10/01/2017 Outside Source


Ros Atkins with an innovative take on the latest global stories.

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Hello I'm Ros Atkins. Welcome to Outside source. The first stop is


Washington. The US Senate is grilling Jeff sessions, the man


Donald Trump wants to be the next US Attorney-General. This is the live


feed from the Senate. We are six-and-a-half hours into the


session. We've been listening to all of. It we'll tell you the most


significant moments. In Tehran, hundreds of thousands of


mourners paid their respect to the former Iranian president Akbar


Hashemi Rafsanjani. We will play this report from Ivory Coast of


chimps showing a huge degree of intelligence when it comes to


finding water. Volkswagen is saying it has a concrete draft for a


multibillion dollar settlement with the US government over the emissions


cheating scandal. We're live in New York with details on that.


This is senator Jeff sessions. Donald Trump would like him to be US


Attorney-General. This is in the middle of his confirmation hearing.


It's been going on for hours and hours, six-and-a-half to be precise.


It has covered an extraordinary range of issues. We'll work through


some of the most important ones in the next few minutes. There have


been protests too. The hearing has been inrupted


several times. That may be because Mr Sessions is seen as one of the


most conservative members of the Senate. Some Americans don't like


the idea of him being their Attorney-General. He's been


questioned on a huge number of positions he holds on a variety of


issues. Let's work through some of those now. The BBC's Anthony Zirka


is in Washington. First of all, we've heard this extraordinary


situation of Mr Sessions being quizzed on whether he's a racist or


not. Right, absolutely. The racism issue has been hanging over


Sessions' head since he was nominated. His nomination back in


1986 to be a federal judge was derailed because he made racially


insensitive comments and jokes and so now people are looking at this as


perhaps an opportunity to rehash those racism issues. Actually that


was brought out fairly early on in his opening statements. He condemned


the KKK said he wasn't a racist, tried to tout his record on civil


rights, on prosecuting Ku Klux Klan member when he was a local state


attorney and he had could quay with -- kcolloquay about how it was


difficult to dole with the issues of racism and he may not have responded


in the best way earlier in his career, but he's learned from his


mistakes. They're trying to diffuse this. They knew this would be a key


angle of criticism going forward. We've pulled out various clips from


the hearing. We'll play them and get you to respond to them. This is


senator Sessions being asked about Donald Trump's idea a temporary ban


on Muslims entering the US. I have no belief and do not support the


idea that Muslims as a religious group should be denied admission to


the United States. We have great Muslim citizens who've contributed


in so many different ways and America, as I said in my remarks at


the occasion that we discussed in committee, are great believers in


religious freedom and the right of people to exercise their religious


beliefs. That's not what Donald Trump was saying on the campaign


trail. No, that's not what he was saying in December of 2015, at


least. Donald Trump has modulated his position as Jeff sessions noted,


to not an all-out Muslim ban, but intense scrutiny of people coming


over from countries that have a history of terrorism relations,


terrorism activity. Though it was interesting that Jeff sessions did


say that immigration officials can look at a person's religion to see


if it's conducive to public safety. There's a little bit of wriggle room


even in the comments we heard today. Let's talk about abortion. It's t


was inevitable it came up. Mr Sessions described a landmark


Supreme Court ruling as colossally erroneous. He was asked if that was


still his view? . It is. I believe it violated the constitution and


really attempted to set policy and not follow law. It is the law of the


land. It has been so established and settled for quite a long time. It


deserves respect and I would respect it and follow it. As such, should we


expect Mr Trump to attempt a fundamental shift in America's


position on abortion? I don't think so. I don't think Donald Trump,


well, he's said different things during the campaign. He said women


could be prosecuted for having abortions if it were illegal. Other


times he backed away from that. I don't think we'll see a fundamental


shift. From Jeff Sessions and other people Donald Trump is appointed,


we'll see attempts to chip away at the edges of abortion rights to


limit the amount of time a woman can have an abortion from say 24 weeks


of pregnancy down to 20 weeks of pregnancy, perhaps limiting


different hospitals can perform abortions, what clinics, the


requirements on clinics to be able to have abortions. There have been


Supreme Court decisions in the past that have tried uphold the abortion


rights. Donald Trump if he poise a Supreme Court justice who is as


strongly against abortion rights, we could see those policies change as


well. The next clip I've got and those of you just joining us, we're


