In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Evan Davis.
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Spot the difference -
new cabinet - old cabinet.
Yes, we struggled as well.
A two-day reshuffle,
and quite a bit of a kerfuffle.
But it leaves government disrupted
but not altogether relaunched.
The Prime Minister has been
struggling with a pretty tough
joint, that is raising questions
about her mastery of some pretty
Was it much ado about nothing?
Or can it reset the Conservative's
With talks between the north
and south, we'll examine the search
for peace on the Korean peninsula.
In the Middle East we will examine
Iran's foreign policy. It's accused
of not searching for peace.
expansionism is extraordinarily
dangerous. First of all, they have
Shia groups throughout the region
they can rely on that they can, if
you will, convert, or infiltrate.
Also tonight, Toby Young steps down.
Virgin West Coast says
it will no longer sell
the Daily Mail on its trains.
It seems a culture war
is raging in the UK.
James Delingpole and Paris Lees
will tell us whether it needs to be
conducted with quite
so much vitriol.
It's done, after two days,
government has been
reshuffled and reshaped.
124 jobs in government,
including junior ministers and whips
and all the hangers on -
and about a third of those have
been moved or are new.
Including moves for some names
you might recognise,
including Jo Johnson and Rory
Stewart who were shunted from jobs
in their comfort zone,
to jobs elsewhere.
Two important critiques
of the reshuffle are emerging
though - the Prime Minister has said
that it makes government look
like the people it serves,
but that is not quite true
of the cabinet, which is a little
more public school and a bit more
Oxbridge than it was and has
no more women in it.
The other point, made
by the Institute for Government,
is about the disruption to business.
In nearly every department,
half or more of ministers have now
been in their post for less
than a year.
The heart of government, which is
the Cabinet Office will have
an entirely new team.
Was it all worth it?
Well, Nick Watt our
political editor is here.
Let's talk about the handling today,
because yesterday it came in for
quite a bit of criticism.
been a tale of two reshuffles, there
is a feeling in the Cabinet that
yesterday, which was about the
Cabinet, was not one of the Prime
Minister's most glorious moments
with those ministers resisting her.
I've been hearing scathing words
like chaotic, the Prime Minister has
no authority, and she can't even
sack people. That's the Cabinet.
Today she had a much better story
when she started moving through the
junior and middle ranking levels of
government and Downing Street is
saying that the Prime Minister has
created what they believe is one of
the most diverse governments in the
history of this country, 37 women
ministers and nine ministers from
black and minority ethnic
backgrounds. I talked to a Cabinet
minister who said look at the whips
office, six recently elected women
MPs brought into the whips office.
They were saying it's not that long
ago that there were no women in the
whips office and it was run like a
military operation, orders were
barked. You can't do that in the
modern world so this is a modern
There were some
strange moves, I mentioned Rory
Stewart and Jo Johnson, people said
wife move them from jobs that seemed
to be jobs they were Afoa with two
things that are not experts on.
people are spotting a plot on the
backbenches -- they were familiar
with. What the Prime Minister did
was create a praetorian guard around
her and then clipped the wings of
anyone who might possibly be seen as
a potential challenger. Dominic
Raab, given this important job as
housing minister, but that is seen
by these people as a hospital pass.
Will he ever get to grips with this
issue that nobody seems to get to
grips with? Rory Stewart taken out
of the comfort zone of Africa to the
Ministry of Justice, somebody who
made his name as a governor of an
Iraqi province. And Justine
Greening, comprehensive educated
Yorkshire woman, given an offer
yesterday that she couldn't take her
mind off she goes. I've really been
looking at what Theresa May was
trying to achieve in this troubled
Most prime ministers are reluctant
butchers. Margaret Thatcher lamented
how in her Downing Street years she
had been obliged to learn the craft
of carving the joint. So, just how
skilled a butcher is Theresa May?
