17/11/2017 Newsnight


17/11/2017

In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Kirsty Wark.


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Transcript


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It's been a choppy couple

of weeks for the Government.

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But can Philip Hammond put them

back on an even keel

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and save his own skin too?

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The Chancellor's got

a big job of work to do

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with next week's Budget.

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So, is he preparing something

special for that battered red box?

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New details are emerging about

Philip Hammond's budget tonight -

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I've been speaking to one

of his closest political friends,

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who reveals the chancellor

is planning a modest loosening

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of the taps.

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But another tory has a warning

for him on housing:

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If we do not do something about this

then we will be writing ourselves

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out of the electoral script.

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The Budget could see budging

on Universal Credit too.

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Tonight we go to Newcastle

to see first hand some

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of the problems solved and created

by the new system.

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I hid in my bedroom for nearly to

macro weeks. I only went out of the

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bedroom to go to the toilet. My

children went to stay with my

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parents for a little while. Purely

because I didn't have the money to

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feed them.

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All of this makes next week a make

or break week in politics.

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We'll discuss it all

with our panel of pundits.

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Good evening.

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The Budget is normally a big eagerly

awaited affair but it has almost got

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lost in mountain of problems facing

Theresa May - from sexual scandals

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to Boris Johnson's big gaffe,

to today's ticking off of the Prime

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Minister.

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Meanwhile, the Chancellor

is beavering away, trying to make

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sure he avoids a repeat

of the humiliating U turn

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after the March Budget

over national insurance.

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But with fellow Cabinet members

including Michael Gove

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and Amber Rudd breathing

down his neck, he'll also be

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thinking about making a splash -

in a good way - if such

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a thing is possible.

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We'll be discussing all this

with our panel throughout

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the programme but first,

our political editor, Nick Watt.

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I have not got money to buy a house.

When do you reckon you will be able

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to buy? About ten years. Do the

Tories expect our support in the

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light of another 1% pay increase?

There is not a magic money tree we

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can shake to provide for everything

people want.

There was no magic

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money tree for the nation. Are the

Tories about to unveil a more

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modest, magic money tap?

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No, they don't have an overall

majority at this stage.

On that grim

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night for the Conservatives, they

lost seats in their natural

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territory. Anxious younger people

are at the heart of that story is

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you people in their 20s, 30s and 40s

preferred Labour. It is Philip

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Hammond's challenge in a spread it

to reset his party plasma relations

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with those younger voters.

At the

June election, we lost, among all

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age groups up to the age of 49. That

is a terrifying position for the

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Conservative Party to be in. I do

think the party is very focused.

In

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the feverish atmosphere at

Westminster there has been an

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intense, internal debate about how

to pitch the budget. Should the

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Chancellor be bold and allow

spending to flow or should it be a

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case of steady as she goes with

spending restraint? I am told one

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senior aide advise the Chancellor to

throw caution to the wind to make

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sure he leaves a memorable legacy.

This could, after all, be your final

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budget if Theresa May finally snaps

with you. Others say this most

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cautious of politicians is not about

to change the habits of a lifetime.

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I understand the budget will contain

both elements of that internal

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Treasury debate. The Chancellor will

turn on the tap. There will be more

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than a dribble but we should not

expect a gash. Every penny is

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accounted for by the man known as

Spreadsheet Phil. No doubt Labour

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will say it is all just an illusion.

One of the Chancellor's oldest

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friends believe he will spend some

of his so-called headroom or war

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chest, even though it is expected to

be below the 26 billion he

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identified in March.

I think what

the Chancellor is saying is, it will

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be silly to throw away all the good

work we have done in getting down

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the deficit level about to turn the

corner on debt. Of course I am

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listing in Mike Autumn Statement

there was some headroom. Will look

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at other ways in which the headroom

can be used to attack the problem so

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many people have spoken to me about.

I am convinced he will be looking at

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some housing ideas. There are

creative ones about looking at loan

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guarantees. Builders and things in

that sort of era. Also he knows that

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we need to build more social housing

and he will be looking at ways to

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encourage that.

The astonishing fact

is the difference in likelihood of

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someone voting Conservative, whether

they have a mortgage, owned their

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own home or are in private rented or

socially rented accommodation. The

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difference is dramatic. I know every

single Conservative MP is very

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focused on that fact and on the

reality which is that if we do not

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do something about this over the

next three to four years before the

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next election, we will be writing

ourselves out of the electoral

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script.

