12:51.

extraordinary. As it happens, it has been our failure to deal with Turkey

:12:52.:12:56.

properly. And their membership applications which has been part of

:12:57.:13:01.

the problem, but now it is behaving in liberally added time but it has a

:13:02.:13:05.

population equal to Germany, and we are being told Britain will have a

:13:06.:13:13.

say, the voting weight with either same as Germany, probably larger

:13:14.:13:17.

than the UK, this requires thinking through. It is not a short-term

:13:18.:13:23.

response to a deep crisis. I would rather go back and say, look at

:13:24.:13:29.

Schengen, look at the Freedom of movement and when it serves a

:13:30.:13:35.

purpose, strength in dealing with smugglers. Strengthen what Nato is

:13:36.:13:42.

doing. Then we might get somewhere, but not like this. A combined

:13:43.:13:47.

strategy. How many should be take? You say you are not on the same

:13:48.:13:52.

level as the government. Where should the UK obligation go? I think

:13:53.:13:58.

it is a moving feast and we need to say 20,000 might not be enough, but

:13:59.:14:02.

if this plan works and we stem the flow and stopped a separate between

:14:03.:14:06.

economic migrants and those who need asylum. 50, 100? You must have a

:14:07.:14:11.

sense of how far this reach would go. I sense it could double. I am

:14:12.:14:18.

interested in the orphaned children. People say I'm accompanied, but

:14:19.:14:23.

these are children who genuinely have nobody in the world. Those

:14:24.:14:28.

children, I think we have an obligation to take. Thanks.

:14:29.:14:30.

Meanwhile, the Bank of England Governor Mark Carney has

:14:31.:14:33.

come under fire from Brexiters for his remarks

:14:34.:14:34.

He stopped short of advising the UK to stay in, but he said an exit

:14:35.:14:40.

could hurt Britain's economy and prompt some banks to abandon

:14:41.:14:42.

London as a global financial powerhouse.

:14:43.:14:44.

Lord Lawson called the intervention entirely political

:14:45.:14:45.

Or is it unrealistic to ask our business and financial

:14:46.:14:53.

leaders not to get involved in such a crucial debate?

:14:54.:15:03.

The issue is the biggest domestic risk to financial stability.

:15:04.:15:11.

Because, in part, of the issues around uncertainty, but also, if I

:15:12.:15:15.

may just finished quickly, because it has the potential, depending on

:15:16.:15:23.

how it is prosecuted and how these issues can be addressed, to amplify

:15:24.:15:31.

risks around accounts, potential risks around housing and market

:15:32.:15:34.

function, which we will try to mitigate, and also associated risks

:15:35.:15:42.

with respects to the euro area. The reason I am asking is that example

:15:43.:15:50.

in themselves. You say it is more than a little extra volatility, this

:15:51.:15:54.

departure? It would represent more than that? Or are you saying that is

:15:55.:16:01.

all it is? I'm saying it is a risk, the biggest domestic risk to

:16:02.:16:07.

financial stability. The European Union regulation achieves the

:16:08.:16:13.

highest international standard. There are some exceptions but in the

:16:14.:16:17.

name, that is the case. If we were to be outside, the question is how

:16:18.:16:27.

much influence would we have? One would expect some activity to move,

:16:28.:16:32.

certainly there is a logic to that. And there is a view that has been

:16:33.:16:38.

expressed publicly and privately by a number of institutions that they

:16:39.:16:46.

would look at it and I would say that a number of institutions are

:16:47.:16:50.

contingency planning for that possibility, major institutions

:16:51.:16:56.

headquartered here, so there would be an impact.

:16:57.:17:03.

Richard Tice is co-founder of the Leave.EU group.

:17:04.:17:04.

Also from the perspective of a property developer, is that right?

:17:05.:17:14.

Do you really think we should be gagging those who might help the

:17:15.:17:17.

public understand these incredibly competitions? No, definitely not. It

:17:18.:17:23.

is actually the prime minister who has been trying to gag people,

:17:24.:17:26.

initially ministers, cabinet members, and recently John Waller.

:17:27.:17:33.

