10/01/2017 Outside Source


10/01/2017

Ros Atkins with an innovative take on the latest global stories.


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Hello I'm Ros Atkins. Welcome to Outside source. The first stop is

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Washington. The US Senate is grilling Jeff sessions, the man

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Donald Trump wants to be the next US Attorney-General. This is the live

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feed from the Senate. We are six-and-a-half hours into the

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session. We've been listening to all of. It we'll tell you the most

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significant moments. In Tehran, hundreds of thousands of

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mourners paid their respect to the former Iranian president Akbar

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Hashemi Rafsanjani. We will play this report from Ivory Coast of

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chimps showing a huge degree of intelligence when it comes to

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finding water. Volkswagen is saying it has a concrete draft for a

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multibillion dollar settlement with the US government over the emissions

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cheating scandal. We're live in New York with details on that.

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This is senator Jeff sessions. Donald Trump would like him to be US

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Attorney-General. This is in the middle of his confirmation hearing.

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It's been going on for hours and hours, six-and-a-half to be precise.

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It has covered an extraordinary range of issues. We'll work through

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some of the most important ones in the next few minutes. There have

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been protests too. The hearing has been inrupted

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several times. That may be because Mr Sessions is seen as one of the

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most conservative members of the Senate. Some Americans don't like

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the idea of him being their Attorney-General. He's been

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questioned on a huge number of positions he holds on a variety of

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issues. Let's work through some of those now. The BBC's Anthony Zirka

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is in Washington. First of all, we've heard this extraordinary

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situation of Mr Sessions being quizzed on whether he's a racist or

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not. Right, absolutely. The racism issue has been hanging over

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Sessions' head since he was nominated. His nomination back in

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1986 to be a federal judge was derailed because he made racially

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insensitive comments and jokes and so now people are looking at this as

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perhaps an opportunity to rehash those racism issues. Actually that

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was brought out fairly early on in his opening statements. He condemned

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the KKK said he wasn't a racist, tried to tout his record on civil

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rights, on prosecuting Ku Klux Klan member when he was a local state

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attorney and he had could quay with -- kcolloquay about how it was

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difficult to dole with the issues of racism and he may not have responded

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in the best way earlier in his career, but he's learned from his

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mistakes. They're trying to diffuse this. They knew this would be a key

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angle of criticism going forward. We've pulled out various clips from

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the hearing. We'll play them and get you to respond to them. This is

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senator Sessions being asked about Donald Trump's idea a temporary ban

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on Muslims entering the US. I have no belief and do not support the

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idea that Muslims as a religious group should be denied admission to

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the United States. We have great Muslim citizens who've contributed

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in so many different ways and America, as I said in my remarks at

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the occasion that we discussed in committee, are great believers in

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religious freedom and the right of people to exercise their religious

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beliefs. That's not what Donald Trump was saying on the campaign

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trail. No, that's not what he was saying in December of 2015, at

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least. Donald Trump has modulated his position as Jeff sessions noted,

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to not an all-out Muslim ban, but intense scrutiny of people coming

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over from countries that have a history of terrorism relations,

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terrorism activity. Though it was interesting that Jeff sessions did

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say that immigration officials can look at a person's religion to see

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if it's conducive to public safety. There's a little bit of wriggle room

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even in the comments we heard today. Let's talk about abortion. It's t

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was inevitable it came up. Mr Sessions described a landmark

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Supreme Court ruling as colossally erroneous. He was asked if that was

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still his view? . It is. I believe it violated the constitution and

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really attempted to set policy and not follow law. It is the law of the

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land. It has been so established and settled for quite a long time. It

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deserves respect and I would respect it and follow it. As such, should we

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expect Mr Trump to attempt a fundamental shift in America's

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position on abortion? I don't think so. I don't think Donald Trump,

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well, he's said different things during the campaign. He said women

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could be prosecuted for having abortions if it were illegal. Other

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times he backed away from that. I don't think we'll see a fundamental

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shift. From Jeff Sessions and other people Donald Trump is appointed,

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we'll see attempts to chip away at the edges of abortion rights to