Well, in this rather elongated
reshuffle, she's been struggling
with a pretty tough joint, and
that's raising questions about her
mastery of some pretty basic prime
ministerial skills. If prime
ministers red reshuffles so much,
what exactly is Theresa May seeking
to achieve here? Well, the answer
lies in one date, June the 8th, the
Prime Minister is seeking to respond
to the Tories' surprise electoral
setback by shifting the dial in
three ways. In the first place, she
wants to restore her own political
authority. Then she wants to show a
more diverse Conservative Party to
the country. And finally, she wants
to respond to the concerns of voters
who gave the Tories such a bloody
nose back in June.
nose back in June. The Prime
Minister gave the impression
yesterday that she was unable to
carve key sections of the joint
after Cabinet ministers challenged
some of her plans. Tory MPs claim
that the reshuffle has exposed grave
weaknesses in her operation, though
MPs now say she did stage a strong
far too high on the run in because I
always thought it would be a
moderate reshuffle, only two or
three jobs needed changing. Every
reshuffle I'd ever seen hits a
problem somewhere when administered
doesn't want to go somewhere and
they want to keep them in the
Cabinet, which happened here. --
when a minister.
who has coordinated the main
backbench Brexit group takes her
first step on the ministerial ladder
in the Brexit department. Other new
ministers include the QC Lucy
Frazer, who becomes a justice
minister and a former entrepreneur
Rishi Sunak, who joins the housing
ministry. The Prime Minister invited
a record number of women appointed
to the whips office to Downing
Street, and No 10 says Theresa May
has created one of the most diverse
governments ever with 37 women and
nine ministers from minority ethnic
It's probably the most
diverse governments Britain has ever
had, that's a good thing. But more
importantly, the reshuffle is pretty
much over, senior Cabinet level
right the way through to junior
ministerial roles, we've got some
really good high-quality people.
really good high-quality people.
Tories were shaken by the way in
which voters from their mid-40s
downwards preferred Labour in the
election, with concerns over housing
a key grievance amongst younger
voters, there is a renewed focus on
this in a newly rebranded
department. All age groups in that
election will also alarmed by the
confusion over social care, so
Jeremy Hunt takes overall control of
that policy. The challenge will be
to show that these changes amount to
more than shiny new departmental
nameplates. While the Prime Minister
has been panned for tinkering with
her Cabinet, in this reshuffle she
has gone further than the limited
changes she made in the summer. So,
progress since her Midsummer
nightmare when her first priority
was survival. But this is still not
Theresa May's ideal reshuffle. Had
she done better in the general
election there would have been
changes at the most senior level of
the Cabinet. The Prime Minister tied
up the loose ends of her reshuffle
this evening. The troubled Cabinet
changes show Theresa May cannot
altogether escape the shadow of the
election but at junior levels there
was a more decisive Prime Minister
on display. Nick Watt with an Atkins
diet metaphor as well.
I'm joined by Kelly Tolhurst,
Tory MP for Rochester
in Kent and as of today
an assistant government whip.
One of those ones that Nick was
referring to earlier.
And in a moment I'll be speaking
to Camilla Cavendish,
director of the 10 Downing Street
policy unit under David Cameron
and to the journalist Paul Mason.
Good evening to you all. Kelly, can
we start with you? It's interesting
they have put you up, the government
have chosen to put you up to speak
for the government today,
working-class background, not one of
these Oxbridge posh boys in the
Cabinet, do you think this is a time
for the party to try and put forward
a different face?
Well, I think, for
me, I'm a conservative and always
have been and I have become a
Conservative MP, and for me I think
the last two days, especially what
has happened today, has shown really
what the true Conservative
Parliamentary party now is, and they
do include people like myself, and
it's been really good to be given
the opportunity to go into the whips
office this afternoon.
explicitly said one of the
objectives and achievements of this
was to create a government that
looks more like the country serves.
Last count there were more than 30,
30 5% women in the country. Are you
happy with the way that's gone?
think we have got record numbers for
us women into government positions
-- 35%. Is more reflective of the
people we serve. It's true we need
to do more but today is a great step
forward and I think with what's
happened in the whips office, it is
a real indicator to show that that's
In fairness, you don't
really get to speak on any issue in
the whips office. Cabinet average
age, 51, it was 52, not much
changed. In the Cabinet there is
want black or ethnic minority member
of the Cabinet. 48% Oxbridge, 34%
went to a public school. Does it
make sense to sort of shout about
how you are creating a government
that looks like the country serves,
if you've got 34% public school
people in the Cabinet, 48% Oxbridge?
