09/01/2017 Newsnight

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In-depth investigation with Emily Maitlis. Topics include Theresa May's first six months as prime minister, press regulation and the resignation of NI's deputy first minister.

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1 the Prime Minister takes a wrong turn, drives down a cul-de-sac and


has to do a U-turn, could happen to anyone really. Six months into the


job, is she still on track? Tonight we ask if Theresa May can be


anything more than the Brexit Prime Minister. Can she construct a


credible programme of social justice, of the kind she wants? We


have a once in a generation chance to step back and ask ourselves what


kind of country we want to be. We'll ask those who've had some tensions


with their own leaders, here in the studio. Also tonight, This woman's


overdosing on heroin, but she won't die because her friends have to hand


a drug called Naloxone. British addicts who OD face a much harsher


path. They thought I was dead. They were dragging me down a landing to a


stair well, to get rid of my body. It was only the fact that an


off-duty nurse was walking past and rang an ambulance that I ended up


going to the hospital. And this... And here come the Germans now led by


their skipper Nobby Hagel. The Greeks led out by their veteran


centre half. Why do we all think all philosophers are Greek or German?


Should British universities start looking to Africa and Asia for the


meaning of life? How does a Prime Minister,


swept to power on a Brexit vote, consumed in office by Brexit


negotiations, avoid being defined Today, we got a sense of how much


that matters to Theresa May, as she spelled out what she intends


to make the soul of her premiership: a world where everyday


injustices were addressed, where people that had been


locked out of political discourse were welcomed back


and where politicians who'd talked about social justice


had failed to deliver. Until you remember that the PM was,


of course, the Home Secretary So who, exactly, ARE these misguided


politicians of whom she speaks? Today, she defined


herself unflinchingly As one of the least glitzy occupants


of Downing Street, Theresa May feels no need to hog the limelight. But


today, the Prime Minister stepped up to reveal more of what drives her


when she outlined her mission for those people who feel left behind by


today's world. A shared society doesn't just value individual


rights, but focuses more on the responsibilities we have to one


another. It's a society that respects the bonds that we share, as


aye union of people and nations. The bonds of family, community,


citizenship and strong institutions. The Prime Minister's vision of a


shared society is designed to differentiate her from both Margaret


Thatcher and David Cameron. She believes the state should play a


decisive role in helping those who are struggling, in contrast to Lady


Thatcher who once questioned the very existence of society and David


Cameron who responded to that by questioning the extent of the role


of the state. Allies say that talk of a personal philosophy may be a


bit far fetched. If May-ism means anything, I don't think the Prime


Minister is setting out to embrace some sort of ideological stance, but


it's about a rooted conservatism. It's an understanding that there are


a group of people, quite a large group, struggling get by, who feel


they're working harder and harder and questioning whether they're


getting the rewards. She has an implicit understanding of that.


She's seeking to address it in policy concerns. It will be six


months this Friday since Theresa May entered Downing Street. Critics say


that even after all that time, it is still difficult to Pinochet down


exactly where she stands. I think Theresa May, not being insulting, I


don't think she has a list of policies she's burning to implement.


I think she has some instincts. She has a direction of travel. More than


Gordon, she's made up her mind to be a departure from her predecessor.


Theresa May's friends say her Premiership marks a seismic shifts


from her immediate predecessors, both permly and politically. --


personally and politically. One minister said, we should think of


her as a cobra snake, who watches, waits, calculates and then pounces


with deadly effect. On the wider political level, allies say she


understands more deeply than others that the Brexit vote represented a


cry from people who feel disconnected and will easily turn to


populists if mainstream politicians do not respond to their concerns.