We can expect a united

Cabinet front next week. Not since

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the Blair- brambles has been such a

poisonous atmosphere ahead the

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budget. One person told me Boris

Johnson and Michael Gove are leading

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the internal charge against the

Chancellor, because they feared the

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Treasury has grabbed hold of Brexit

policy. What detail have you been

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hearing about the memorable legacy?

The keyword in that report is

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headroom. When I was talking to

Stephen hammered, -- Hammond, he

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kept repeating headroom. They say

this has ticked up in recent weeks.

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He'll want to address the areas,

particularly health and housing

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which caused the Tories such grief

in the general election. What is

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interesting is the assumption had

been the headroom would be used

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solely by the Chancellor to help him

navigate what he expects to be a

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bumpy Brexit. Government sources are

saying, no, it is there to help you

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when you have a slowing economy is

and that is what we have at the

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moment.

Talking about loan

guarantees. All builders, it is not

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exactly splashy stuff.

Remember,

with Philip Hammond, he has built

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his entire career. He is not an

accountant but he behaves like one.

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He is an incredibly cautious person.

He does know that when, as Nick

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Bowles, we may have heard him we may

have not met every age group under

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49 voted for the Labour majority and

not the Conservatives. Philip

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Hammond understands that and we will

see the war chest being dipped into.

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He still believes you have to be

cautious and he will be sticking by

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the fiscal rules for a moment.

We

will be coming back to you later on

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that next week.

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Next week is going to be a busy one

for the nation's political pundits.

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We have three of them here tonight

to give us a sense of

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how they're feeling.

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I'm joined by Rachel Shabi,

Ian Dale and Simon Jenkins.

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On the question of whether Philip

Hammond will be safe or bold, will

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it be maybe be his last budget

question what will he have to get

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something big out there?

Every

Chancellor needs to have a legacy.

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Something none of us can predict.

Certainly not an increase in

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national insurance?

I wouldn't think

so. Expectations on housing had been

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raised through the roof, namely by

his Cabinet colleague making the

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speech yesterday. Whatever he

announces will not be enough people

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like Nick Bowles who want to see

lots of progress on housing.

All

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that talk on this intergenerational

fairness, something has to be taken

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from the younger and given to the

older Tory voters.

It is a fallacy

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to think you buy votes from young

people by appealing to their pocket.

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The problem he has is Jeremy Corbyn

gave away the biggest election bribe

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in history by offering half the age

cohort £50,000 for the university

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education. You cannot beat that.

That was gigantic and irresponsible

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but massive. I think that is what

moves them rather than housing.

With

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it being neck and neck, you would

expect the polls to be better for

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Labour. If there was a decent offer

on housing, maybe stamp duty, a

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holiday for first-time buyers, it

might send a signal actually they

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are looking after younger voters

rather than the wealthier, older

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voters.

No, no. This will not cut

it. He cannot do it for that he

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cannot do it politically because of

the divisions and chaos in the

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Government. He cannot do because it

is not in his DNA, nor the

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Government's DNA to try to

understand the economic crisis. They

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cannot grasp the causes of that they

cannot grasp whether it is a

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systemic crisis. They do not

understand the effect it is having

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on people's lives and hardship it is

causing. How can they have any

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solutions?

You have someone like

Sergei Javits saying we need extra

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borrowing to build houses. -- Javid.

The housing is bigger, 200,000 but

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what it needs to be is 400,000.

They're all sorts of creative

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solutions but I'm not sure any of

the parties have the answer.

Can

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Hammond deliver that, especially in

the fiscal rules?

Housing is a mess.

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You do not build houses overnight.

Can affect the private rented

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sector. Young people appreciate more

social housing. The real problem is

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homelessness in cities. This

assumption that you can throw money

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at young house-buyers and somehow

help them. All it does is increase

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house prices.

Do you think Labour

has outflanked the Conservatives?

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Are they offering to younger people

more than the question?

Every

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student I have spoken to has said

they were bowled over. They were

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offered £50,000.

That is serious

money. It is not. I am not

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underplaying this. Housing is a

massive crisis. Student debt is a

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huge issue. There is a bigger

picture here. That is about having a

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vision for an economic crisis.

Let's

talk about that. The whole question

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is, will this be the end of

austerity? The NHS needs to suck in

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a lot more money now.