running through some of the most significant moments as senator


Sessions goes through a hearing ahead of his being appointed as


Attorney-General. He was asked about an incident where Mr Trump was


caught on tape boasting about grabbing women by the genitals. Mr


Sessions said he wouldn't characterise that as sexual assault,


previously. The confusion about the question was hypothetical. And it


related to what was said on the tape. I did not remember at the time


whether this was suggested to be an unaccepted, unwanted, it would


certainly meet the definition. That's what the tapes said, then


that would be - My question is grabbing a woman by a genitals


without consent, is that sexual assault? Yes. Thank you. A range of


difficult questions. Nonetheless, you wouldn't bet against Mr Sessions


becoming the Attorney-General, would you? No, I think it would be hard to


bet against that, because everything that happened today, it looks like


Sessions' raurt support is -- Republican Party support is strong.


It takes just 50 votes to confirm him. One Democrat, of West Virginia,


has come out in support. It would have to be a pretty sizeable swing


erosion of Republican support for him not to be confirmed. There is no


indication of that happening any time today. Thank you very much. No


doubt we'll talk tomorrow. That's one major story we've been


covering in the news room. Let's turn to another. Let me show you


some of the pictures coming in of the funeral of Iran's former


president. First of all, this is the country's Supreme Leader leading


funeral prayers at Tehran University. You can see Iran's


current president next to him. The coffin was carried out of the


university campus with with his famous white cleric's turban on top.


I'm sure you'll recognise that. Then these were the extraordinary scenes


outside, hundreds and hundreds of thousands, some people estimated up


to two million people, came out to pay their respects. His body was


buried next to the founder of the Islamic Republic. There was only one


person to speak to about this, the BBC's Lyse Doucet.


I attended the funeral, the last major funeral in Iran, in ayatollah


Khamenhi in 1989. This is the most significant death since then. It's


been widely discussioned as a possible political turning point in


Iran. I was going to ask you about that. It's a day of mourning, is it


also a day of politics? Very much so. There's a lot of reporting about


the fact that state television carrying extraordinary images live,


some 2. 5 million people are said to have turned out from right across


the political spectrum. Yet mixed in with the lamentation, opposition


slogans went up into the crowds and the state television tried to reduce


the sounds, raise the sound of the chanting to somehow try to hide the


fact that some of the opposition groups that were there were trying


to dominate the sound from the crowds. Everyone found their own


moment in the crowds today. Interesting reading the obituaries


in the western press. A lot have warmed to him in recent years. He's


a unique character who played a awe neeck role in Iran. You hear the


bitterness being expressed by some people who remember him in the early


years of the revolution. He's the man who is identified with the


repressive rule, responsible, they say, for the deaths of many


dissidents, deaths never resolved. In later years, particularly the


younger generation and the middle classes warmed to him. They saw him


as a man who had both the credentials and the cloud and the


courage to speak out. He could speak truth to power and who is powerful


in the Islamic Republic? The Supreme Leader. Interests how he said we had


our differences, but they were the last two big pillars of the


revolution. I must take the opportunity to mesh together our two


lead stories. Huge political change in Washington. Political moments of


great significance in Tehran. How do you foresee those two cities, those


two governments operating alongside each other? It's interesting because


now everyone is looking at the legacy of Barack Obama. There are


many things which he did not do. One of the things he did do was this


landmark nuclear deal. In Iran there is real unease about what's going to


happen to the deal now with Donald Trump coming to power. And the fact


that the reformists have lost their strong voice in that Rafsanjani.


They are worried they won't be able to manoeuvre in a very pole rised --


polarised system in the way they used. To they've lost one of their


weapons. Thanks very much. Next, the centre of the earth. We


know you find iron and Nichol there. Now Japanese scientists think they


know of a third element. This is an exciting science story. If you don't


believe me, here's this report. The centre of the earth, this


mysterious place. We know it's a hard ball about 1200 kilometres


across. We know it's mainly made of iron, about 85% by weight and


Nichol, about so % by weight, that leaves 5%. For decades scientists


have been argue about what it might be. Now they've done a really neat


experiment. There are two ways to study the centre. See what happens


to seismic waves as they pass through the earths. The other way is


try and recreate the conditions of the centre of the earth in the lab.