From the Brexit vote there's a real desire for control. Now whether that


is control of our borders and control of migration, whether it's


control of our own laws, it's very similar to the idea of people who


are struggling get by and feel that the system isn't quite working for


them. I think a clever Prime Minister, which clearly the current


Prime Minister is, can link those two together. Brexit catapoulted


Theresa May into Number Ten as the second unelected Prime Minister in a


decade after groun. One of his senior aides -- after Gordon brown,


one of his senior aides sees paralegals. He's she's taken off


from an elected Prime Minister. The elected Prime Minister who came


before her, as with Gordon brown had their own manifesto. Like him, she's


playing with the idea of how much she wants to inherit from her


predecessor and how much she wants to move on from him. Theresa May is


faring better than his former boss, though she will always face one


overwhelming challenge. There's only a certain amount of time that this


honeymoon period will last. That's when you've got to get clarity about


what you're governing projects are about. Clearly that's what her


speech was about today. The interesting thing is whether no


matter how hard she and her team try, will we ever remember Theresa


May's Government as anything other than the team that managed Brexit?


Over the coming weeks, we will learn more about our Prime Minister as she


delivers further speeches on housing and on a new industrial strategy.


Whether she likes it or not, the greatest attention will be on a


speech she will deliver on Brexit. Nicky Morgan, Education Secretary


under David Cameron's And Liz Kendall, Labour MP


and former leadership contender. We heard there, Stuart emphasising


it's a question of time. Have you closed your eyes during that speech,


would you actually hear anything new between Theresa May and the PM that


you worked under, David Cameron? Do you hear a difference? I think you


do because of the seismic event that happened on June 23 last year. I


think what Theresa May is saying is it's shaped by what has happened. It


was interesting in the film talking about a mandate and Theresa May not


having been directly elected. But there was this big event, this


change, where people said, hang on, I'm not so convinced about the


direction that we are heading in, 52% said that. 48% said actually we


want to remain in the EU. So she has now got to bridge that gap. I think


it's really encouraging actually that we're not just talking about


Brexit, important though that is, but she has chosen her first big


policy statement on the issue of mental health, which is something


close to many people's hearts in this country. She's going to be


defined by Brexit and a hard Brexit of her own making. The Government is


going to be overwhelmed with dealing with that issue and I think the


interesting thing is just how easily she has put to one side what is in


the national economic interest, which I don't believe is a hard


Brexit, and then saying she wants to put immigration and leaving the ECJ


over what might be in the interests of jobs and businesses. For a


Conservative Prime Minister to put at risk their dearly held economic


competence will be a strategic mistake. What you're proving


already, is that she can't escape from being the Brexit PM. This


speech was all about trying to be something else, whatever Brexit is


or isn't, I want to be the person of social justice. I want to be the


person who puts mental health, you mention, irreproachable as a subject


and yet, there will be a lot of people who say - why didn't she go


further That Is The Spirit? Why didn't she do -- why didn't she go


further than that? Why didn't she bring in brave measures that weren't


in the Autumn Statement. We're expecting speeches in the next few


weeks on housing, on industrial strategy. We have the Budget coming


up in March, which is a time for new money. Social care is hugely


important. But I take issue with Liz on one thing. We don't disagree


necessarily on the Brexit issue too much, but governments have to be


able to do more than one thing. Even when something is as massive as


Brexit, if you think about the Second World War, even then Butler


was coming up with the 1944 education act. Government's have to


do more. The country and the people need more to be done. That's true.


But May doesn't have the real vision about how the economy needs to


change. Look, the underlying challenges we've got with the


economy, that existed before Brexit, is that it's too focussed on too few


sectors and regions. It's too reliant on house prices and cheap


credit. And it's too shorp term, whether that's in terms of


investment from businesses, investment in infrastructure or


investment in R We have not seen anything near the scale of the


changes that we need. In terms of the speech today, if she puts aside


Brexit, as she is trying to... She can't. Right. Did you hear anything


in that speech, same question to you, that you wouldn't have welcomed


from a Labour leader? Here's a Conservative Prime Minister talking


about the importance of bringing in the forgotten, of looking after the


vulnerable, the people who are just managing, of the people who felt


locked out of discourse. That must be music to your ears. I have long


believed and argued that globalisation has brought Big Ben


fits for -- big benefits for some and has left too many people. You


see that particularly in towns, counties and villages where some of


our cities have benefitted. Look, only London and the south-east have


seen their growth get back to pre-crisis levels. We are investing


too little in infrastructure and R Unless we see big changes


there, we are not going to deliver an economy that works for everyone.