I don't think

they can do it. I don't think they

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can handle it. They don't have the

kind of solutions they need for that

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we are looking at productivity rates

which are flat-lining while people

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are working longer hours for less

pay and working conditions with

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living costs rising. The system is

failing. Tinkering around with

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things like stamp duty will not

really cut it.

There is a big thing

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that he has to go through the big

boost of spending on infrastructure.

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They would say they are doing that

already. The building programme at

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the moment is the biggest for many

years that we can go down the road

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that John McDonnell wants to go down

and spend £70 million on all sorts

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of things. We all want more money

for the health service and

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education. The problem of Labour so

far if they have not explained how

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they would pay for the massive

splurge of spending.

He does spend

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it. Anyone can do that. The real

problem is the one that Nick

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identified. He wants to appear

responsible without making a silly

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mistake like over national

insurance. To do that, you need to

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form a very fine judgment as to how

much a giveaway and how much you do

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not. The politics is he has to

appear to be giving something away.

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Posterity Fx everybody. -- posterity

affects everyone. Finding a way to

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appeared to be a generous

Chancellor.

He is going to do

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something bold. Presumably it is

something that Theresa May agrees

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with.

We don't know. We in a vacuum

and do not know what is happening.

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In the end, all politicians are

elected to government to decide how

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to cut up the public spending cake.

In this budget most people are

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expecting a lot of money for the

NHS. If he says we're going to put

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in an extra 2 billion, Rachel were

saying that is not enough. We should

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put 4 billion in. Whatever the

Chancellor is going to do he will be

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criticised.

What I am saying is we

need to get beyond this thing that

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there is only so much money. This is

out of kilter with what most

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respected economists around the

world and even those famous

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marketers at the IMF are saying, you

have to invest in an economy. That

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is where you generate growth. That

is mindful that you should borrow

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when there is low interest rates.

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What would you like to see that

public requirement going into?

When

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the Labour Party talked to

businesses and representatives about

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this, they say, you are right, we do

need this investment. We need

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infrastructure and skills.

If we

look at this as a very particular

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Budget, happening at a time, I would

not say Brexit stasis, but Theresa

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May has been chided by Donald Tusk,

and you have Phillip Hammond laying

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out his stall but he does not know

what party it will be at or the end

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journey?

He has to be a chance for

all time, he cannot pretend this is

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my only Budget or this will come to

an end in one year. It is very

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difficult but the problem with

journalists as we're in a state of

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perpetual hysteria. I think we're

all quite calm! I have lost track

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of, she survive... Until Christmas,

now. Prime Minister tend to survive

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and chancellors as well. They tend

to not get on very well. This is

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normal. Would anything break this

Christmas not until there is a

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better alternative.

We are in a

situation where Phillip Hammond is

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determinedly soft as a Brexiteer and

there is a difference of opinion as

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how this is being handled and Brexit

is a huge focus, people don't know

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what is happening but there is more

focused than the Budget?

I would

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agree with a lot of what Simon said,

apart from the last bit, I don't

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think he is safe, if she carries out

a major reshuffle in January or

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February, she may be forced into a

reshuffle before then...

What do you

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think the impact of Brexit is on the

Chancellor's thinking?

This Budget

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is short-term because we don't know

exactly what the Brexit outcome will

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be so it is very difficult for him

to plan. He has to keep back some

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money in case we have no Deal, very

reluctantly. I think he is looking

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to the short-term rally than

long-term on Wednesday.

Stay there.

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We're going to Hugh Muir -- hear

more on Brexit.

Two interesting

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developments, Donald Tusk has

essentially said to Theresa May, you

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need to put more money on the table

within two weeks, there is already

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20 billion euros, they want 60

billion, they want a bigger

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indication and the significance of

the next two weeks is Donald Tusk

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once that before the European

Council on the 14th of December,

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where EU leaders might say, yes, we

can move onto the next stage and

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talk about trade and transition.

David Davis was tickling that? He

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did a speech in Berlin and he said,

we will be doing something in the

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next few weeks. He did not want to

be specific and was clearly

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indicating that Britain would like

to say it at the council and not

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beforehand.

The Taoiseach has also

been pretty vocal today.

We offer a

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car has said that Britain has to put

in writing that it will ensure there

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is no hard border in Ireland and

that has to be done to ensure that

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he will agree to move onto the next

age at the European Council.

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Interestingly, no member state has a

veto over the Article 50 process.

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But there are three areas, Northern

area -- Northern Ireland, citizens'

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rights and money and it is Ireland's

moment in the sand and it is

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difficult to see how Donald Tusk

could move on without the agreement

0:19:270:19:30

of Ireland.

