07/09/2017 Outside Source


07/09/2017

Ros Atkins with an innovative take on the latest global stories.


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Hello, I'm Karin Giannone - welcome to Outside Source.

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At least ten people are dead after Hurricane Irma wreaked

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the extent of the destruction and Barbuda is unprecedented. I'm of the

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view that as it stands now Barbuda is barely habitable.

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Irma is still a Category 5 hurricane - and next it's heading

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Our reporter in Myanmar says entire swathes of Rakhine state

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are depopulated and burning, as the mass exodus of Rohingya

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The German elections are just over two weeks away -

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Ros Atkins is seeing how the land lies in Cologne.

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Every day Outside Source features BBC journalists working

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Hurricane Irma continues to devastate the Caribbean.

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We have been getting pictures in from all over.

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What you see here is the Caribbean islands being battered

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That's the highest possible level - which makes Irma the most powerful

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This is the island of Saint Martin - officials

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warn most of the area is all but destroyed.

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This is Antigua, very severe, home to 80,000 - luckily

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the islanders escaped major damage to their homes, and there

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In Puerto Rico, more than half of the island's

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3.5 million residents were without power amid heavy

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Look at the scene is facing them as Irma swept through, heavy downpours

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and strong winds. And Anguilla and the British Virgin

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Islands have also been hit The hurricane sustained

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wind speeds of 285km/h, reducing buildings to rubble

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and left at least ten people dead. The tiny island there, as you can

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see. You can see here the widespread

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devastation to people's The residents on the Island have

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been speaking to us. My whole house caved in, and there

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were Lee Mack are seven of us, and all we had to do was pray and call

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for help -- and their are seven of us. I didn't know what would happen

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to me. Last night was the most devastating experience I have ever

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had in my life, and I am almost 60. Me and my family of seven including

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an infant of two months, we had a shelter in the closet.

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Here is the Prime Minister of Barbuda speaking

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This was absolutely devastating, heart-wrenching. Some properties

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have lost roofs, part roofs, all roofs, some have been totally

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demolished. It is absolutely heart-wrenching, the extent of the

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destruction in Barbuda, it is unprecedented. In fact I am of the

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view that as it stands now Barbuda is barely habitable.

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Irma is currently north of the Dominican Republic,

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and is on course for the low-lying Turks and Caicos islands.

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It is due to move onto the Bahamas and Cuba on Saturday

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Here, they have declared a state of emergency and mobilised federal

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The head of the US emergency agency says Hurricane Irma "will be truly

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devastating" when it hits the southern coastal

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Storm Jose will revisit all these areas already hit by Hurricane Irma,

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and Storm Katia will thunder along the coast of the Mexican

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Meanwhile on Turks and Caicos Islands, emergency officials

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preparing to ride out the out the storm.

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Dr John Freeman is the Governor of the British territory.

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Of course everyone is nervous and anxious here, but we have made their

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preparations we should do. We've evacuated to Islands, all the

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evacuation of two Islands, our shelters are operating and people

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are going into them. We are messaging out as best we can to make

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sure people do that. Our number one concern is safety. Yesterday we

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spent a lot of time encouraging visiting tourists to get on flights

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out of Turks and Caicos Islands, and we have reduced the number of people

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who don't live here and don't need to be here. So, yes, we are anxious

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and we will have to ride it out. This is a country that has been hit

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by hurricanes before. These are very low-lying islands. We are very

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vulnerable, and therefore, you know, a surge means more water coming here

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which means more flooding, which causes more problems in terms of

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utilities and the functioning of the islands. Those are the most

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low-lying areas, the ones who also have vulnerable structures, and we

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have been encouraging them to move into the structures which can take

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care of them. As I say, they are moving into the shelters now. Along

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with the surge you mentioned, it is the wind speed, we are waiting to

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see what the impact of that is, and I'm afraid we will not really know

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this until of course it has hit us, but already we can see it is very

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windy here. The sea is very choppy. We are already within her frame,

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Irma, she is already touching us. So we have the hurricanes developing

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more or less in the same place, and it is not uncommon at this time of

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year, but rare to see them so powerful.