Is that a thing to shout about?
Well, I think we need to look at the
government positions as a whole, and
also look at the people that came in
in 2015 and have come in this year,
and myself, having not been to
university, and had the
opportunities to work hard, and to
become a member of Parliament, there
are more people like me that came in
in 2015 and I think if you look at
this as a whole we are from a more
diverse background, therefore I do
think some of the changes are
Is your line that this
will pass through? That the
Conservative Party, at the moment
boasting around done about its
government's representative nurse
when it is half public school?
parliament to party has changed
significantly in the last two years
with the 2015 intake and 17. Today's
appointments have made a difference
and I think we are moving forward.
The big mission is about
rejuvenating this government, we
know Brexit has got to be done and
Theresa May wants to move beyond
Brexit. In a couple of sentences,
what is the big idea, apart from
Brexit? What are you going to do?
Well, the government is committed to
delivering Brexit, it's massively
Apart from Brexit?
constituency is still the focus but
we have also said, and Theresa May
has been clear, we cannot forget
that domestic agenda and there are
things like the NHS, the
What are you going to
Well, one of the things we are
doing is focusing, as you know, we
have been speaking about the NHS and
winter crisis over the last couple
of days. It is something we are
Kelly, I'm so sorry, but
speaking about the NHS... You are
struggling to say what the big
mission is. There must be some sort
of... Has the party been told this
is what our priority is? Reinventing
capitalism and we are going to do
these 100 things, or build a
powerhouse in the North? Saying we
are going to talk about the NHS.
It's one of the things that matter
to the people of this country and
one of the things about this Cabinet
reshuffle has been about having the
reshuffle and being very clear, the
Prime Minister has been very clear
about what she wants to deliver.
It's not just Brexit, absolutely, it
is still the main focus, but it is
around working towards those things
that matter to people domestic is.
With the greatest respect, I've
tried giving you a chance to say
what the mission is, and the fact
that you are sort of struggling to
say what it is, or am I just being
Well, I think maybe you're
being unfair? We've been clear about
what we want to do, there are key
thing is, we can list them for you,
we need to make sure the economy
continues to grow, we want people to
be getting opportunities to have
better paid jobs. We've had the
industrial strategy just recently
announced. That is massively
important for certain areas of the
United Kingdom and the economy. The
NHS is included in that. There are a
number of things that we have been
clear on and our Prime Minister has
been very clear about command the
last two days and changes that have
been made will hopefully drive
Please stay there. Let me
turn to our other two guests because
the big question is, does this reset
the Conservative Party?
No. I think today was better than
yesterday. What this reflects is, we
have a Prime Minister leading a
minority government. She was never
going to be able to do a reshuffle.
They have to fill in the gaps in the
domestic policy agenda and make good
on the speech she made at the
beginning of this about social
justice and managing that. That
means they have to do much more on
housing. To be great if they could
integrate the NHS and social care.
There are a whole series of
unfinished things that need to be
done, partly because of Brexit but
partly because of drift. Whitehall
have been virtually frozen for 18
months. The question about this we
shuffle is, can some of these
people... Some of the junior people
are really good. Can they unfreeze
the system or is the shadow of
Brexit going to loom over them?
congratulate Theresa May for
appointing a diverse junior layer of
the Cabinet. They will find out how
little power you have as a junior
minister but how hard it is to get
things done if you are not part of
the inner elite that runs Britain,
from which the core of the front
bench is drawn. The Oxbridge set of
people. They don't just wield
political power, they wheeled social
power. The whole Toby Young episode.
This is like the BBC.
We did a
survey on this programme and it was
worse when I worked here. This was
an attempt by Joe Johnson to stick
it to student unions and have a good
go at them, like Donald Trump, and
have a go at them on the right wing
agenda. That is the agenda of the
elite Tory Party we are dealing
with. Welcome to reality for all the
black ethnic minority and women who
want to bring the real world into
the Tory world.