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limit the amount of time a woman can have an abortion from say 24 weeks

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of pregnancy down to 20 weeks of pregnancy, perhaps limiting

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different hospitals can perform abortions, what clinics, the

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requirements on clinics to be able to have abortions. There have been

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Supreme Court decisions in the past that have tried uphold the abortion

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rights. Donald Trump if he poise a Supreme Court justice who is as

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strongly against abortion rights, we could see those policies change as

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well. The next clip I've got and those of you just joining us, we're

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running through some of the most significant moments as senator

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Sessions goes through a hearing ahead of his being appointed as

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Attorney-General. He was asked about an incident where Mr Trump was

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caught on tape boasting about grabbing women by the genitals. Mr

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Sessions said he wouldn't characterise that as sexual assault,

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previously. The confusion about the question was hypothetical. And it

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related to what was said on the tape. I did not remember at the time

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whether this was suggested to be an unaccepted, unwanted, it would

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certainly meet the definition. That's what the tapes said, then

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that would be - My question is grabbing a woman by a genitals

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without consent, is that sexual assault? Yes. Thank you. A range of

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difficult questions. Nonetheless, you wouldn't bet against Mr Sessions

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becoming the Attorney-General, would you? No, I think it would be hard to

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bet against that, because everything that happened today, it looks like

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Sessions' raurt support is -- Republican Party support is strong.

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It takes just 50 votes to confirm him. One Democrat, of West Virginia,

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has come out in support. It would have to be a pretty sizeable swing

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erosion of Republican support for him not to be confirmed. There is no

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indication of that happening any time today. Thank you very much. No

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doubt we'll talk tomorrow. That's one major story we've been

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covering in the news room. Let's turn to another. Let me show you

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some of the pictures coming in of the funeral of Iran's former

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president. First of all, this is the country's Supreme Leader leading

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funeral prayers at Tehran University. You can see Iran's

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current president next to him. The coffin was carried out of the

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university campus with with his famous white cleric's turban on top.

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I'm sure you'll recognise that. Then these were the extraordinary scenes

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outside, hundreds and hundreds of thousands, some people estimated up

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to two million people, came out to pay their respects. His body was

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buried next to the founder of the Islamic Republic. There was only one

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person to speak to about this, the BBC's Lyse Doucet.

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I attended the funeral, the last major funeral in Iran, in ayatollah

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Khamenhi in 1989. This is the most significant death since then. It's

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been widely discussioned as a possible political turning point in

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Iran. I was going to ask you about that. It's a day of mourning, is it

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also a day of politics? Very much so. There's a lot of reporting about

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the fact that state television carrying extraordinary images live,

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some 2. 5 million people are said to have turned out from right across

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the political spectrum. Yet mixed in with the lamentation, opposition

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slogans went up into the crowds and the state television tried to reduce

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the sounds, raise the sound of the chanting to somehow try to hide the

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fact that some of the opposition groups that were there were trying

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to dominate the sound from the crowds. Everyone found their own

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moment in the crowds today. Interesting reading the obituaries

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in the western press. A lot have warmed to him in recent years. He's

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a unique character who played a awe neeck role in Iran. You hear the

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bitterness being expressed by some people who remember him in the early

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years of the revolution. He's the man who is identified with the

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repressive rule, responsible, they say, for the deaths of many

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dissidents, deaths never resolved. In later years, particularly the

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younger generation and the middle classes warmed to him. They saw him

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as a man who had both the credentials and the cloud and the

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courage to speak out. He could speak truth to power and who is powerful

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in the Islamic Republic? The Supreme Leader. Interests how he said we had

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our differences, but they were the last two big pillars of the

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revolution. I must take the opportunity to mesh together our two

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lead stories. Huge political change in Washington. Political moments of

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great significance in Tehran. How do you foresee those two cities, those

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two governments operating alongside each other? It's interesting because

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now everyone is looking at the legacy of Barack Obama. There are

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many things which he did not do. One of the things he did do was this

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landmark nuclear deal. In Iran there is real unease about what's going to

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happen to the deal now with Donald Trump coming to power. And the fact

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that the reformists have lost their strong voice in that Rafsanjani.