So you have no problem with Mark Carney today? I do not and let's be

:17:34.:17:37.

clear, he has not made any recommendation either way. They also

:17:38.:17:41.

said that no conference of assessment has been made. He

:17:42.:17:45.

mentioned risks and risks everyday in our lives in business and

:17:46.:17:48.

domestic life. I do happy with him coming out and saying that there

:17:49.:17:54.

will be risks involved? -- are you happy. There are permanent risks in

:17:55.:17:59.

business, as I have said, and life is full of risks. But he also said

:18:00.:18:04.

today that the bigger risk, the global risks, China, and other

:18:05.:18:08.

things that he inferred, for example possibly the American economy. So

:18:09.:18:12.

actually, to refer to this as a domestic risk, we could argue it is

:18:13.:18:16.

good news for the leave campaign. Does it make you embarrassed when

:18:17.:18:22.

people on your side, Jacob Rees-Mogg and the Treasury Select Committee,

:18:23.:18:25.

or Lord Lawson, when they say he has been wrong to come out, that he has

:18:26.:18:29.

been a political animal to get involved. You seem more relaxed. I

:18:30.:18:34.

am relaxed. At the end of the day, the government governor of the Bank

:18:35.:18:37.

of England has a role to play but he has said clearly he is not making a

:18:38.:18:40.

recommendation. Equally, the bank of a bond is part of the establishment

:18:41.:18:43.

and they will not go against the government. Ultimately, the people

:18:44.:18:50.

have a view of what the establishment is saying, and we are

:18:51.:18:55.

relaxed about it. -- the bank of England. He has referred to the

:18:56.:18:58.

domestic issues, the bigger global risks. The proof is in the pudding.

:18:59.:19:02.

Take HSBC. They have recently decided to keep their global

:19:03.:19:07.

headquarters in London after a two or three year review. That could

:19:08.:19:13.

easily have been deferred until after the Brexit vote. But they

:19:14.:19:16.

didn't, they made the commitment to stay in London because it is the

:19:17.:19:20.

best global financial centre. That is a huge statement of intent. What

:19:21.:19:28.

you do with all that weight on the other side, whether it is the CEO of

:19:29.:19:33.

BA, or has there, Marks Spencer is, Heathrow and Gatwick airports,

:19:34.:19:38.

if people are saying, I recognise and trust that brand, and I believe

:19:39.:19:43.

in that CEO, and they are all, overwhelmingly on the side of

:19:44.:19:47.

remaining. What does that tell you? We have had companies like Nissan

:19:48.:19:52.

and Toyota, JCB, huge companies saying it would not affect

:19:53.:19:57.

investment plans and plans for UK jobs. Take a throw. They want a

:19:58.:20:00.

third runway and that is a government decisions open Number Ten

:20:01.:20:04.

says, please sign this letter, are you going to deny that? Of course

:20:05.:20:09.

not. You scratch my back, I scratch yours. You think they are all

:20:10.:20:11.

politically pocketed by the government? They are all being

:20:12.:20:15.

pushed into this? That is a very good example. The government

:20:16.:20:21.

admitted to organising the letter of the team leaders. A lot of them

:20:22.:20:24.

declined to sign it. Then the military letter, Number Ten got that

:20:25.:20:28.

wrong. Would you say that BA is being pressurised, Asda, Marks

:20:29.:20:34.

Spencer? Vodafone? I wonder how far you think the tentacles of

:20:35.:20:37.

government reach. The leaders of those businesses are generally

:20:38.:20:43.

corporate managers who have risen through corporate life.

:20:44.:20:47.

Entrepreneurs, Peter Hargreavess of this world, people in the city like

:20:48.:20:51.

Oliver Hemsley, people like Peter Cruddas and Terry Smith, the

:20:52.:20:55.

entrepreneurs in the city are almost exclusively, by and large for out.

:20:56.:21:00.

That tells you a lot about the real risk takers and where they see

:21:01.:21:04.

opportunities. I don't know what you would call her an entrepreneur or a

:21:05.:21:08.

risk taker but we have the front page of the Sun, which says that the

:21:09.:21:13.

Queen backs Brexit. The EU is going the wrong direction, she says. She

:21:14.:21:17.

is hailed as a backer of Brexit after details emerged about an

:21:18.:21:23.

alleged bust up between her and Nick Clegg over Europe. Is that an

:21:24.:21:26.

overwhelmingly political intervention. I think that seals it.

:21:27.:21:31.

I am a royalist and the Queen is always right. Let's vote tomorrow.

:21:32.:21:37.

And you think that will shut up everyone on the no campaign, on the

:21:38.:21:40.

Brexit campaign, saying that we cannot let big figures, the Mark

:21:41.:21:46.