Can I just butting
on Matt? That is not the party I
recognised. -- but in on that. I
don't recognise your sort of
analysis on it. As a backbencher I
have had many opportunities to
influence from within.
I don't want
to only talk about this. The
handling of the reshuffle, the fact
that it was perceived to be boxed
yesterday, what does it tell us
about the Downing Street operation?
There was a famous story about Tony
Blair and a guy I have forgotten.
Moving round the whiteboard and his
name came off. He never got into the
Cabinet because his name fell off.
That said, the media management was
a bit surprising. Theresa May as
Home Secretary I always admired. She
did not like all this presentation
stuff will stop when you get into
Number 10 you need to do the stuff
properly. Unfortunately they
oversold the idea that big beasts
would be moved in this be a huge
clear out of the new generation. She
has not brought in Mercer, who is
regarded as a future leader. It
looks a bit limp.
Where does Theresa
May go from here?
The problem she
has is it is an Administration pulls
that you need an overarching, moral
purpose. She cannot write the idea
down which is what does Britain
looks like after Brexit? The cabinet
would split you can do more if you
have a moral purpose. The problem is
identifying just about struggling
people, managing people, is not
identify what you will do for them.
Right now we all know you are
absolutely right to raise the NHS,
it is on everybody's minds. The guy
who is overseen that is not a has
overseen the cancellation of
non-urgent operations was
reappointed with more power because
Theresa May did not have enough
power to sack him. Insofar as people
are seeing politics, no one is
obsessed with who is a junior
minister but they are concerned that
relatives being left on trolleys and
being made to wait in waiting rooms.
That was done by NHS England.
is the sort of human shield for the
Government, isn't it?
Because of the
act in 2012 Jeremy Hunt had less
power than he would normally have.
You have to integrate the NHS...
long have they been in power to do
It is whether the budget and
the money will move...
like the idea of combining,
integrating the health and social
care? That was in the name they gave
Jeremy Hunt yesterday. Is it just a
name or something
name or something substantive going
It was right that change was
made. There is a correlation between
the two and the two have to work
together. The biggest challenge we
have as the NHS, as the population
grows and the treatment gets better,
the pressures on the NHS continue.
Going forward we are looking at
those areas combining and the Health
Secretary has an opportunity to make
the changes where he feels he is
We really do need to leave
it there. Thank you.
It's been a busy day in Panmunjom,
the so-called "peace village"
in the demilitarised zone
on the border of North
and South Korea.
There have been talks
there today, between the two
countries and they appear
to have gone smoothly.
Five officials on each side
with a CCTV feed to the leaders
of the countries.
Now when enemies want to bury
the hatchet, they often start
with little gestures,
and avoid raising the things
that have divided them.
So it is with the North and South,
not agreeing the big stuff,
that North will throw
away its nuclear weapons.
But agreeing that the North
will take part in the
forthcoming winter Olympics.
There was more to it than that -
but is it a real step to stability?
Our diplomatic editor
Mark Urban reports.
Well, this is something,
surely, a thaw of sorts.
Face to face talks,
the commitment from the North to
send cheerleaders and athletes
to the Winter Olympics, and a
resumption of schemes to reunify
families divided by the Korean War.
Kim Jong-un is on a charm offensive.
The Panmunjom talks are the only
game in town right now.
And I think the South Koreans
would do well to try
to keep them going.
There are a lot of issues that are
Peninsula issues and that the US
should be careful not
to appear to be thwarting.
If there's a perception
in South Korea that the US is
keeping South Korea away
from its northern cousins
for the purpose of family
reunification and issues like
that I don't think
that will help the US.
With just a couple of days
until the opening of the Winter
games in South Korea the venues
are ready in the world is watching.
North Korea now says it
will send delegates,
as it did to the 2006
Olympics and World Cup.
And for the south this
is a timely gesture that
just might unlock the
bigger issues at stake.