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Our science editor David Shukman explains.

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How do hurricanes become so destructive?

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The strongest form off the coast of West Africa,

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warm waters cause the air to rise, triggering thunderstorms

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and that is when the winds can circulate and as this weather system

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crosses the Atlantic it grows and becomes stronger.

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If the winds are moving in the same direction

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at all levels, as with Irma, they reach devastating speeds.

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But closer to the Caribbean, the hurricane gets another boost

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as it passes over yet more warm water.

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And ocean temperatures are unusually high this year, making the winds

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On top of this, the low pressure inside the hurricane

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creates a storm surge, a huge wave that strikes the coast.

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As climate change is raising the level of the sea,

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Let's go back to a developing story we've been covering for some time

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now - the mass exodus of Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar.

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On Wednesday, Bangladesh summoned Myanmar's ambassador in Dhaka

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to protest against the planting of landmines along this border

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This is the border that over 164,000 Rohingya Muslims have

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been fleeing across over the last few weeks.

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Bangladesh says Myanmar is planting mines to prevent the Rohingya

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returning to their villages - Myanmar denies this.

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At the moment, though, people are still flowing

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More Rohingya refugees have come today from Bangladesh to Myanmar and

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you can see how congested it has become, no space, all on the road.

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Over here they have brought in bamboo, to construct new tents for

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the fresh arrivals. The camps themselves are in dreadful shape.

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Extremely crowded, the conditions unhygienic. Aid agencies are very

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concerned. They say apart from food there is an urgent need for medical

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support. Medecins Sans Frontieres see many of the refugees have

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gunshot wound injuries, and therefore they need as much support

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as possible. They are all coming in from Myanmar because they are

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fleeing violence. They say their villages are being attacked, set on

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fire. A BBC colleague has managed to get into Rakhine State and he has

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witnessed a Muslim village being set on fire by Rakhine youths. Our

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correspondent Jonathan Head was in Rakhine State and tweeted this

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earlier... He's written a fuller

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account on our website - but an important line

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to pick out is this: And these pictures

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are what a cameraman Now bear in mind the Myanmar

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government says that it's Rohingya militants and the Muslim

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villagers themselves causing But many in the international

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community aren't convinced. Earlier the BBC spoke

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to Andrea Gittleman, from the Centre for the Prevention

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of Genocide at the US Holocaust What we are seeing is so sustained,

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it appears to be systematic. What it appears to be an mass atrocities

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committed by the state of Myanmar against the Rohingya minority

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community. Genocide has a very specific definition, but we might

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not have enough evidence until investigators can access the areas

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where these crimes are taking place. That is something that the Myanmar

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government has time and time again refused to allow. So with the

:10:15.:10:20.

information at hand we can see that it appears that crimes against

:10:21.:10:23.

humanity are happening against the Rohingya population. All states have

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the responsibility to protect their people from crimes like this. So the

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Myanmar government is failing to protect its own civilians. This

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called upon all countries, countries within Asia, South East Asia,

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Europe, all over the world, to call upon leaders of the country to bring

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these atrocities to a halt. It should be known that the military

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seems to be the primary perpetrator of these atrocities and should be

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held to account for these crimes against humanity. That kind of

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effort and signalling from the international community would be

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necessary for those crimes to cease. Stay with us on Outside Source -

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still to come: One of the sons of the Philippine President denies

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involvement in a multi-million-dollar drug smuggling

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operation. Earlier we spoke to Baroness Amos,

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who is the Director of SOAS University of London and is a former

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UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs

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and Emergency Relief Coordination. She told us the Uk's response

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to the disaster created From my perspective having dealt

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with many of these disasters around the world when I was at the United

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Nations, it is always the people on the ground to respond first. And

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they are looking to their national governments, but they are also

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looking outside for as much help to come as quickly as possible. And

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certainly we are now a couple of days in and I think people are