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One area where the Chancellor

is widely expected to make

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an announcement in the Budget

is the rules for the Government's

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flagship welfare programme,

Universal Credit.

0:19:390:19:40

Labour forced a vote yesterday

in the Commons on cutting

0:19:400:19:42

the initial waiting time

for Universal Credit

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from six weeks to four.

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It won, though Conservative MPs

abstained and the Government

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has yet to respond.

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Critics argue that the inequalities

and delays in the system have

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created new hardships for people.

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Newsnight filmmaker

Stuart Denman went to Newcastle,

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one of the trial areas,

where he spoke to three people

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who say it doesn't work for them.

0:19:570:19:59

He began his quest at a food bank.

0:19:590:20:04

13 weeks, it was.

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It was eight weeks and then

it was another five weeks.

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You just had to try to pay

what you needed to pay.

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But you weren't paying

rent or council tax.

0:20:430:20:46

I'm getting my money every

month now, the same date.

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It's just the amount you get.

0:20:480:20:51

It was bad enough

when I was on the...

0:20:510:20:53

It was £102, I think.

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It was bad enough then

but now it is £72 a week.

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You cannot do it, it's impossible.

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It really is.

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Ian has been on Universal Credit

for about six months.

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He says he has not been under

pressure to look for work,

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which he thinks is down

to poor health.

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I have met you here at a food bank.

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How often do you come here?

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Once a week.

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And what do you do for the rest

of the week for food?

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I get food out of the bin now

and again, which I did

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a couple of days ago.

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Sandwiches.

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How old are you, Ian?

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54.

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Did you imagine life

to be like this at 54?

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Not as bad as it is, I don't think.

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I knew without a job

it was going to be really,

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really difficult but I didn't think

it was going to get

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as difficult as it is.

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It's getting out of hand now.

0:21:500:21:51

If you're not in a family

you may as well not exist.

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If you can't buy your own house

you may as well not exist.

0:21:540:21:58

Ian later tells me he will be

receiving an additional allowance

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for caring for a friend so he is now

more optimistic about getting

0:22:010:22:04

by on Universal Credit without work.

0:22:040:22:08

But what if Universal Credit

is actually putting

0:22:080:22:10

you off finding work?

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I have been on the Universal Credit

system as a carer, which means

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I don't have to actively seek work

at this point in time

0:22:170:22:20

because my daughter receives

a disability allowance.

0:22:200:22:26

I have received my

first payment in July.

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It went as smoothly as it

could apart from the fact that

0:22:290:22:34

I didn't get the amount

I was expecting and also

0:22:340:22:39

I subsequently found out that,

despite keeping them informed,

0:22:390:22:42

I had a legacy debt that has accrued

by having claimed tax credits.

0:22:420:22:47

How much is that debt?

0:22:470:22:50

£2800.

0:22:500:22:54

In 2012, Lynne was made redundant

from a well-paid role

0:22:540:22:56

in the public sector.

0:22:560:22:58

She was able to find short-term

consultancy jobs but increasingly

0:22:580:23:01

had to depend on benefits to get by.

0:23:010:23:04

She sold her two-bedroom flat

to make ends meet and now

0:23:040:23:06

she and her two teenage daughters

live in privately

0:23:060:23:09

rented accommodation.

0:23:090:23:11

The option is to either go back

into well-paid work,

0:23:110:23:14

which isn't necessarily available,

or in terms of downsizing or trying

0:23:140:23:20

to manage within the benefits

system, then that is not going to be

0:23:200:23:24

possible under Universal Credit.

0:23:240:23:31

Lynne feels it would be too

complicated to accept ad-hoc

0:23:310:23:33

consultancy work while on Universal

Credit.

0:23:330:23:35

It's too unstable.

0:23:350:23:36

If you have high peak months,

like seasonal, or you get a contract

0:23:360:23:40

that is three months but you don't

work for two but you earn that

0:23:400:23:43

amount, you are going to be

in and out of the benefits system.

0:23:430:23:47

You can't wait six weeks every time.

0:23:470:23:49

I am an extremely resourceful person

and now I am in the position where,

0:23:490:23:53

through the austerity measures

that the government have implemented

0:23:530:23:56

and the system of support has

left me in this situation more

0:23:560:24:01

than I have left myself.

0:24:010:24:10

I would be better off

handing my taxi badge

0:24:100:24:12

in and going and signing on.