That's what this team in Japan have done. They've subjected different


elements to incredibly high temperatures and high pressure. They


say the missing element is silicone. It's about 5%. Can they be sure? No.


But it looks quite good. Some other scientists a few years ago suggested


oxygen. This suggests more strongly it's silicone. Why silicone? Why is


this important, if you're a chemist you like silicone, so it's cool. But


it tells you about the formation of the earth, what was going on at that


time. You don't need to justify finding out about the centre of the


earth, it's interesting. How we learn about it, how does it inform


how we behave? It tells us more about what happened when we started


out. The solar system formed 4. 6 billion years ago. The earth then


formed. Rocks coming together. For a while molten rock, liquid moving


around. Gradually it cooled down and out of this hard crust on the


outside, you got this centre. By working out what's in there can tell


you much more about these processes. I think the best thing about this is


actually what the centre would look like. Because if it is alloys of


nickel and iron and silicone, it would be cystals, spectacular, that


we could never see but good to know they're probably there.


Rebecca always enthused but particularly so today. For more


background on that story, find it from her and her colleagues online


on the BBC News app. In a few minutes, another remarkable


science story, something different, showing us footage from Ivory Coast


of chimpanzees making tools out of wood to access water. Play that in a


few motorbike minutes. -- few minutes.


Jeremy Corbyn has said he isn't wedded to the idea of keeping


freedom of movement. He was addressing supporters in


Peterborough. The Labour leader pulled back from recommended a pay


cap on top earners. In the 1920s, JP Morgan, the Wall


Street banker, yes, JP Morgan, the Wall Street banker limited salaries


to 20 times that of junior employees. Another advocate of pay


ratios was David Cameron. His government proposed a 20-1 pay ratio


to limit sky high pay in the public sector. Now all salaries higher than


?150,000 must be signed off by the Cabinet Office. We'll go further,


and extend that to any company that is awarded a Government contract.


This is not about limiting aspiration or penalising success.


This is outsite source. The lead story is from Washington.


Jeff Sessions, the man picked to be the next US attorney-general,


Is six hours into his Senate confirmation hearing. First to


Afghanistan. BBC Pashto reports


on a bombing in Kabul. No hope of the Gambian political


stalemate getting sorted out soon. The Supreme Court says it won't have


enough judges until May to consider a petition from the President


detailing why his defeat French police are investigating


whether Kim Kardashian's chauffeur was involved in her being held


at gunpoint and robber Millions of dollars worth


of jewellery was stolen. The are looking into the theory


that the chauffeur may have For the first time ever,


researchers have filmed chimpanzees making and using tools to get access


to collect water. It's in this report


from Victoria Gill. A mother and baby in


Ivory Coast's Comoe National Park It's the dry season,


so to reach a water supply hidden deep within these tree holes,


they are making and using tools. It's just another insight


into the remarkable behaviour If you think they've got 90-95%


the same DNA as humans, We've seen it, working at Chester


zoo with these animals, The different cultures


of chimpanzees have So it's certainly not new to find


chimpanzees using tools. The animals are already known to use


sticks to fish for termites and to dip into beehives for honey,


but the researchers were particularly impressed by how well


crafted these drinking tools were. Chimps selected and stripped long


thin sticks and chewed the ends And for captive breeding


programmes like this one, zoos have to understand these


natural behaviours to keep the animals as mentally


stimulated as possible. And then we give them an area


where they keep honey, And they have to use their sticks,


make them into a certain way so they can put the stick


in the hole and get the food out. It's all gone very quiet


here at Chester Zoo because it's feeding time for


the chimpanzees, and these are actually Western chimpanzees,


the same subspecies that was looked Nimble fingered, very clever,


toolmaking and tool-using, but sadly, critically


endangered primates. In the wild, the population of these


great apes continues to decline, largely because of poaching


and the destruction Findings like this show just how


much more we have to learn Some news on the VW


emmissions scandal. Volkswagen has agreed


a draft settlement with US Let's bring in our correspondent in


New York. A few questions here. There's been some preliminary deals,


so what's different about this one? Well, this one resolves yet another


of the investigations and it's a key one, but I think the most striking


thing about it is that Volkswagen is expected to plead guilty to charges


that include wire fraud, that it violated the clean air act. It's


expected to plead guilty it to customs fraud. This is the result of


several investigations into the manipulation of diesel emission


tests. They began more than a year ago. The crucial thing for the


company is that as much as possible, they're trying to resolve this


criminal investigation, so they can move past the scandal that really


has cast a shadow. Remember right now, it's the Detroit autoshow. It


should be a golden moment to show off its wares and instead it's


talking about this. This is a draft deal. What needs to happen for it to


become a reel deal? -- real deal? It has to be approved by both sides.