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They are worried they won't be able to manoeuvre in a very pole rised --

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polarised system in the way they used. To they've lost one of their

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weapons. Thanks very much. Next, the centre of the earth. We

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know you find iron and Nichol there. Now Japanese scientists think they

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know of a third element. This is an exciting science story. If you don't

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believe me, here's this report. The centre of the earth, this

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mysterious place. We know it's a hard ball about 1200 kilometres

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across. We know it's mainly made of iron, about 85% by weight and

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Nichol, about so % by weight, that leaves 5%. For decades scientists

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have been argue about what it might be. Now they've done a really neat

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experiment. There are two ways to study the centre. See what happens

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to seismic waves as they pass through the earths. The other way is

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try and recreate the conditions of the centre of the earth in the lab.

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That's what this team in Japan have done. They've subjected different

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elements to incredibly high temperatures and high pressure. They

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say the missing element is silicone. It's about 5%. Can they be sure? No.

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But it looks quite good. Some other scientists a few years ago suggested

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oxygen. This suggests more strongly it's silicone. Why silicone? Why is

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this important, if you're a chemist you like silicone, so it's cool. But

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it tells you about the formation of the earth, what was going on at that

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time. You don't need to justify finding out about the centre of the

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earth, it's interesting. How we learn about it, how does it inform

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how we behave? It tells us more about what happened when we started

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out. The solar system formed 4. 6 billion years ago. The earth then

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formed. Rocks coming together. For a while molten rock, liquid moving

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around. Gradually it cooled down and out of this hard crust on the

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outside, you got this centre. By working out what's in there can tell

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you much more about these processes. I think the best thing about this is

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actually what the centre would look like. Because if it is alloys of

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nickel and iron and silicone, it would be cystals, spectacular, that

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we could never see but good to know they're probably there.

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Rebecca always enthused but particularly so today. For more

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background on that story, find it from her and her colleagues online

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on the BBC News app. In a few minutes, another remarkable

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science story, something different, showing us footage from Ivory Coast

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of chimpanzees making tools out of wood to access water. Play that in a

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few motorbike minutes. -- few minutes.

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Jeremy Corbyn has said he isn't wedded to the idea of keeping

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freedom of movement. He was addressing supporters in

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Peterborough. The Labour leader pulled back from recommended a pay

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cap on top earners. In the 1920s, JP Morgan, the Wall

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Street banker, yes, JP Morgan, the Wall Street banker limited salaries

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to 20 times that of junior employees. Another advocate of pay

:15:00.:15:08.

ratios was David Cameron. His government proposed a 20-1 pay ratio

:15:09.:15:11.

to limit sky high pay in the public sector. Now all salaries higher than

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?150,000 must be signed off by the Cabinet Office. We'll go further,

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and extend that to any company that is awarded a Government contract.

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This is not about limiting aspiration or penalising success.

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This is outsite source. The lead story is from Washington.

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Jeff Sessions, the man picked to be the next US attorney-general,

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Is six hours into his Senate confirmation hearing. First to

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Afghanistan. BBC Pashto reports

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on a bombing in Kabul. No hope of the Gambian political

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stalemate getting sorted out soon. The Supreme Court says it won't have

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enough judges until May to consider a petition from the President

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detailing why his defeat French police are investigating

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whether Kim Kardashian's chauffeur was involved in her being held

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at gunpoint and robber Millions of dollars worth

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of jewellery was stolen. The are looking into the theory

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that the chauffeur may have For the first time ever,

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researchers have filmed chimpanzees making and using tools to get access

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to collect water. It's in this report

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from Victoria Gill. A mother and baby in

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Ivory Coast's Comoe National Park It's the dry season,

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so to reach a water supply hidden deep within these tree holes,

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they are making and using tools. It's just another insight

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into the remarkable behaviour If you think they've got 90-95%

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the same DNA as humans, We've seen it, working at Chester

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zoo with these animals, The different cultures