This was about personality as much as anything. It was, I described it


as the soul of who she wants to be. You had a highly publicised spat


with her. I wonder whether you find an authenticity in the woman who is


now Prime Minister? I think Theresa May is always authentic. She


certainly keeps her cards close to her chest. All her colleagues would


say that. Those who've known her for many years - You talk about the


Loughborough market text, the barometer of wearing the ?1,000


leather trousers in the Loughborough market, when you take this idea of


shared society rather than Big Society, can you sell those as a


Conservative in Loughborough market? Yes, absolutely. Of course, I can.


On the issue that arose before Christmas. Sometimes in politics,


feelings run high and things get too personal. That was not a good place


for any of us, me, to be and the Conservative Party before Christmas.


Are you regretting it? Sometimes you say things and it doesn't get to the


heart of the issues that people want you to discuss, like the speech


today. Yes, I think actually funnily enough I was at a drug


rehabilitation in Loughborough on Friday morning, and a gentleman


there who'd come from elsewhere, "The thing I really like about


Loughborough is the community spirit." I think what Liz is saying


again, what politicians who represent seats outside London would


recognise, London is a very different place. There is community


spirit. I think what Theresa May is saying in the shared society is


about communities. But Government has to be involved. Jeremy Corbyn


needs to be stronger, this is what we're hearing today, be more


aggressive in taking on the things that you're talking about. I think


we need to focus on what people want, which is a job that pays them


a wage they can live on, a home to call their own, great schools for


their kids and you know, if their parents get sick that they're going


to have the care they need in hospital and to get back out of


hospital. Today, I think, it was a real example of where the Government


is so far getting it wrong. Theresa May wanted to focus on mental


health, but today in the House of Commons, Jeremy Hunt said the way to


deal with the pressures on the NHS and long waits in A is to


downgrade the target. That is a weak spot for the Conservatives on


health. David Cameron tried to do a lot to get back their credibility on


health, if they lose that and make the wrong decisions on Brexit for


the economy, I think the Conservatives will be in trouble.


