07/09/2017 Outside Source

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Ros Atkins with an innovative take on the latest global stories.

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Hello, I'm Karin Giannone - welcome to Outside Source.


At least ten people are dead after Hurricane Irma wreaked


the extent of the destruction and Barbuda is unprecedented. I'm of the


view that as it stands now Barbuda is barely habitable.


Irma is still a Category 5 hurricane - and next it's heading


Our reporter in Myanmar says entire swathes of Rakhine state


are depopulated and burning, as the mass exodus of Rohingya


The German elections are just over two weeks away -


Ros Atkins is seeing how the land lies in Cologne.


Every day Outside Source features BBC journalists working


Hurricane Irma continues to devastate the Caribbean.


We have been getting pictures in from all over.


What you see here is the Caribbean islands being battered


That's the highest possible level - which makes Irma the most powerful


This is the island of Saint Martin - officials


warn most of the area is all but destroyed.


This is Antigua, very severe, home to 80,000 - luckily


the islanders escaped major damage to their homes, and there


In Puerto Rico, more than half of the island's


3.5 million residents were without power amid heavy


Look at the scene is facing them as Irma swept through, heavy downpours


and strong winds. And Anguilla and the British Virgin


Islands have also been hit The hurricane sustained


wind speeds of 285km/h, reducing buildings to rubble


and left at least ten people dead. The tiny island there, as you can


see. You can see here the widespread


devastation to people's The residents on the Island have


been speaking to us. My whole house caved in, and there


were Lee Mack are seven of us, and all we had to do was pray and call


for help -- and their are seven of us. I didn't know what would happen


to me. Last night was the most devastating experience I have ever


had in my life, and I am almost 60. Me and my family of seven including


an infant of two months, we had a shelter in the closet.


Here is the Prime Minister of Barbuda speaking


This was absolutely devastating, heart-wrenching. Some properties


have lost roofs, part roofs, all roofs, some have been totally


demolished. It is absolutely heart-wrenching, the extent of the


destruction in Barbuda, it is unprecedented. In fact I am of the


view that as it stands now Barbuda is barely habitable.


Irma is currently north of the Dominican Republic,


and is on course for the low-lying Turks and Caicos islands.


It is due to move onto the Bahamas and Cuba on Saturday


Here, they have declared a state of emergency and mobilised federal


The head of the US emergency agency says Hurricane Irma "will be truly


devastating" when it hits the southern coastal


Storm Jose will revisit all these areas already hit by Hurricane Irma,


and Storm Katia will thunder along the coast of the Mexican


Meanwhile on Turks and Caicos Islands, emergency officials


preparing to ride out the out the storm.


Dr John Freeman is the Governor of the British territory.


Of course everyone is nervous and anxious here, but we have made their


preparations we should do. We've evacuated to Islands, all the


evacuation of two Islands, our shelters are operating and people


are going into them. We are messaging out as best we can to make


sure people do that. Our number one concern is safety. Yesterday we


spent a lot of time encouraging visiting tourists to get on flights


out of Turks and Caicos Islands, and we have reduced the number of people


who don't live here and don't need to be here. So, yes, we are anxious


and we will have to ride it out. This is a country that has been hit


by hurricanes before. These are very low-lying islands. We are very


vulnerable, and therefore, you know, a surge means more water coming here


which means more flooding, which causes more problems in terms of


utilities and the functioning of the islands. Those are the most


low-lying areas, the ones who also have vulnerable structures, and we


have been encouraging them to move into the structures which can take


care of them. As I say, they are moving into the shelters now. Along


with the surge you mentioned, it is the wind speed, we are waiting to


see what the impact of that is, and I'm afraid we will not really know


this until of course it has hit us, but already we can see it is very


windy here. The sea is very choppy. We are already within her frame,


Irma, she is already touching us. So we have the hurricanes developing


more or less in the same place, and it is not uncommon at this time of


year, but rare to see them so powerful.


Our science editor David Shukman explains.


How do hurricanes become so destructive?


The strongest form off the coast of West Africa,


warm waters cause the air to rise, triggering thunderstorms


and that is when the winds can circulate and as this weather system


crosses the Atlantic it grows and becomes stronger.