Carneys of this world get involved? I have to say, this is from the sun

:21:47.:21:50.

and we have not had Palace confirmation, but does that stop

:21:51.:21:53.

anyone moaning about big figures getting involved? Anyone can get

:21:54.:21:58.

involved. Publicly. You are proud to see her come out and say that? Yes.

:21:59.:22:03.

I am proud to see people stand up and get counted but when people like

:22:04.:22:07.

John Longworth stand up and be counted, they make clear it is a

:22:08.:22:11.

personal view, to then be forced to resign... Can the Queen not have a

:22:12.:22:15.

personal view? She is as entitled as anybody. The real point is that all

:22:16.:22:20.

of us should stand up and be counted, rather than being shamed

:22:21.:22:24.

into silence. Thank you for coming in.

:22:25.:22:28.

How to run railways, though, is a problem we've

:22:29.:22:32.

Over the past two centuries, we've tried more or less every

:22:33.:22:35.

conceivable system of financing and regulation

:22:36.:22:36.

of appointing the Fat Controller from Thomas the Tank Engine.

:22:37.:22:40.

The question is a live rail in politics once again,

:22:41.:22:42.

with Labour promising to renationalise

:22:43.:22:44.

While last year, the government launched a review into the future

:22:45.:22:51.

Into this mix today the public body charged with giving power

:22:52.:22:55.

to consumers called for far more competition on the rails.

:22:56.:22:58.

Turning the monolith of British rail into an overlapping network of

:22:59.:23:11.

competing companies was not an easy job. British rail may have been the

:23:12.:23:18.

nation's aunt Sally but at least it is a single entity. Tomorrow becomes

:23:19.:23:23.

art group of 25... Like designing the French republic, we have tried

:23:24.:23:26.

quite a few different systems on our railways. Revolution has never been

:23:27.:23:31.

far away. Rail privatisation was supposed to introduce competition

:23:32.:23:34.

into the system at the bidding phase. The companies would compete

:23:35.:23:42.

for the franchise. But once the franchise was won, passengers will

:23:43.:23:45.

get little choice of which company they travelled with to a given

:23:46.:23:49.

destination. This is the system at the moment. East franchise -- each

:23:50.:23:53.

franchise controls its own route. But the competition in markets

:23:54.:23:56.

authority today recommended allowing different companies to compete for

:23:57.:24:00.

passengers along the same routes. Their logic, in a more competitive

:24:01.:24:05.

environment, companies will push to be more efficient, and for there to

:24:06.:24:10.

be better use of existing capacity, so there are benefits for the

:24:11.:24:14.

network and the tax payer who help to subsidise the railways. The

:24:15.:24:18.

current franchise system is not competitive. 12 of the last 16

:24:19.:24:24.

awards have not been subject to open competition. Competition sounds good

:24:25.:24:29.

but would it be like the buses, where there are lots of companies

:24:30.:24:33.

that want to run the profitable routes but nobody wants to run the

:24:34.:24:36.

other routes? So where is the public interest in all of this? There is

:24:37.:24:40.

already some competition in the system. This train is about to leave

:24:41.:24:44.

for Birmingham out of London Marylebone. The operating company

:24:45.:24:47.

that runs it is in direct competition on that route for

:24:48.:24:51.

passengers and their business with companies that run out of Euston.

:24:52.:24:57.

Passengers heading to Birmingham might prefer the free Wi-Fi here, or

:24:58.:25:03.

one of the other companies out of Euston. One promising faster journey

:25:04.:25:07.

times and the other cheaper fares. If you look at the routes that we

:25:08.:25:11.

serve, London to Birmingham is one of the fastest-growing rail markets

:25:12.:25:15.

in the country. There are eight trains every hour between London and

:25:16.:25:20.

Birmingham, competing on price, quality and speed. Passengers get

:25:21.:25:24.

great results from that. But critics say it is far easier to get train

:25:25.:25:28.

companies competing when there are lots of passengers to play for. On

:25:29.:25:32.

less popular routes, even one company may struggle to break even.

:25:33.:25:37.

The loss of competition sounds great and it could work. -- lots of

:25:38.:25:41.

competition. But we have to delve deeper. Webb is the public interest?

:25:42.:25:45.

Who will run the services that do not make a profit and who will

:25:46.:25:49.

allocate the use of an already congested line? Which trains get

:25:50.:25:54.

permission to run? Last year we opened the first new rail route for

:25:55.:25:59.