Thank you both very much. Some put it down to


the Trainspotting generation, the ageing heroin-using population


still taking the drug decades on. Whatever the reasons,


heroin deaths have risen Drug service providers have various


tools in their arsenal. One is a drug called Naloxone that


reverses the effects of overdose. Paramedics and hospitals use it,


but Scotland and Wales have implemented national take-home


emergency Naloxone programmes In England, that


offer is more patchy. Our special correspondent


Katie Razzall has been to Liverpool And a warning, her report does


contain scenes of drug It's a side to Liverpool the tourist


guides don't dwell on. Sometimes dubbed England's


drug abuse capital, addiction here can be


shockingly public. Fewer people take heroin these days,


but more are dying. The number's doubled


in three years in England and Wales to the highest


since records began. Philip Connolly is 43, a drug user


for decades, he's at Brook Place clinic because he


says he wants to stop. Since I was about 25


I started using heroin. I done Class A drugs


at about 25, yeah. Philip typifies the at-risk


user, middle aged, often homeless, with other potential


health conditions as a result of his I'm back smoking you know,


I noticed my breaths are I'm back smoking, you know,


I noticed my breaths are Liverpool has the highest


rate of people taken to hospital with drug-related mental


health or behavioural problems in Heroin isn't just a problem


in Liverpool, of course, but critics argue this city isn't using


all the tools available to it to This amateur video from


America shows Liz, a Her respiratory


system has collapsed. Her friends give her a drug called


Naloxone, Narcan's the brand name, which has been used


by hospitals and paramedics


for decades. Naloxone reverses the effects


of heroin overdose. It's believed to have saved


tens of thousands of Like in some American states,


Scotland and Wales now offer take-home emergency Naloxone


to addicts and those around them. It's believed, just


like in Liz's case, it This is what a Naloxone


take-home kit looks like. Dr Abbasi wants


a nationwide emergency Naloxone programme


across England too. Then wait a few minutes


to see if the person is coming back, coming


out of the overdose and if the effect is being


reversed. At the moment his region, Liverpool,


doesn't issue take-home That postcode lottery


is repeated across the country. Sometimes you see someone


who is really high risk. They come to you and you know this


could possibly save their life. They're walking out and you're


holding your heart, a phone call or an e-mail from


someone saying they've died. It really is something


that concerns me as a clinician, when I know


something like this they can take away and could possibly, possibly


give them an option and keep them I live in a squat back


home in Ireland. I woke up and me mate


was dead beside me. Gets you to do it again even though


you've woken up next to someone And if there was this drug available


for you, do you think that It doesn't sound like it's


hard to administer. Of course I think it


would be a good idea. Especially if you have two people


in the house that are Coming off heroin is one thing,


staying off quite another. At Genie In The Gutter,


a charity supporting recovery through creative arts and other


programmes, Michael told me he sometimes slips,


on the path away from drugs. But in his 70s and five


years clean, after a four-decade affair with heroin that


began in Afghanistan. It's only the first


once or twice that you experience the depth


and the feeling that it gives you. After the second or third


time, you are always But you never realise


it half the time. They're always chasing


this phenomenon from By increasing the dosages


and not having the I nearly died a couple


of months ago. And they gave me that


drug, what's it called? Do you think that


drug saved your life? If it weren't for that drug,


I wouldn't be here now. When you look around


at your friends and people that you've grown up


with and people you've met Tommy Allman was a heroin


addict for years. Now an outreach worker,


he took me on a tour of Liverpool's heroin hot


spots, the first, a car park. These are mainly used


for injecting into They have these and


the green needles. Is it really now a middle


aged drug problem? It's between, I'd


say between 35, 45. They're dying through other


health-related illnesses due to the If I hadn't found recovery when


I did, I wouldn't be alive now. Next stop another very public place,


beside a main road. This is an unused two


millimetre syringe. You could use that


for your groin or your arm. We've got a brand


new one hit kit there. There will be little areas


all round the city centre, like this, where there'll


be syringes hidden, just in case they need


to come back again. Deserted at night, Tommy told me


users come here in the daytime because they need


light to see their veins. Yeah, I overdosed on three


or four occasions. The worst one being,


I was dragged out of a flat They were dragging me down


a landing to a stairwell. And it was only the fact that


an off-duty nurse was walking past, felt my pulse and rang an ambulance


that I ended up going to the hospital and having this injection


that woke me back up. If Tommy's fellow users


had had take-home Naloxone, they might


have saved his life, not left it to chance


in a stairwell. But, unlike Dr Abbasi,


he doesn't believe the drug should be offered to


addicts to use on others. The way I see it, you're giving


the drug user an excuse. That's all somebody in addiction


needs is an excuse. If you give them one


of them packs, they'll be thinking, well, I've


got a free out here. I can take as much as I want,


because if I go over, someone's Next day, in broad daylight,


we came across a man shooting up in the city


centre, just metres away from a busy street and car


park. He does this five


times a day, he said. When you're addicted to heroin,


when you actually need it and you're rattling for it,


nothing else matters, You will go - if you have to -


you will literally stand on the I'd arranged to meet


Philip again, in a park where he says he walks


to clear his head. So I had money this


morning for crack and Will you do that again


today, do you think? We saw you yesterday,


you said you wanted to get clean. Every time you do those drugs,


there's a possibility you might die. I've OD'd several times I've


OD'd five or six times. I've been lucky because people have


either found me or I was Liverpool City Council


told Newsnight it's looking at whether to offer


take-home Naloxone to local users in Unless every English


region rolls it out, access to a drug that


could save lives will be governed by where an addict


lives, not what they use. Will the freedom of the press be


harmed by a move to make newspapers pay their opponents'