If the winds are moving in the same direction


at all levels, as with Irma, they reach devastating speeds.


But closer to the Caribbean, the hurricane gets another boost


as it passes over yet more warm water.


And ocean temperatures are unusually high this year, making the winds


On top of this, the low pressure inside the hurricane


creates a storm surge, a huge wave that strikes the coast.


As climate change is raising the level of the sea,


Let's go back to a developing story we've been covering for some time


now - the mass exodus of Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar.


On Wednesday, Bangladesh summoned Myanmar's ambassador in Dhaka


to protest against the planting of landmines along this border


This is the border that over 164,000 Rohingya Muslims have


been fleeing across over the last few weeks.


Bangladesh says Myanmar is planting mines to prevent the Rohingya


returning to their villages - Myanmar denies this.


At the moment, though, people are still flowing


More Rohingya refugees have come today from Bangladesh to Myanmar and


you can see how congested it has become, no space, all on the road.


Over here they have brought in bamboo, to construct new tents for


the fresh arrivals. The camps themselves are in dreadful shape.


Extremely crowded, the conditions unhygienic. Aid agencies are very


concerned. They say apart from food there is an urgent need for medical


support. Medecins Sans Frontieres see many of the refugees have


gunshot wound injuries, and therefore they need as much support


as possible. They are all coming in from Myanmar because they are


fleeing violence. They say their villages are being attacked, set on


fire. A BBC colleague has managed to get into Rakhine State and he has


witnessed a Muslim village being set on fire by Rakhine youths. Our


correspondent Jonathan Head was in Rakhine State and tweeted this


earlier... He's written a fuller


account on our website - but an important line


to pick out is this: And these pictures


are what a cameraman Now bear in mind the Myanmar


government says that it's Rohingya militants and the Muslim


villagers themselves causing But many in the international


community aren't convinced. Earlier the BBC spoke


to Andrea Gittleman, from the Centre for the Prevention


of Genocide at the US Holocaust What we are seeing is so sustained,


it appears to be systematic. What it appears to be an mass atrocities


committed by the state of Myanmar against the Rohingya minority


community. Genocide has a very specific definition, but we might


not have enough evidence until investigators can access the areas


where these crimes are taking place. That is something that the Myanmar


government has time and time again refused to allow. So with the


information at hand we can see that it appears that crimes against


humanity are happening against the Rohingya population. All states have


the responsibility to protect their people from crimes like this. So the


Myanmar government is failing to protect its own civilians. This


called upon all countries, countries within Asia, South East Asia,


Europe, all over the world, to call upon leaders of the country to bring


these atrocities to a halt. It should be known that the military


seems to be the primary perpetrator of these atrocities and should be


held to account for these crimes against humanity. That kind of


effort and signalling from the international community would be


necessary for those crimes to cease. Stay with us on Outside Source -


still to come: One of the sons of the Philippine President denies


involvement in a multi-million-dollar drug smuggling


operation. Earlier we spoke to Baroness Amos,


who is the Director of SOAS University of London and is a former


UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs


and Emergency Relief Coordination. She told us the Uk's response


to the disaster created From my perspective having dealt


with many of these disasters around the world when I was at the United


Nations, it is always the people on the ground to respond first. And


they are looking to their national governments, but they are also


looking outside for as much help to come as quickly as possible. And


certainly we are now a couple of days in and I think people are


feeling that Britain did not respond quickly enough, given that we know


that this is hurricane season, given that we know that sometimes these


hurricanes can shift and hit islands that were not expected to be in the


way, and of course there are concerns that there is


another hurricane coming that could have even more devastating


consequences. This is Outside Source live


from the BBC newsroom. Hurricane Irma has left


a trail of destruction across the Caribbean -


and it's still going strong as it heads towards Turks and Caicos,


the Bahamas and the US mainland. A vote on legalising same-sex


marriage in Australia will proceed after a court dismissed


two legal challenges. The non-binding postal vote


is due to begin next week. Pope Francis is in Colombia -


he's there to express support Thousands of people lined


the route the Popemobile took through the streets of the capital,


Bogota. Amongst our most read


articles on the website - Roald Dahl's final children's book


has been illustrated by his longtime collaborator Sir Quentin Blake, 26


years after it was first published. It had been the only Roald Dahl