100 years. That was designed to directly compete with the government

:26:00.:26:03.

train company. Oxford is not the biggest city in Britain but there is

:26:04.:26:10.

enough competition to make it work. For the railways, the move ahead is

:26:11.:26:16.

unclear. The report on Network Rail is expected imminently. Network Rail

:26:17.:26:20.

is the state owned company which manages and maintains our

:26:21.:26:22.

infrastructure. There has been spec elation that the report will

:26:23.:26:26.

recommend it should be broken up and we privatised. Meanwhile, the Labour

:26:27.:26:30.

Party's policy is for the entire system to be renationalised. There

:26:31.:26:34.

is certainly no shortage of edition between ideas. -- no shortage of

:26:35.:26:39.

competition. The billionaire who makes

:26:40.:26:40.

Donald Trump look hard up - Michael Bloomberg -

:26:41.:26:44.

ruled himself out of This as Trump and Clinton lead

:26:45.:26:46.

the polls going into the next round of American primary races

:26:47.:26:50.

in Michigan and Mississippi. Donald Trump's mother,

:26:51.:26:52.

as he was happy to tell anyone Scottish when he was trying

:26:53.:26:55.

to build his Aberdeen golf course, comes from a simple crofter's

:26:56.:26:57.

cottage in the Outer Hebrides. Trump's cousins still live

:26:58.:27:00.

there and the billionaire himself in Trump 1 to get in

:27:01.:27:03.

touch with his roots. A sentimental journey

:27:04.:27:09.

lasting almost three hours. Whilst so many of us have thrown

:27:10.:27:10.

ourselves around America on the desperate trail of the US

:27:11.:27:13.

presidential hopeful, one man, a little bit

:27:14.:27:15.

older, a little bit wiser, believed he could find out

:27:16.:27:17.

more from staying closer to home. That man, none other

:27:18.:27:21.

than my colleague, Stephen Smith, headed to the wind-lashed island

:27:22.:27:23.

of Lewis to find out things about Donald Trump that America can

:27:24.:27:25.

only dream of. A windblown, God-fearing island,

:27:26.:27:42.

rich in peat and Gaelic heritage No wonder Donald Trump likes

:27:43.:27:44.

to boast of his links to Lewis. Did it help to make him

:27:45.:27:51.

the man he is today? And how have the values

:27:52.:27:57.

of these hard-working, plain-speaking

:27:58.:27:59.

folks shaped the They are not for blowing

:28:00.:28:00.

their own trumpets here. They are not ones for

:28:01.:28:06.

fanfaring themselves. No matter what your position

:28:07.:28:09.

in life, you are treated There are brilliant people,

:28:10.:28:15.

very warm-hearted people. We are very proud of people

:28:16.:28:25.

who make such a great impact And I mean the hairdo,

:28:26.:28:30.

let's be honest, it could be I am on a whistle-stop tour

:28:31.:28:37.

of the island in search of answers Donald's mother, Mary MacLeod,

:28:38.:28:47.

came from the tiny She left for New York

:28:48.:28:57.

when she was 18 and ran into a builder called

:28:58.:29:02.

Trump, and the rest, The Trumps told US

:29:03.:29:04.

TV viewers they saw # If you go, will you send back

:29:05.:29:11.

a letter from America... The tycoon visited

:29:12.:29:32.

his mother's old home in 2008, spending as much

:29:33.:29:36.

as a minute and a half inside the pebble-dashed

:29:37.:29:39.

croft house. All in all he clocked up almost

:29:40.:29:41.

three hours on the peaty Lewis It seems the women come back

:29:42.:29:49.

and the men go out and try I have been busy building

:29:50.:29:55.

jobs all over the world, and it is tough to find

:29:56.:30:08.

the time to come back but this seemed an appropriate time

:30:09.:30:11.

because I had the plane, Trump's cousins still

:30:12.:30:13.

live in Tong, but they The Western Isles, including Lewis,

:30:14.:30:17.

rejected the Yes campaign in the Scottish

:30:18.:30:26.

independence referendum. And Trump has had his ups and downs

:30:27.:30:31.

with the nationalists over his golf course, a solid two-iron

:30:32.:30:35.

away on the mainland. # I don't mind the politicians,

:30:36.:30:42.