legal bills, even if they win? The public has one day left


to have their say on these proposals on press regulation,


measures which have divided those who report and print


investigative stories. Is it endangering one


of the cornerstones of democracy, the ability of the press to hold


those in power to account? Or simply a move to let those


who wouldn't otherwise have the money to take on big


newspapers voice their complaint Joining me now, Andrew Norfolk,


award-winning investigative journalist who uncovered


the Rotherham child abuse scandal, unusually here in London


tonight, and Jonathan Heawood, the only regulator so far to qualify


for official recognition. Thank you both for coming in.


Andrew, you are defending newspapers from not having to go through with


this Section 40, why would it affect your work? I think it will have a


crippling effect on investigative journalism in this country. One


example, the Rotherham story that I worked on for four years. In August


20 14th we named a man and accused him of being a serial abuser of


children at a time when he had not even been questioned by police, let


alone charged with any offence. We spent weeks and weeks, there is a


balancing act to be made, can we defend this story if we get sued? We


know that it is too. We took a brave decision and published and that is


what led to the independent inquiry that found that 1400 girls were


abused and led to the Inquirer that sent many men to prison for the


first time. If this comes in, the rules would be changed and if we


published that story we would know that we would have to pay the costs


if we were sued. Even if we have the evidence to defend it, it would not


matter if every word was true, if any two bit solicitor wanted to


represent this man, if a multimillionaire was involved in


something like that, if they decide to sue, we can prove it is true, we


can defend it, but we must pay. So if you had taken that story to your


editor you think that they would not have dared publish it, knowing that


you were a respected, trusted, award-winning journalist? They


wouldn't have backed you on that? It remains possible an incredibly brave


editor with incredibly deep pockets would risk losing so much money. But


if I think about the pressures that would be put on a newspaper with the


resources of the Times. I think about where I started on the


Scarborough evening News as a trainee, I think of the Yorkshire


Post where four of us worked for months on a local government


corruption scandal, it seems inconceivable that those newspapers


would be able to run those stories. Jonathan, why put such stories in


such jeopardy? Why put those newspapers in such jeopardy. B roll


back a little. Everyone is trying to make the system more fair. What


Andrew has talked about already affects journalists and


broadcasters. There is the threat of libel. If you are taking on powerful


individuals, companies, politicians, powerful figures, there's always


that concern. There is an incentive for someone to sue if they think


they could make some money. The leathers and inquiry thinks you


should be a new system where there is an independent regulator where


people feel they can trust it, they can rebuild trust in the press which


sadly is the lowest in this country post phone hacking, it has never


recovered. For the public to have confidence in an independent


regulator which would protect journalists, publishers should have


protections from legal threats. The other side to the story which Andrew


is telling, and I have great sympathy for him and admiration for


his work. If a journalist like Andrew or his colleagues, if their


newspapers joined a certifiably independent regulator as opposed to


one that is owned and controlled... So you just sign up to the regulator


and the problem is gone? We had a free press in this country for 300


years and we have a Royal Charter now. We have a quango. We have an


approved regulator, largely funded by a multimillionaire who has his


own reasons for loathing one section of our free press. I will come to


that in a moment. But it is not unusual for any industry,


broadcasters, doctors, lawyers, to have a body watching over them. You


have the GMC for surgeons, you know, every single body has this, why


should the press be unique? When it is doing its job correctly the press


has a fundamental role as the eyes and ears of the public to shine a


light in every corner, on the BBC, the GMC, and trade union leaders.