I believe we can make
the Pyeongchang Winter Olympics as a
kind of turning point in
the escalating tension on the Korean
peninsula and engaging
in a direct dialogue
and exchanges with
North, and further creating
an environment conducive to more
serious negotiation on nuclear
and ballistic missile issues.
But lest we thought
peace was about to break
out, North Korean officials
delivered another message today,
telling southern counterparts that
Kim's nuclear weapons target only
America and not the South.
A version of an old
mantra designed to sow
divisions between America
and its Korean ally.
I think it's a pretty typical ploy.
You have to bear in mind
the North Korean view of South
Korea - South Koreans are great
except that they are dominated by
their puppet master,
the United States, and don't stomach
if only the puppet master
South Korea and North Korea
would have a terrific relationship.
But if the Americans are suspicious,
what about Moon Jae-in,
South Korea's President
and long an advocate
better relations with the North?
The South Korean President Moon has
for decades been for improved
relations between North and South,
engagement between North and South,
which is very much on a different
page than President Trump
and his preference for maximum
pressure on North Korea.
Today's North Korean initiative
hasn't met with universal approval.
Even in the South, where some people
When the Winter Olympics are over
the nuclear issue will
remain unsolved, the Korean
peninsula on the brink.
We live in divided times: anyone
who peruses social media will see
a clash of values play out daily
in vicious zero sum argument,
on any number of issues.
One was the right wing
controversialist Toby Young stepping
back from his appointment
on the board of the new English
the Office for Students.
Having spent a decade trying
to be controversial,
he turned out to be too
a public appointment.
The second story was
Virgin West Coast trains,
stopping its sales
of the Daily Mail.
"We've decided that this
paper is not compatible
with the Virgin Trains
brand and our beliefs,"
the company said.
It did also point out that it barely
sells any copies anyway.
The Mail called the
While very different,
the two stories are just today's
examples of a culture war
that is currently being fought
on social media and beyond.
What characterises the culture war
is its preoccupation with words
Toby Young for example
is on one side of it -
a self proclaimed provocateur.
To be frank, he probably didn't even
believe half the obnoxious stuff
he wrote, he just wanted
to offend what he saw as
He's the personification
of the conduct of
the culture war under way.
At times he's been
vitriolic, relishing a
fight with those on the other side.
If that can be said of those
on the provocative right,
is it the same on the progressive
side as well?
Over in the US, Google
are being sued by
James Damore, the coder
sacked after writing
a controversial - not very PC -
the company's diversity policy.
He said he and others
had been discriminated
against as white males.
Certainly he was vilified
on social media for
saying and thinking the wrong thing.
It's seen by the right as a case
of the left's intolerance.
Every day these kinds
of arguments are
erupting, even where
they don't need to.
Like Virgin - they're not banning
customers from bringing their own
copies of the Daily Mail
on to their trains, obviously,
but just find the decision not
to sell the Mail in terms
of politics rather than commerce
ramped this up
as another divisive issue.
-- justifying the decision.
Again, on social media,
the debate polarised
around extreme positions
Each side's undoubtedly sincere
in its thoughts and really
believes the other is a threat
to either decency or free speech.
But is the virulent argument
a healthy sign or a vibrant
debate, or a sign that shared values
have more or less evaporated?
Build that wall.
Build that wall.
Build that wall.
Paris Lees is a broadcaster
and equality campaigner.
James Delingpole is
a columnist at The Spectator.
James, Toby Young. He tries to be
controversial. He cannot be
surprised people say we do not want
to on a public body.
I don't think
Toby Binks, how can I be
controversial today? He just reacts
in the moment -- thinks. We react.
We get an instant thought and think,
I will type this out on Twitter. The
feeling dissipates when to have got
the words out. We do not set out to
be deliberately offensive most of
Do you think he has been
We are talking about
the separate issues. Does Toby Young
says some spicy things on twitter?
Yes, he does. Should Toby be on the
office for students board, yes he
should. They are completely
different things he has worked in
the educational sector and is a good
man for the job.
Do you see some
value in provocative is trying to
challenge your views and those of
your friends, who probably think
quite alike on most of these issues?