I don't mind the rain... Putting the folk into focus group,

:30:43.:30:49.

this bunch in Stornoway were among the few willing to share

:30:50.:30:52.

their thoughts about Mr Trump. Do you know anyone who says,

:30:53.:31:01.

don't quote me, but I am dead I've not heard it, I've never

:31:02.:31:04.

heard his name mentioned. I think he doesn't

:31:05.:31:08.

behave as people up here He is extremely full of himself,

:31:09.:31:15.

which people here aren't. Do you know about

:31:16.:31:21.

the family, what are The stereotype is all Lewis

:31:22.:31:26.

stories are gloomy. The definition of a happy ending

:31:27.:31:45.

of a Lewis story is if you get There is another seam

:31:46.:31:48.

of Lewis stories - the clever peasant girl

:31:49.:32:03.

who gets one over the laird. Isn't the story of Mary MacLeod

:32:04.:32:06.

a brilliant real-life Lewis Here she is, a girl

:32:07.:32:11.

from the country, who goes away to New York, and her son could be

:32:12.:32:15.

president of the United States, that is going to be

:32:16.:32:18.

part of Lewis folklore. You are the first

:32:19.:32:23.

person who says so! In Lewis, our main

:32:24.:32:28.

passion is blood sport. I know it is not fashionable

:32:29.:32:34.

in the rest of Britain, but we like blood sport

:32:35.:32:42.

but our blood sport is genealogy - The qualities I would

:32:43.:32:45.

hope he would take from these islands is

:32:46.:32:53.

the qualities of kindness. Being accepting of others,

:32:54.:32:56.

regardless of religious beliefs, regardless

:32:57.:32:57.

of what country they are from. Donald Trump is a chip

:32:58.:33:09.

off the old block. He can trace his ancestry

:33:10.:33:11.

to these ancient He is from Lewis, up

:33:12.:33:13.

to a point, but it would be stretching things to

:33:14.:33:19.

say he is of Lewis. But just as we were leaving,

:33:20.:33:24.

a sign - a pot of gold attended What does the price of lobster tell

:33:25.:33:27.

you about the state of the economy? It's the kind of question regular

:33:28.:33:39.

viewers of Newsnight wont be And its prompted by the the arrival

:33:40.:33:42.

of the ?2.99 lobster Lobster, although blue-blooded

:33:43.:33:47.

itself, was not always the preserve Until the mid-19th century,

:33:48.:33:51.

it was known as a food Even servants would stipulate

:33:52.:33:55.

a contractual refusal to eat it more So how did it rise -

:33:56.:33:59.

and what is helping it now fall - Joining me is food

:34:00.:34:04.

historian Dr Polly Russell. And Adam Leyland, editor

:34:05.:34:12.

of The Grocer website. And our lobster is centre stage.

:34:13.:34:26.

This is a great thing, isn't it, to have a lobster that costs ?2 99? It

:34:27.:34:33.

is certainly great that food is made available to large numbers of

:34:34.:34:37.

people, especially food that has been the preserve of the wealthy.

:34:38.:34:43.

That is exciting, it is good news, but not a wholly good news story

:34:44.:34:48.

because part of the reason the cost of the lobster is so inexpensive is

:34:49.:34:52.

because there has been a rise in the amount of lobster in the North

:34:53.:34:58.

American area, and that is a result of climate change, which has meant

:34:59.:35:01.

they are breeding more rapidly because the temperature of the Seas

:35:02.:35:07.

is rising and also because we have decimated cod stocks and that is

:35:08.:35:10.

their natural predator and they are no longer eating them. Something

:35:11.:35:16.

good about it, but not wholly good. The cod and lobster have swapped

:35:17.:35:20.

over because cod was always readily available and cheap. Cod stocks are

:35:21.:35:29.

at risk, although being managed in different oceans, but there was a

:35:30.:35:35.

time when cod and lobster, particularly on the coast, were

:35:36.:35:37.

flourishing and were cheap and that has changed. Should it put people

:35:38.:35:43.

off, anyone reaching for a cheap lobster, do you have to say, I am

:35:44.:35:48.

devastating the world when you do this? I don't think you do because

:35:49.:35:51.

lobster has always been freely available. Huge volumes over there.

:35:52.:36:00.

Stop is at the highest level for 100 years. That therefore serves 100

:36:01.:36:04.

years ago, before global warming had been mentioned as a concept, there

:36:05.:36:10.

was a huge amount of lobster available. It used to stack up six

:36:11.:36:14.

feet high on the seashore. It used to be fed to chickens and pigs and

:36:15.:36:19.

so one. The marketing people took over with lobster and turned it into

:36:20.:36:26.

a luxury, but it never was a luxury, particularly in the Northwest

:36:27.:36:29.