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feeling that Britain did not respond quickly enough, given that we know

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that this is hurricane season, given that we know that sometimes these

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hurricanes can shift and hit islands that were not expected to be in the

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way, and of course there are concerns that there is

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another hurricane coming that could have even more devastating

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consequences. This is Outside Source live

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from the BBC newsroom. Hurricane Irma has left

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a trail of destruction across the Caribbean -

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and it's still going strong as it heads towards Turks and Caicos,

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the Bahamas and the US mainland. A vote on legalising same-sex

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marriage in Australia will proceed after a court dismissed

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two legal challenges. The non-binding postal vote

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is due to begin next week. Pope Francis is in Colombia -

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he's there to express support Thousands of people lined

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the route the Popemobile took through the streets of the capital,

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Bogota. Amongst our most read

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articles on the website - Roald Dahl's final children's book

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has been illustrated by his longtime collaborator Sir Quentin Blake, 26

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years after it was first published. It had been the only Roald Dahl

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book not to have been The book is called

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Billy and the Minpins - it was originally published

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with illustrations Let's head to Germany now

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because the country's general election is just under

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three weeks away. Yes, the 24th of September is the

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date of the election, when Angela Merkel will sit to solidify her

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support, and I am speaking to you from Cologne, Germany's

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fourth-largest city, and you can see this here, the Gothic cathedral of

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Cologne. It sits on the River Rhine and contributes a huge amount to the

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German economy, the fourth biggest city, but is also significant in

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terms of immigration. It is in the state of North Rhine Westphalia

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which has 20% of all the migrants in Germany. We have angular Merkel

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leading the CDU, the Christian Democrats, and we think they will be

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the biggest party -- Angela Merkel. She is up against Martin Schulze

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used to be president of the European Parliament and the now read to the

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Social Democrats. He is having a difficult campaign, to be honest.

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The latest poll shows that Christian catlike Democrats and Angela Merkel

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have a significant lead, and it does look like Martin Schultz will have

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the second biggest party, but because all-German elections end in

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a coalition, the other parties who could get representation, we also

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need to take note of them. We have the Free Democrats, the FDP. We have

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the Greens, and we also have the party that came out of the Communist

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party in East Germany, Die Linke, and on the right you have the

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Alternative for Germany, the AfD, with their anti-immigration and

:15:28.:15:30.

anti-Islam policies, which I came to look at here earlier. We will have

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to see what effect their policies have on a coalition, but we do know

:15:35.:15:38.

that immigration is a significant issue. You might think that is as

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maybe but what should I care when the polls suggest Angela Merkel will

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get a fourth term and we know that she will stay in power. There are a

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few reasons. She is a hugely significant player in terms of the

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world's responds to a number of major issues. On climate change,

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Outside Source was at the G20 watching Angela Merkel shape the

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world's response to that while Donald Trump went his own way. On

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the future of the European Union you could argue there is no more

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significant figure. And for those of you watch on the BBC News channel we

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also need to take note of Brexit, because nothing the EU does in those

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negotiations happens, certainly not of significance, without Angela

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Merkel agreeing to it. She is very important in terms of the form that

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Brexit will take. 18 months ago on Outside Source we met a man from the

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Federation of Islamic organisations in Europe. Good to see you again,

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how are you doing? We were just chatting when you arrived, and you

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said to me the big TV debate on Sunday between Martin Schultz and

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Angela Merkel was a disaster. Can you tell us via? It was a disaster

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from the point of view that people have seen that there is no real

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choice -- can you tell us why? No real choice between the first and

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second party so no real alternative with political content, because

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Angela Merkel as well as Martin Schultz have a lot of the same

:17:07.:17:11.

standpoint and views on a lot of issues, so whoever got the biggest

:17:12.:17:16.

benefit of that, most probably the AfD, the right-wing parties. Despite

:17:17.:17:20.

the fact that when we last met on Outside Source AfD was doing much

:17:21.:17:24.

better in the polls. Now it is around 9% but when we met before it

:17:25.:17:31.

was 15-16%. Anyhow it depends... When you look into the

:17:32.:17:34.

circumstances. When we met before, the refugee issue was much more

:17:35.:17:40.

relevant to the people now when the elections come closer, it is obvious

:17:41.:17:45.

that people start to look at things in a different manner. But anyhow

:17:46.:17:50.