Absolutely. I have written things
which people were deemed to be
provocative in the past. The idea
that Toby Young does not set out to
do that. This man published Julie
Birtles rant about transsexuals as
Dix in chicks clothing. We know 45%
of trans people in the UK have
attempted suicide. Are we saying it
is OK to bully people? No. I'm glad
people are waking up to that.
ask you about the manners? I'm
looking at some of your stuff or. It
is not very well mannered. Would you
The terrible thing is that secretly
in the green room before we came on
Paris and I have been getting on
like of dumb at a house on fire.
Forget about Paris.
natural mode in her life is we are
delightful people but sometimes
maybe Twitter brings out our kind of
Do you stand by what
you put on Twitter? I will take one
example, when are we allowed to say
that Brendan Cox is a total cars?
That was December, six months after
his wife was assassinated.
probably said something to provoke
that, this is just my policy, I
cannot speak for Paris. My policy is
if somebody says something really,
really stupid then I am going to
call them on it.
Can't you be well
mannered? Understand where they are
coming from and correct them. One
thing that characterises all of this
is people going from zero to
shouting and angry and swearing
without the steps in between.
great scheme of things, how bad is
calling somebody that?
something I've been thinking about
recently in the sense of being
complicit in this. People would
regard me as quite a hostile angry
person. You know, I've called people
that they get before and said things
that maybe I've regretted, and I
think that actually it is going a
bit far actually and I think people
are getting really polarised and I
think we all need to look at our
role within that and how we have let
it get this bad.
The key thing,
you've taken great joy today in the
fact the Daily Mail isn't on Virgin
You are sort
of cheering and clapping. Have you
ever tried to reach out to any of
the readers, it's one of the most
widely read papers in the UK, to
save let me understand where you are
coming from as well as you
understand where I'm coming from?
have co-founded all about trans when
we take young trans people to meet
people in the media, often times
people that produce shows like this.
That's you trying to get them to
understand you, I've asked whether
you have tried to understand them.
Of course, when we come to meet them
we are trying to see what their
level of understanding is.
about your understanding of them?
course we are trying to understand
where they are coming from and
trying to further the conversation
and realise what their awareness is.
Let me put the same question to you,
James. Do you ever seriously try and
engage with anyone who thinks
differently to you?
We need to
differentiate between on a personal
level, should we all get along, you
know, when we meet somebody at
Glastonbury, having a joint with
them, yeah, peace and love, man. At
its very, very silly to imagine that
if only we all agreed and got along
somewhere in the squishy middle the
world would be a better place. There
are certain issues in the world
where there are very different
views. On the economy, for example,
on the size of government, on what
to do about immigration. You are
never going to get this neutral
point in the middle where the
rightness and truth is.
we have to leave it, you've had a
constructive debate. We overran on
the first discussion. Thank you,
This could be a decisive
year for Iran.
It started with protests that spread
across the country -
and although the authorities say
they are waning, they have taken
some extreme steps to try and douse
down the flames of discontent -
blocking access to the messaging
app, Telegram and making
thousands of arrests.
Now, one trigger for those protests
was a leaked government budget
which cuts subsidies and hikes up
fuel prices, while significantly
increasing military spending.
Iran is ramping up financial support
to proxies across the region,
which has fuelled the anger of some
Iranians concerned about the state
of their own economy -
and fuelled anxieties across much
of the world.
BBC Persian's Jiyar Gol
In towns and cities across Iran,
poverty, unemployment and corruption
has drawn tens of thousands
to the streets to protest
against the Islamic regime.
These are not the only
reasons for the protests.
There is also disquiet
about the billions spent on Iran's
"No to interference
in Lebanon," they are chancing.
"No to Gaza."
"Think of us."
The supreme leader lives like a god.
We, the people, live like beggars.
Over the past three decades,
Iran has spent billions
of dollars in an attempt
to increase its influence
in the region.
Tehran now controls a route
all the way to the Mediterranean
via Iraq, Syria and Lebanon.
And Iran is involved
in a devastating proxy war
with Saudi Arabia in Yemen.
The Iranian expansionism
is extraordinarily dangerous.