Atlantic, it was saved freely available. It is about the

:36:30.:36:34.

democratisation of the product. ?2 99 is a low price that this

:36:35.:36:39.

particular discounter has made available for a limited period for

:36:40.:36:44.

vouchers people have received. You cannot walk in there, a restaurant

:36:45.:36:49.

cannot go in and buy it and serve it in their restaurant. Would you say

:36:50.:36:52.

it changes the way we think about lobster? I call it the new spaghetti

:36:53.:36:59.

Bolognese, perhaps that is overdoing it, but perhaps it changes the

:37:00.:37:06.

perception of lobster. There have been products that were very

:37:07.:37:09.

expensive and have become cheap. One last point, this is a Marine

:37:10.:37:17.

stewardship Council certified lobster. Therefore it is not the

:37:18.:37:21.

case we are raping the Seas, it has been carefully monitored. The

:37:22.:37:29.

artificiality was the rising of the price.

:37:30.:37:35.

There are two points. They might be sustainably fished, I am not

:37:36.:37:38.

bringing up that is an issue, but there is a broader story, about

:37:39.:37:44.

rising sea temperatures, and about climate change, in which the food

:37:45.:37:51.

industry play some part. I'm not saying these in particular. The

:37:52.:37:55.

climate change argument that makes people stop in their tracks, but a

:37:56.:37:59.

lot of foodstuffs have changed hands, whether it is the oyster...

:38:00.:38:06.

What is significant is where you have seen significant shifts in the

:38:07.:38:11.

consumption of food, say chicken, where it was very expensive in much

:38:12.:38:16.

of the 20th century, until the 50s, and you see the rise of intensive

:38:17.:38:20.

farming and refrigeration and the cost is driven down and it is

:38:21.:38:26.

cheaper, the same with pineapples. 18th century, expensive, by the late

:38:27.:38:30.

19th century they are farmed and coming over and they are cheaper.

:38:31.:38:36.

These changes are driven through, changes in farming, production

:38:37.:38:39.

techniques and transport. What we are seeing here is different.

:38:40.:38:44.

Something that has changed because of climate change. Not something we

:38:45.:38:49.

are controlling. So this comes from a slightly less comfortable

:38:50.:38:54.

perspective? The climate is changing and that is worrying. The fishing

:38:55.:39:01.

industry, if the sea is changing, is not because of the fisheries. If it

:39:02.:39:06.

is getting warmer it is because it is getting warm. Arguably there is

:39:07.:39:13.

all sorts of foodstuffs that will be affected by climate change. In this

:39:14.:39:18.

case, it is not the case it is only there, this printer., it is not only

:39:19.:39:26.

there because of global warming. -- this stock. This is the case it is

:39:27.:39:33.

plentiful, but in five years it could potentially not be the case.

:39:34.:39:34.

Thanks. That is it tonight. For those who feel that life has

:39:35.:39:39.

become cluttered by very simple things made too complicated,

:39:40.:39:42.

we leave you with this, Swedish musician Martin Molin -

:39:43.:39:44.

who's built a Rube Goldberg machine - defined as a contraption,

:39:45.:39:48.

invention, device or apparatus that is deliberately over-engineered

:39:49.:39:50.

to perform a simple task This Marble Machine

:39:51.:39:52.

definitely qualifies. The weather looks like settling down

:39:53.:40:59.

but we have got to get there and it is not a pretty picture. Tomorrow a

:41:00.:41:06.

lot of brain around. Strong winds. Unpleasant in England and Wales. In

:41:07.:41:10.

Northern Ireland, it will be bright and dry and a nice afternoon to come

:41:11.:41:15.

here. In Scotland, brighter conditions easing in from the west.

:41:16.:41:20.

Rain towards the eastern coast. Rain for much of the day across the heart

:41:21.:41:25.

of Central and eastern England and it will feel cold and bleak. A cold

:41:26.:41:31.

northerly wind. Some drier spells at times. Not to be relied upon and

:41:32.:41:36.

further wet weather across southern and eastern areas of England. In the

:41:37.:41:41.

south-west, after a wet and windy start, things should brighten up and

:41:42.:41:45.

dry up. The wind will slowly die down but

:41:46.:41:47.

Is Europe giving Turkey control of the migrant crisis? The Bank of England stance on the EU referendum and Donald Trump's Scottish mum. With Emily Maitlis.


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