book not to have been The book is called


Billy and the Minpins - it was originally published


with illustrations Let's head to Germany now


because the country's general election is just under


three weeks away. Yes, the 24th of September is the


date of the election, when Angela Merkel will sit to solidify her


support, and I am speaking to you from Cologne, Germany's


fourth-largest city, and you can see this here, the Gothic cathedral of


Cologne. It sits on the River Rhine and contributes a huge amount to the


German economy, the fourth biggest city, but is also significant in


terms of immigration. It is in the state of North Rhine Westphalia


which has 20% of all the migrants in Germany. We have angular Merkel


leading the CDU, the Christian Democrats, and we think they will be


the biggest party -- Angela Merkel. She is up against Martin Schulze


used to be president of the European Parliament and the now read to the


Social Democrats. He is having a difficult campaign, to be honest.


The latest poll shows that Christian catlike Democrats and Angela Merkel


have a significant lead, and it does look like Martin Schultz will have


the second biggest party, but because all-German elections end in


a coalition, the other parties who could get representation, we also


need to take note of them. We have the Free Democrats, the FDP. We have


the Greens, and we also have the party that came out of the Communist


party in East Germany, Die Linke, and on the right you have the


Alternative for Germany, the AfD, with their anti-immigration and


anti-Islam policies, which I came to look at here earlier. We will have


to see what effect their policies have on a coalition, but we do know


that immigration is a significant issue. You might think that is as


maybe but what should I care when the polls suggest Angela Merkel will


get a fourth term and we know that she will stay in power. There are a


few reasons. She is a hugely significant player in terms of the


world's responds to a number of major issues. On climate change,


Outside Source was at the G20 watching Angela Merkel shape the


world's response to that while Donald Trump went his own way. On


the future of the European Union you could argue there is no more


significant figure. And for those of you watch on the BBC News channel we


also need to take note of Brexit, because nothing the EU does in those


negotiations happens, certainly not of significance, without Angela


Merkel agreeing to it. She is very important in terms of the form that


Brexit will take. 18 months ago on Outside Source we met a man from the


Federation of Islamic organisations in Europe. Good to see you again,


how are you doing? We were just chatting when you arrived, and you


said to me the big TV debate on Sunday between Martin Schultz and


Angela Merkel was a disaster. Can you tell us via? It was a disaster


from the point of view that people have seen that there is no real


choice -- can you tell us why? No real choice between the first and


second party so no real alternative with political content, because


Angela Merkel as well as Martin Schultz have a lot of the same


standpoint and views on a lot of issues, so whoever got the biggest


benefit of that, most probably the AfD, the right-wing parties. Despite


the fact that when we last met on Outside Source AfD was doing much


better in the polls. Now it is around 9% but when we met before it


was 15-16%. Anyhow it depends... When you look into the


circumstances. When we met before, the refugee issue was much more


relevant to the people now when the elections come closer, it is obvious


that people start to look at things in a different manner. But anyhow


AfD is gaining a lot of ground. When you look at about 3-4 months ago


they even had about 6-7%. It already has representation in the majority


of state parliaments but it looks like it could have representation in


the Bundestag for the first time and I guess symbolically that is a big


moment for Germany. Absolutely, the first time a right wing extremist


party will take the floor on the German Bundestag, the German


parliament, and this is something that will change the political


landscape in Germany in general. What would you like Martin Schultz


and Angela Merkel, the two most high profile politicians in this


campaign, what would you like them to be saying to take on the AfD? I


think the situation is really complicated and it is also not too


easy for them to have a clear position, but I think that they need


to be completely clear about what they stand for and what they don't,


and it is pitifully, that the AfD has already achieved a lot of its


goals by putting a lot of it is contact into the mainstream. Its


sister party in Bavaria has taken a lot of the content that AfD was


campaigning for, so it looks like the right-wing agenda already found


its place in mainstream politics. Good to speak to you, Ibrahim, and


as Ibrahim was giving me his last answer there, I thought, if AfD has


influenced German politics despite the fact that the polls do not


suggest that there are some comparisons with Ukip in the UK, the


UK Independence Party, in the way it has failed to translate its support


in two places in Parliament but it undoubtedly had a huge influence on


the calling of the Brexit referendum and the result of that referendum.