First of all, they have
Shia groups throughout
the region they can rely on,
that they can, if you will,
convert or infiltrate.
And the man responsible
for Iran's military
operations in the Middle East
is General Qasem Soleimani,
the commander of the elite
Qods Force, a unit of
Iran's Revolutionary Guard,
which operates on foreign soil,
and funding militia groups.
A man feared by many
and labelled as a supporter
of terrorism by the US,
General Solemani, who once
operated in the shadows,
is now one of the most powerful
commanders in the region.
He played Al-Qaeda.
He was the man in charge
all the way through.
He was always one
step ahead of them.
He used them.
They helped him, in his regional
designs on where he wanted to go
with the Qods Force and Iran.
To understand the power
and influence of General Solemani
and the Qods Force, you have to go
to the Iran/Iraq border.
In 2001, when the US
many Al-Qaeda members came to this
mountainous area to
establish a foothold.
They set up bases but, two years
later, they were bombed by the US.
This man is one of the prominent
members of the local Sufi Order,
a peaceful branch of Islam.
He claims Iran assisted
this Sunni extremists
He claims Iran assisted
the Sunni extremists
who survived the bombings.
But, why would a Sunni extremist
group like Al-Qaeda,
an arch enemy of Shia Iran,
cooperate with Qasem Soleimani?
Cathy Scott-Clark has interviewed
former Al-Qaeda members,
who lived Iran, about their dealings
with Qods Force.
Iran was an enemy of America.
Iran was nearby.
The people who negotiated
from the Al-Qaeda side believed that
Iran, the Qods Force,
saw this as an opportunity,
a) to know where the
Al-Qaeda members were.
If you know where they are,
and you are controlling them,
then you can use them.
CIA documents declassified
in November which were recovered
from Osama Bin Laden's compound
in Pakistan shed a new light on how
Iran helped Al-Qaeda
against the US in Iraq.
Some of those documents suggest
Iran has had a pragmatic
relationship with Al-Qaeda.
The documents suggest Iran
and Al-Qaeda had been helping each
other in Syria and Iraq.
In 2011, when President Obama pulled
out from Iraq, I was in Baghdad.
The next day, the picture of Iran's
supreme leader was posted
in Baghdad's main square.
Most Shia militias were more
loyal to Qasem Soleimani
than the Iraqi government.
Vali Nasr is an academic and former
foreign policy adviser to President
Obama's Administration on Iran.
Part of why Iran has been
so successful in the region
is because they've played this game
of manoeuvring between different
factions, relying on the one
that is most naturally
their constituency but yet build
relations with the other side,
play them against one another.
In October, Qasem Soleimani's
father passed away.
We examined the footage
and pictures of the funeral,
just to understand what kind
of people attended the funeral.
For example, one of them was
the leader of Shia militias in Iran.
Another person was a
representative of Hamas.
Many other people attended
to express their condolences
in person to him.
It shows how powerful
and influential he is.
General Soleimani financed,
trained and equipped thousands
of Shia militias to support Iran's
allies in Syria and Iraq,
including Lebanese Hezbollah,
a group which is also
on the US terrorist list.
Its leader says Iran pays the bill.
It's been estimated that Iran has
spent $6 billion annually
on the Syrian regime,
basically, to keep it afloat.
This is a conservative
estimate on the proxy group,
the Lebanese Hezbollah.
Iran is estimated to be
allocating $1 billion
a year to the group,
mostly according to Israeli
General Soleimani says,
if Iran does not engage with enemies
outside the country's borders,
it will have to fight them
in the streets of Tehran.
As he tells his fighters
on the Syrian front line,
he is committed to expanding
Iran's regional influence.
But, at home, protesters
on the streets are tearing down
General Soleimani's banner.
They are warning the tens
of billions of dollars spent
propping up Assad in Syria
and financing Shia militias
across the Middle East must be
invested in their country
and their future.
We asked to speak to the Iranian
government about this report
but they declined to comment.
That's all we have time for. We
expected James Delingpole and Paris
Lees to be at each other's throats
but I think they are fixing dinner
together in the green room. Gemili
will be here tomorrow. Have a very