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of chimpanzees have So it's certainly not new to find

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chimpanzees using tools. The animals are already known to use

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sticks to fish for termites and to dip into beehives for honey,

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but the researchers were particularly impressed by how well

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crafted these drinking tools were. Chimps selected and stripped long

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thin sticks and chewed the ends And for captive breeding

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programmes like this one, zoos have to understand these

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natural behaviours to keep the animals as mentally

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stimulated as possible. And then we give them an area

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where they keep honey, And they have to use their sticks,

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make them into a certain way so they can put the stick

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in the hole and get the food out. It's all gone very quiet

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here at Chester Zoo because it's feeding time for

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the chimpanzees, and these are actually Western chimpanzees,

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the same subspecies that was looked Nimble fingered, very clever,

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toolmaking and tool-using, but sadly, critically

:18:27.:18:30.

endangered primates. In the wild, the population of these

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great apes continues to decline, largely because of poaching

:18:36.:18:38.

and the destruction Findings like this show just how

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much more we have to learn Some news on the VW

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emmissions scandal. Volkswagen has agreed

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a draft settlement with US Let's bring in our correspondent in

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New York. A few questions here. There's been some preliminary deals,

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so what's different about this one? Well, this one resolves yet another

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of the investigations and it's a key one, but I think the most striking

:19:21.:19:25.

thing about it is that Volkswagen is expected to plead guilty to charges

:19:26.:19:31.

that include wire fraud, that it violated the clean air act. It's

:19:32.:19:36.

expected to plead guilty it to customs fraud. This is the result of

:19:37.:19:41.

several investigations into the manipulation of diesel emission

:19:42.:19:44.

tests. They began more than a year ago. The crucial thing for the

:19:45.:19:49.

company is that as much as possible, they're trying to resolve this

:19:50.:19:53.

criminal investigation, so they can move past the scandal that really

:19:54.:19:58.

has cast a shadow. Remember right now, it's the Detroit autoshow. It

:19:59.:20:03.

should be a golden moment to show off its wares and instead it's

:20:04.:20:06.

talking about this. This is a draft deal. What needs to happen for it to

:20:07.:20:12.

become a reel deal? -- real deal? It has to be approved by both sides.

:20:13.:20:16.

We're expecting Volkswagen's board to meet possibly and approve it

:20:17.:20:19.

possibly as early as today, maybe tomorrow. That's the process. The

:20:20.:20:28.

key thing is if you compare this potential deal to recent ones

:20:29.:20:32.

involving General Motors and Toyota, General Motors and Toyota in cases

:20:33.:20:36.

of safety defects, neither of them had to plead guilty. They did pay

:20:37.:20:40.

large fines. But they didn't plead guilty. That's what makes this

:20:41.:20:44.

significant compared to those past ones. Michelle, thank you. I have a

:20:45.:20:51.

report of yours that I'm going to play everyone watching about

:20:52.:20:54.

President Obama's economic legacy. Have a look.

:20:55.:20:59.

Wall Street is left reeling from some of the biggest blows... It's a

:21:00.:21:05.

nightmare for Wall Street... Bankruptcies, bailouts and

:21:06.:21:08.

unemployment rate that peaked at 10% in 2009. When Barack Obama became

:21:09.:21:13.

president he and his team were confronting the total collapse of

:21:14.:21:18.

the financial system. 15 million Americans were out of work, when he

:21:19.:21:22.

delivered his first State of the Union Address. People are out of

:21:23.:21:27.

work, they're hurting. They need our help. That is why jobs must be our

:21:28.:21:36.

number one focus in 2010. Perhaps his biggest achievement - stopping

:21:37.:21:39.

the recession from turning into another Great Depression. It started

:21:40.:21:45.

with the rescue of a symbol of US industrial might, the American car

:21:46.:21:51.

industry. Something this investment banker remembers well. Stephen

:21:52.:21:55.

Ratner led Obama's autoindustry recovery team. It was a testament to

:21:56.:22:01.