And Nigel Farage, the former leader of Ukip, has today been here in


Germany, speaking at a rally for the AfD. Thank you very much. Ros will


be back from Germany a little later. Let's turn to business... The retail


giant Amazon has announced plans to build a second headquarters in North


America, kicking off a competition among cities to attract investment.


The 5,000,000,000-dollar project could create up to 50,000 jobs.


Chicago, Dallas, and Toronto have immediately expressed an interest.


Samira Hussain joins us from New York. How significant is this second


Amazon HQ? This is massive. As you pointed out we are talking about


50,000 jobs, and as Amazon have said, the average income from these


jobs will be around $100,000. Of course there are all kinds of cities


coming out of the woodwork saying, we will make a bid for Amazon to


come and have their headquarters in our particular city. What is really


interesting is that Amazon has said not the United States but North


America, so really opening it up to Canada or even to Mexico, since they


said they are open to opening a new headquarters in North America. Why


is that so important? Remember, the president of the United States


Donald Trump said he is absolutely a jobs maker, so imagine if your


president of the United States and you have this monstrous conglomerate


that says we will open up a new headquarters, but it is not going to


be in the United States. That would be really bad. However, the


relationship between Donald Trump and the head of Amazon, well, it is


not really very good. Given that relationship, Samira, being


notoriously not a good one, I wonder if there will be a political element


to all of this? Yes, if you are Donald Trump and you sort of put


yourself up as the job creator, the one who will bring companies back to


the United States, well, to have this go to a city like Vancouver,


Toronto or even Mexico City, that would really be pretty bad. How much


of this really is just about irking the president in some way by saying,


we are opening it up to North America, or how true is it that they


are actually considering other cities? That remains to be seen, but


certainly some very interesting language being used by the head of


Amazon. Thank you, Samira Hussain in New York. Let's stay in the USA...


The country's opioid crisis is causing a lot of concern.


Addiction rates are soaring - and every day around 100 people


Much of the addiction starts with legally prescribed medications.


Now a Canadian drug firm is developing what it says


is a safer alternative based on cannabis.


Somewhere between 10-15% of the population experiences chronic pain


at some point in their life. To the extent that cannabinoids go on to be


recognised in more effective dosage forms, then they could compete, if


you like, for a significant share of that market. And that in the United


States is a multi-billion dollar market. The purity and the potency


of cannabis varies, so how difficult is it to get the dosing right, to


know what doses to apply? When someone in heels a cigarette or a


vaporiser, the amount they take -- when someone inhales a cigarette.


The amount could be tenfold depending on how deeply they inhale,


how long they hold their breath and other factors as well. That is


certainly very inconsistent with the way that we look at medications for


the treatment of virtually all other conditions, where we are pretty


precise in our initial dosage recommendations. What are the risks


associated with medicinal cannabis? Some more serious potential


side-effects are that in certain cases it has been shown that


cannabinoids can induce more severe disorders in patients with


pre-existing central nervous system psychiatric conditions, so that is


something that most prescribers are quite aware of and would proceed


cautiously with, if at all, in dealing with their patients. Is


there an irony, that you used to run a maker of one of the leading opioid


drugs, and now here you are talking about creating a market for a


product that might displace, or replace, some of those? I don't


think the cannabinoids will ever totally replace the opioids. There


are places where opioids will work, and I don't see evidence that


cannabinoids will, but they may in fact as you see wind up displacing


some of those prescriptions. One of the sons of the Philippine


President has denied involvement in a multi-million-dollar


drug smuggling operation. Here he is Appearing


alongside the president's He read a prepared statement


to insist that the allegations I can now deny all baseless


allegations made of me. Every dog has its day. In a few minutes' time


here on Outside Source we will be live to Miami because Florida is


making preparations for the arrival of Hurricane Irma, still a category


numeric 5 at the minute. Stay with first night.