AfD is gaining a lot of ground. When you look at about 3-4 months ago

:17:51.:17:58.

they even had about 6-7%. It already has representation in the majority

:17:59.:18:00.

of state parliaments but it looks like it could have representation in

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the Bundestag for the first time and I guess symbolically that is a big

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moment for Germany. Absolutely, the first time a right wing extremist

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party will take the floor on the German Bundestag, the German

:18:14.:18:16.

parliament, and this is something that will change the political

:18:17.:18:20.

landscape in Germany in general. What would you like Martin Schultz

:18:21.:18:25.

and Angela Merkel, the two most high profile politicians in this

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campaign, what would you like them to be saying to take on the AfD? I

:18:28.:18:34.

think the situation is really complicated and it is also not too

:18:35.:18:40.

easy for them to have a clear position, but I think that they need

:18:41.:18:43.

to be completely clear about what they stand for and what they don't,

:18:44.:18:49.

and it is pitifully, that the AfD has already achieved a lot of its

:18:50.:19:02.

goals by putting a lot of it is contact into the mainstream. Its

:19:03.:19:06.

sister party in Bavaria has taken a lot of the content that AfD was

:19:07.:19:11.

campaigning for, so it looks like the right-wing agenda already found

:19:12.:19:14.

its place in mainstream politics. Good to speak to you, Ibrahim, and

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as Ibrahim was giving me his last answer there, I thought, if AfD has

:19:22.:19:24.

influenced German politics despite the fact that the polls do not

:19:25.:19:28.

suggest that there are some comparisons with Ukip in the UK, the

:19:29.:19:32.

UK Independence Party, in the way it has failed to translate its support

:19:33.:19:35.

in two places in Parliament but it undoubtedly had a huge influence on

:19:36.:19:39.

the calling of the Brexit referendum and the result of that referendum.

:19:40.:19:44.

And Nigel Farage, the former leader of Ukip, has today been here in

:19:45.:19:49.

Germany, speaking at a rally for the AfD. Thank you very much. Ros will

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be back from Germany a little later. Let's turn to business... The retail

:19:56.:20:01.

giant Amazon has announced plans to build a second headquarters in North

:20:02.:20:05.

America, kicking off a competition among cities to attract investment.

:20:06.:20:08.

The 5,000,000,000-dollar project could create up to 50,000 jobs.

:20:09.:20:14.

Chicago, Dallas, and Toronto have immediately expressed an interest.

:20:15.:20:21.

Samira Hussain joins us from New York. How significant is this second

:20:22.:20:25.

Amazon HQ? This is massive. As you pointed out we are talking about

:20:26.:20:31.

50,000 jobs, and as Amazon have said, the average income from these

:20:32.:20:35.

jobs will be around $100,000. Of course there are all kinds of cities

:20:36.:20:38.

coming out of the woodwork saying, we will make a bid for Amazon to

:20:39.:20:43.

come and have their headquarters in our particular city. What is really

:20:44.:20:48.

interesting is that Amazon has said not the United States but North

:20:49.:20:54.

America, so really opening it up to Canada or even to Mexico, since they

:20:55.:20:59.

said they are open to opening a new headquarters in North America. Why

:21:00.:21:05.

is that so important? Remember, the president of the United States

:21:06.:21:09.