President Obama's impartiality that he made a decision that was

:22:02.:22:05.

unpopular, but was clearly in retrospect the right decision. If we

:22:06.:22:10.

had allowed those car companies to continue to liquidate, there would

:22:11.:22:13.

have been a loss of potentially a million jobs, in the short run, at a

:22:14.:22:19.

time in the economy was lose soing many jobs. -- losing so many jobs.

:22:20.:22:25.

An unprecedented amount of money was spent to stimulate the economy.

:22:26.:22:30.

Nearly $4 million made its way here to the Bronx community health

:22:31.:22:34.

centre, saving 15 jobs. Not everyone was a fan of the stimulus plan. We

:22:35.:22:43.

were. We were great fans of it, because it allowed us to really

:22:44.:22:49.

enhance our mission. Under President Obama, a staggering 11 million jobs

:22:50.:22:53.

have been created. While hiring has picked up, many of those positions

:22:54.:22:57.

are temporary or part-time, not the kind of work you can raise a family

:22:58.:23:02.

on. That's why many people I spoke to were gloomy. Do you feel more

:23:03.:23:05.

hopeful than eight years ago or less? It's like so-so. Prices are up

:23:06.:23:13.

and salaries remain the same. President Obama hands over an

:23:14.:23:17.

economy near full employment, following the longest stretch of job

:23:18.:23:22.

growth in history. But many Americans have forgotten what

:23:23.:23:26.

prosperity feels like, a challenge facing the incoming administration.

:23:27.:23:34.

Let's shift from the US to the UK, because this is what's happening to

:23:35.:23:40.

the FTSE 100 indevil -- index. It made history today. It's been going

:23:41.:23:44.

up and up. It closed at a record high for a ninth day in a row,

:23:45.:23:48.

that's the longest streak ever and it's not unrelated to what's been

:23:49.:23:51.

happening to the value of the pound since the UK voted to leave the

:23:52.:23:55.

European Union. That's the moment of Brexit. But the pound has been

:23:56.:23:59.

making its way down since. A weaker pound is boosting the profits of

:24:00.:24:03.

many multinational companies, when they convert foreign earnings into

:24:04.:24:06.

pounds. That does the world of good for their share price. The UK tech

:24:07.:24:12.

sector got good news today. Snap is behind Snapchat. It announced its

:24:13.:24:16.

going to set up its international base in the UK.

:24:17.:24:21.

The point is that a lot of social media companies, like Facebook and

:24:22.:24:25.

Google have run into trouble over setting up tax bases in lower tax

:24:26.:24:29.

jurisdictions in Europe and then diverting profits from other large

:24:30.:24:33.

markets into those jurisdictions in order to minimise their tax bills.

:24:34.:24:38.

So snapping is not doing that. They're setting up in the UK and

:24:39.:24:41.

channelling their profits from the UK first of all, but also from other

:24:42.:24:44.

countries, where they don't have a major base, that includes Australia

:24:45.:24:47.

and Saudi Arabia, and paying tax on them in the UK. Now that tax bill at

:24:48.:24:52.

the moment won't actually be very high because Snapchat's revenues are

:24:53.:24:55.

not that high, at the moment. But it's expanding rapidly. It's taking

:24:56.:25:02.

on more advertising. So there will be more money coming in. That money

:25:03.:25:06.

will be going through the UK. Let's not forget, the UK itself, as a

:25:07.:25:11.

major economy, has a relatively low corporation tax rate, 20% at the

:25:12.:25:14.

moment. It's going to fall to 17% by 2020. By doing this, Snap Inc is

:25:15.:25:25.

avoiding regulatory problems, the UK Government and European Commission

:25:26.:25:28.

clamping down on companies are aggressive tax policies. At the same

:25:29.:25:36.

It's basing itself in the UK where it has -- -- It's basing itself in

:25:37.:25:43.

the UK. We have live feeds coming in from Capitol Hill in Washington.

:25:44.:25:46.

Various confirmation hearings continue ahead of Donald Trump

:25:47.:25:50.

becoming president on the 20th January. Speak to you in a couple of

:25:51.:25:52.

minutes.

:25:53.:25:57.