0:24:120:24:14

I would get more

money by not working.

0:24:140:24:17

Which I can't understand at all.

0:24:170:24:20

Robert is a self-employed

taxi driver.

0:24:200:24:22

When he applied for Universal

Credit, an appointment

0:24:220:24:25

was arranged for him to prove

he was self-employed.

0:24:250:24:27

But on the day of the interview

he was offered a fixed taxi fare

0:24:270:24:31

of £90, which he took instead.

0:24:310:24:33

The appointment was

eventually rescheduled

0:24:330:24:35

but he missed that one, too.

0:24:350:24:37

You missed two appointments?

0:24:370:24:38

Yeah.

0:24:380:24:44

But that was to take work?

0:24:440:24:45

Yeah.

0:24:450:24:46

Part of your claimant commitment

is you can't refuse paid work.

0:24:460:24:49

But you must attend all interviews.

0:24:490:24:50

How can you do both?

0:24:500:24:52

You're desperate for money.

0:24:520:24:54

That's the option you're

going to take every time.

0:24:540:24:58

Robert's payments started

eventually, which he combined

0:24:580:25:00

with his taxi earnings.

0:25:000:25:02

But in September he was thrown

by a much lower payment

0:25:020:25:04

than he had expected.

0:25:040:25:05

It tipped him over the edge.

0:25:050:25:07

Unable to pay the taxi company

he was working through,

0:25:070:25:10

they parted company.

0:25:100:25:11

Robert was suddenly unemployed.

0:25:110:25:15

I hid in my bedroom

for nearly two weeks.

0:25:150:25:19

And I only went out of the bedroom

to go to the toilet.

0:25:190:25:25

My children went to stay

with my parents for a little while.

0:25:250:25:30

Purely because I didn't

have the money to feed them.

0:25:300:25:35

Because they weren't there,

I got more depressed.

0:25:350:25:38

I didn't open any of my mail.

0:25:380:25:41

I wasn't answering my phone.

0:25:410:25:45

Adding to an already bad month,

rent arrears that predated his time

0:25:450:25:48

on Universal Credit

were about to become a problem.

0:25:480:25:52

He visited his GP one day.

0:25:520:25:54

When he returned home with a sick

note and antidepressants,

0:25:540:25:57

he found that the locks

had been changed.

0:25:570:25:59

I had been given seven days

to remove my possessions

0:25:590:26:03

and to leave the property.

0:26:030:26:07

And the seven days were up.

0:26:070:26:09

That's why they said

the bailiffs round and changed

0:26:090:26:12

the locks and everything.

0:26:120:26:14

But you didn't know that,

you hadn't been opening your mail?

0:26:140:26:17

No.

0:26:170:26:18

Robert discovered that September's

low payment was because of problems

0:26:180:26:21

with something called the minimum

income floor, which is an assumption

0:26:210:26:24

about a self-employed

person's monthly earnings.

0:26:240:26:27

As a primary carer of two children

under 16, Robert's calculation

0:26:270:26:30

should have been based on a 25 hour

working week, meaning

0:26:300:26:34

they would expect him to earn

about £800 in a normal month.

0:26:340:26:37

But instead, they had used a 35

hour week and assumed

0:26:370:26:40

he would earn more than £1000.

0:26:400:26:43

Because the error meant

they expected him to get more

0:26:430:26:45

in earnings, they paid him less

in Universal Credit.

0:26:450:26:48

They said, don't worry,

we will fix the mistake.

0:26:480:26:54

They put the wrong postcode

on the letter or something.

0:26:540:26:59

It cost me my livelihood.

0:26:590:27:02

Robert received a letter admitting

the mistake and his monthly

0:27:020:27:05

payment was adjusted.

0:27:050:27:07

But in reviewing his case,

they also calculated that

0:27:070:27:09

in the initial months,

he had actually been overpaid by...

0:27:090:27:12

£717.59.

0:27:120:27:15

And a request to make

an arrangement to pay it back.

0:27:150:27:19

It's one mistake after another.

0:27:190:27:24

Robert is now taxi driving again.

0:27:240:27:26

Unsurprisingly, he has no faith

in Universal Credit.

0:27:260:27:30

He takes particular issue

with the minimum income floor,

0:27:300:27:32

which doesn't recognise that sole

traders may end up earning less

0:27:320:27:37

than the national minimum wage

if they have a bad month.