The role of the press has always been to be free from any idea of


government being able to have evened the shadow of a fingerprint on our


throat. This lofty ideal is rather undermined when you look at who is


essentially funding the charity that has backed Impressed, Max Mosley, he


has his own justification. He's fundened a charity which is


funded in press. He has no operational control. Publishers who


want to be part afteren independent regulator are free to set up their


own regulator, the charter allows for more than one. Ip sow, the


current self-regulator could put itself through the hoops, become


certifiably independent. One point also, it's slightly ironic that the


same publishers so up in arms, we've never seen anything like the


coverage over the last three weeks in every newspaper in the country


over this issue. Most of the those newspapers in Ireland, regulated by


the Irish press Council, recognised in law, overseen by the Justice


Minister - I wish we had longer, thank you both very much.


Northern Ireland stands on the brink of an Assembly election tonight,


as Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness announced


his shock resignation from the coalition government.


For some weeks now, the Northern Ireland Executive has been under


significant pressure following the mishandling


of a renewable energy scheme, which could end up costing


?500 million, small change at Westminster perhaps,


but a vast sum relative to Stormont's small budget.


Could power-sharing really be under threat?


He's seen four British prime ministers, three First Ministers


and has been at the centre of Stormont politics


since the Good Friday agreement will stop but after one decade


as Northern Ireland steady First Minister this evening


-- Deputy First Minister, this evening


Martin McGuinness announces almost certainly triggering


We in Sinn Fein will not tolerate the arrogance of Arlene Foster.


Sinn Fein wants equality and respect for everyone and that's what this


So today I have told Arlene Foster that I have tendered my resignation,


So I believe today is the right time to call a halt


On the face of it it is the fallout from a disastrous renewable heating


scheme that has pushed Sinn Fein over the edge.


But a number of disagreements over issues such as Irish language


funding and redevelopment of the infamous maze prison .2 deep


-- point to deeper divisions within the executive.


For their part, the DUP refusing to bow to the pressure.


Their leader Arlene Foster, the minister responsible


for the failing energy scheme, has refused to step aside


and the party is bullish about the election.


If we are going to the country so be it, let's take it to the country,


let's fight along clear lands and I've a message was Sinn Fein,


it's very clear, you do not decide who we choose as our leader


and you do not decide who we choose First Minister.


If we are in a position to nominate an elected First Minister.


Such confidence is perhaps not surprising, going to the polls


in Northern Ireland solves little, for the last ten years that have not


exactly been wild swings in Stormont elections.


In 2007 the DUP got 36 seats and Sinn Fein got 28.


In 2011, the DUP got 38 seats and Sinn Fein 29


and in 2016 the DUP got, wait for it, 38 seats


In every year since 2007 there has been a DUP First Minister


So it's perfectly possible that on the other side


of a bruising election it will be as-you-were at Stormont.


At this point, either another solution must be found for the very


existence of power-sharing could be under threat.


To those who prefer their glass half full, there are grounds of optimism.


After decades of violence and factional politics,


Northern Ireland finally has a political crisis provoked


That in itself could be seen as a sign of progress.


Are the great writers, philosophers, artists


either because you think it's the stupidest thing


you've ever heard or because its so manifestly true it


Students at the School of Oriental and Asian Studies in London


want to shift the focus away from men like Kant and Plato


because they see them as part of a Western canon that hasn't


They call it decolonialising the syllabus.


Critics call it pandering to a snowflake generation


True, traditional philosophy is so homogenous, that


when the Monty Python team wrote their Philosophers'


Football Match sketch, they could cover most


of the philosophers that people had heard of with just two countries.


Karl Jaspers number seven on the outside.


Schelling's in there, Heidegger covering.


And now it's the Greeks, Epicurus, Plotinus no 6, Aristotle.


Empedocles of Acragas, and Democritus with him.


Joining me now, Kehinde Andrews from Birmingham City University,


and Antony Seldon joins us from Oxford.


Welcome to you both. Thanks for joining us. I don't know whether


watching that Monty Python sketch, you thought, yes, this is what most


of the syllabus taught in universities look like. Do you think


there is a bigger problem with them? I think that's really the problem.