We're expecting Volkswagen's board to meet possibly and approve it


possibly as early as today, maybe tomorrow. That's the process. The


key thing is if you compare this potential deal to recent ones


involving General Motors and Toyota, General Motors and Toyota in cases


of safety defects, neither of them had to plead guilty. They did pay


large fines. But they didn't plead guilty. That's what makes this


significant compared to those past ones. Michelle, thank you. I have a


report of yours that I'm going to play everyone watching about


President Obama's economic legacy. Have a look.


Wall Street is left reeling from some of the biggest blows... It's a


nightmare for Wall Street... Bankruptcies, bailouts and


unemployment rate that peaked at 10% in 2009. When Barack Obama became


president he and his team were confronting the total collapse of


the financial system. 15 million Americans were out of work, when he


delivered his first State of the Union Address. People are out of


work, they're hurting. They need our help. That is why jobs must be our


number one focus in 2010. Perhaps his biggest achievement - stopping


the recession from turning into another Great Depression. It started


with the rescue of a symbol of US industrial might, the American car


industry. Something this investment banker remembers well. Stephen


Ratner led Obama's autoindustry recovery team. It was a testament to


President Obama's impartiality that he made a decision that was


unpopular, but was clearly in retrospect the right decision. If we


had allowed those car companies to continue to liquidate, there would


have been a loss of potentially a million jobs, in the short run, at a


time in the economy was lose soing many jobs. -- losing so many jobs.


An unprecedented amount of money was spent to stimulate the economy.


Nearly $4 million made its way here to the Bronx community health


centre, saving 15 jobs. Not everyone was a fan of the stimulus plan. We


were. We were great fans of it, because it allowed us to really


enhance our mission. Under President Obama, a staggering 11 million jobs


have been created. While hiring has picked up, many of those positions


are temporary or part-time, not the kind of work you can raise a family


on. That's why many people I spoke to were gloomy. Do you feel more


hopeful than eight years ago or less? It's like so-so. Prices are up


and salaries remain the same. President Obama hands over an


economy near full employment, following the longest stretch of job


growth in history. But many Americans have forgotten what


prosperity feels like, a challenge facing the incoming administration.


Let's shift from the US to the UK, because this is what's happening to


the FTSE 100 indevil -- index. It made history today. It's been going


up and up. It closed at a record high for a ninth day in a row,


that's the longest streak ever and it's not unrelated to what's been


happening to the value of the pound since the UK voted to leave the


European Union. That's the moment of Brexit. But the pound has been


making its way down since. A weaker pound is boosting the profits of


many multinational companies, when they convert foreign earnings into


pounds. That does the world of good for their share price. The UK tech


sector got good news today. Snap is behind Snapchat. It announced its


going to set up its international base in the UK.


The point is that a lot of social media companies, like Facebook and


Google have run into trouble over setting up tax bases in lower tax


jurisdictions in Europe and then diverting profits from other large


markets into those jurisdictions in order to minimise their tax bills.


So snapping is not doing that. They're setting up in the UK and


channelling their profits from the UK first of all, but also from other


countries, where they don't have a major base, that includes Australia


and Saudi Arabia, and paying tax on them in the UK. Now that tax bill at


the moment won't actually be very high because Snapchat's revenues are


not that high, at the moment. But it's expanding rapidly. It's taking


on more advertising. So there will be more money coming in. That money


will be going through the UK. Let's not forget, the UK itself, as a


major economy, has a relatively low corporation tax rate, 20% at the


moment. It's going to fall to 17% by 2020. By doing this, Snap Inc is


avoiding regulatory problems, the UK Government and European Commission


clamping down on companies are aggressive tax policies. At the same


It's basing itself in the UK where it has -- -- It's basing itself in


the UK. We have live feeds coming in from Capitol Hill in Washington.


Various confirmation hearings continue ahead of Donald Trump


becoming president on the 20th January. Speak to you in a couple of