0:27:370:27:40

If I don't make that

minimum income floor,

0:27:400:27:42

I don't get any extra money,

any help at all.

0:27:420:27:51

When Universal Credit

came to Newcastle, it

0:27:510:27:54

promised to bring fairness,

simplicity and an incentive to work.

0:27:540:27:57

And it has, for some.

0:27:570:27:59

But for others, it's yet to prove

that it has brought any

0:27:590:28:02

one of these things,

let alone all three.

0:28:020:28:07

Stuart Denman there.

0:28:070:28:08

We did ask the Department for Work

and Pensions to join us

0:28:080:28:11

on the programme tonight but no

minister was available.

0:28:110:28:14

In a statement, the department said

Universal Credit lay at the heart

0:28:140:28:18

of the Government's commitment

to help people improve their lives

0:28:180:28:20

and raise their incomes.

0:28:200:28:21

They said the vast majority

of claimants are paid in full

0:28:210:28:24

and on time and that support

is available for anyone

0:28:240:28:26

who needs extra help.

0:28:260:28:28

Well, Rachel, Ian and

Simon are still here.

0:28:280:28:33

Rachel, it is fair to say that the

government and the opposition

0:28:330:28:40

believe Universal Credit is the

right thing and is here to stay?

I

0:28:400:28:44

think Universal Credit should be

stopped until we get rid of this

0:28:440:28:50

government, frankly. They cannot

handle it. They are still defending

0:28:500:28:55

Universal Credit despite the fact

that everyone who has anything to do

0:28:550:29:01

with it, claimants, local

authorities, food banks, the church,

0:29:010:29:05

says it is plunging people into

poverty and debt.

If you talk to

0:29:050:29:11

Jeremy Corbyn and John McDonnell,

they think the principle is right to

0:29:110:29:16

incentivise people so the Phillip

Hammond does something in the Budget

0:29:160:29:19

about the delivery of that?

That

would be a good thing? Perhaps the

0:29:190:29:25

principle of simplifying it is a

good thing but I am not sure, that

0:29:250:29:29

might be an illusion. But in any

case, the government have had so

0:29:290:29:37

much evidence that it is not working

so we're left with two

0:29:370:29:42

possibilities, either they are

indifferent to the level of

0:29:420:29:45

suffering they are causing or just

clueless and I don't know what is

0:29:450:29:49

worse.

Is it fair to say it was

rolled out to some?

It is a disgrace

0:29:490:29:54

that there isn't a government

minister on the programme to defend

0:29:540:29:57

it and I will not on that role.

Whenever you introduce a complicated

0:29:570:30:04

system, even if you think you are

simplifying it, there will

0:30:040:30:08

inevitably be teething problems but

they have had time to understand

0:30:080:30:11

those problems and the six-week

period, everyone would agree, needs

0:30:110:30:16

to be shortened. I think they will

probably shorten that in the Budget

0:30:160:30:20

to five weeks and it should be four.

I don't agree with pausing this

0:30:200:30:25

because the film had three people...

We know that Eddie people...

It

0:30:250:30:32

still leaves 20? I'm not saying that

is not a bad thing and I have

0:30:320:30:37

conducted hours of phone-ins on the

subject and when you have three

0:30:370:30:41

people in a row crying down the

phone to you, you can be a hardened

0:30:410:30:47

Thatcherite and you will be affected

by that.

Just a second, will Phillip

0:30:470:30:52

Hammond address this on Wednesday?

Yes, I know he will. Whether he does

0:30:520:30:58

it as Ian suggests, I don't know. It

is incredible, people are in favour

0:30:580:31:04

of the principle. What is

extraordinary is this six-week delay

0:31:040:31:09

intended to get people used to being

paid in arrears as if they were then

0:31:090:31:12

work demonstrates such a failure of

the psychology of people in

0:31:120:31:17

difficulty.

Thank you.

0:31:170:31:21

That's all for this evening.

0:31:210:31:22

But before we go, have you ever

wondered what it's like to enter

0:31:220:31:25

Mars' atmosphere at twice the speed

of sound attached to a parachute?

0:31:250:31:28

Goodnight.

0:31:280:31:33

Slow motion, in video originally

shot at 1000 frames per second.

0:31:340:31:38

But played back here at 30 frames

per second, we see the initial

0:31:380:31:41

suspension lines pulling out

of the pack and taking the parachute

0:31:410:31:44

backwards, where it will ultimately

inflate in merely half a second.

0:31:440:31:48

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