Donald Trump said he is absolutely a jobs maker, so imagine if your

:21:10.:21:14.

president of the United States and you have this monstrous conglomerate

:21:15.:21:17.

that says we will open up a new headquarters, but it is not going to

:21:18.:21:21.

be in the United States. That would be really bad. However, the

:21:22.:21:24.

relationship between Donald Trump and the head of Amazon, well, it is

:21:25.:21:33.

not really very good. Given that relationship, Samira, being

:21:34.:21:35.

notoriously not a good one, I wonder if there will be a political element

:21:36.:21:40.

to all of this? Yes, if you are Donald Trump and you sort of put

:21:41.:21:46.

yourself up as the job creator, the one who will bring companies back to

:21:47.:21:49.

the United States, well, to have this go to a city like Vancouver,

:21:50.:21:53.

Toronto or even Mexico City, that would really be pretty bad. How much

:21:54.:22:00.

of this really is just about irking the president in some way by saying,

:22:01.:22:05.

we are opening it up to North America, or how true is it that they

:22:06.:22:08.

are actually considering other cities? That remains to be seen, but

:22:09.:22:11.

certainly some very interesting language being used by the head of

:22:12.:22:18.

Amazon. Thank you, Samira Hussain in New York. Let's stay in the USA...

:22:19.:22:25.

The country's opioid crisis is causing a lot of concern.

:22:26.:22:28.

Addiction rates are soaring - and every day around 100 people

:22:29.:22:31.

Much of the addiction starts with legally prescribed medications.

:22:32.:22:34.

Now a Canadian drug firm is developing what it says

:22:35.:22:37.

is a safer alternative based on cannabis.

:22:38.:22:38.

Somewhere between 10-15% of the population experiences chronic pain

:22:39.:22:52.

at some point in their life. To the extent that cannabinoids go on to be

:22:53.:22:58.

recognised in more effective dosage forms, then they could compete, if

:22:59.:23:04.

you like, for a significant share of that market. And that in the United

:23:05.:23:11.

States is a multi-billion dollar market. The purity and the potency

:23:12.:23:16.

of cannabis varies, so how difficult is it to get the dosing right, to

:23:17.:23:23.

know what doses to apply? When someone in heels a cigarette or a

:23:24.:23:29.

vaporiser, the amount they take -- when someone inhales a cigarette.

:23:30.:23:34.

The amount could be tenfold depending on how deeply they inhale,

:23:35.:23:37.

how long they hold their breath and other factors as well. That is

:23:38.:23:43.

certainly very inconsistent with the way that we look at medications for

:23:44.:23:48.

the treatment of virtually all other conditions, where we are pretty

:23:49.:23:54.

precise in our initial dosage recommendations. What are the risks

:23:55.:24:03.

associated with medicinal cannabis? Some more serious potential

:24:04.:24:06.

side-effects are that in certain cases it has been shown that

:24:07.:24:15.

cannabinoids can induce more severe disorders in patients with

:24:16.:24:22.

pre-existing central nervous system psychiatric conditions, so that is

:24:23.:24:27.

something that most prescribers are quite aware of and would proceed

:24:28.:24:31.

cautiously with, if at all, in dealing with their patients. Is

:24:32.:24:37.

there an irony, that you used to run a maker of one of the leading opioid

:24:38.:24:43.

drugs, and now here you are talking about creating a market for a

:24:44.:24:46.

product that might displace, or replace, some of those? I don't

:24:47.:24:51.

think the cannabinoids will ever totally replace the opioids. There

:24:52.:24:55.

are places where opioids will work, and I don't see evidence that

:24:56.:24:59.

cannabinoids will, but they may in fact as you see wind up displacing

:25:00.:25:00.

some of those prescriptions. One of the sons of the Philippine

:25:01.:25:24.

President has denied involvement in a multi-million-dollar

:25:25.:25:27.

drug smuggling operation. Here he is Appearing

:25:28.:25:32.

alongside the president's He read a prepared statement

:25:33.:25:33.

to insist that the allegations I can now deny all baseless

:25:34.:25:41.

allegations made of me. Every dog has its day. In a few minutes' time

:25:42.:25:50.

here on Outside Source we will be live to Miami because Florida is

:25:51.:25:54.

making preparations for the arrival of Hurricane Irma, still a category

:25:55.:26:05.

numeric 5 at the minute. Stay with first night.

:26:06.:26:10.