The problem is that the curriculum is so white, it is so euro sown


trick that the school of oriental and African studies, the students


say they're not learning enough from African and Asian scholars. That's


an uproar. What's being said is that the education we're giving is so


Pharaoh we don't understand the social world. Totally


understandable, but do you think it's more applicable? . I did


sociology, looking at history, that's the same. There's a European


canon. We are taught this is special knowledge, the idea of the


enlightenment that European knowledge is to civilise the dark


savage. This goes to the heart of the problems in society today. We


need to unpick them so we can move forward. Do you agree with that,


somewhere we have got into this canon of cumulative experience and


it's just time to blow that up and start again? Obviously not. Much of


the greatest works of civilisation, of science and medicine have been


discovered whether we like it or not, by white men. I think we have a


duty to study the world as it is. But I'm not somebody who doesn't


understand and sympathise what's happening in universities. It's not


just the students. The universities themselves have a duty and are doing


a great deal to make their courses far more global and far more aware


of trends everywhere. So I think it's ungenerous of the students to


be this extreme. It just needs a sense of balance and proportion and


to show respect not just respect for the traditions of universities,


respect for the extraordinary achievements that have been created


and to understand them yes, in their context, but also to look at the


fascinating philosophy which comes from outside Europe. Do you


recognise that as an extreme position? I'm not sure what is


extreme about students saying we need to learn about other stuff. You


can't just have this idea of this European canon. The great white


European men have had all these discoveries, that's part of the


problem. Actually Plato builds his work from the Egyptian base of


knowledge. Before the enlightenment, it's Islamic scholars in the 12th


century who are keeping knowledge, curating knowledge, so we could even


have physics, when Europe is in the dark ages. The idea that it's a


special European knowledge that has changed the world is the problem.


That is why the idea of the enlightenment is in it Sol racist,


that Europe is there to Eiffelise the darker nations. This must be


challenged. That's what academics and students are saying, put it in


its proper context. We're conditioned to think they're great


because we haven't explored the rest of civilisation. I agree with much


of that. University is about challenging received wisdom. Of


course, that is right and of course much of the, many of the greatest


ideas come from beyond Europe. We know nearly enough about them. That


doesn't mean we should denigrate what has happened or pretend that


what has happened is necessarily bad or not true. I studied philosophy at


university and I wished I'd studied Eastern philosophy which I have


found since I left university, so much more interesting and


penetrating than so much of the dull Western philosophy I studied. That


goes for is much of culture and civilisation too. I'm qualifying


supporting what's happening. I am saying that I think it's important


just to show proportion and respect. How far would you go? Would you say


the enlightenment was racist? Of course it was. It's built on the


idea that there is a special knowledge from Europe. We think


about something like Kante, so revered. He comes up with the idea


of the taxonomy of the races. It's how I wasn't deemed to be a person


by him when he was writing. If that's not racism, I don't know what


it is. To put it into proportion, with the black studies degree, we


don't not teach enlightenment. I teach these ideas, but we put them


in the proper context and say there is a place for them and there say


reason why they came and there's a kind of society it created. It is


not a coincidence that the world looks with a very - It's unarguable,


isn't it? So, look, I think that universities are about understanding


and in Free Speech and understanding the whole gamut and nature of what's


happened in civilisation. That doesn't mean denigrating or not


studying people. It means studying people in their context. At the


heart, the greatest wisdom of all, is the universality of the human


experience and the equality of all people, regardless of gender,


regardless of class, ethnicity and religion. I think that is what we


should be moving towards. That doesn't mean denigrating any


achievements of extraordinary people, who have made civilisations


what they are in the past. Thank you both very much.


Kirsty will be back in the chair tomorrow. Until then, very good


night. Good evening. A chilly, breezy start


to Tuesday. But at least there should


In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Emily Maitlis. Topics include Theresa May's first six months as prime minister, press regulation and Martin McGuinness's resignation as NI deputy first minister. Plus should UK addicts have access to an anti-overdose drug, and should colleges eschew western philosophers?