09/01/2018 Outside Source


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09/01/2018

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LineFromTo

Hello, I'm Ros Atkins,

this is Outside Source.

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North and South Korea meet

for the first time in two years -

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but is it enough to diffuse

the nuclear threats and what does it

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mean for relations with the west.

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There have been violent clashes in

this year after austerity measures

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imposed by the government. We report

from Tunis.

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This Ukrainian lawyer successfully

argued in court against the release

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of her sister's killer.

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But then she was murdered.

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We look into the case that has

outraged the country.

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And the Japanese astronaut who's

grown 9cm after just

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three weeks in space

- he's concerned.

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We'll explain what's

happening - with the help

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of the UK Space Agency.

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Welcome to Outside Source.

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North and South Korea have held

talks for the first time

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in more than two years.

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A week ago the North

was threatening nuclear war so this

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is progress of a sort.

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Two important things

came out of these talks.

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First, an agreement to hold more

talks to ease military

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tensions on the border.

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Second, North Korea will

send a large delegation

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to the Winter Olympics

in South Korea next month -

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that will include athletes

and cheerleaders.

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The talks were held here

in the demilitarised zone that

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separates the North and the South.

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You can see the demarcation line -

with the demilitarised

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zone either side of it.

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And this is the moment

North Korean officials

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stepped across the border.

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The line is marked on the floor. The

moment he steps across he is leaving

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North Korean territory and so he

did. A few moments after that, the

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two sides greeted each other and

exchanged pleasantries. Then they

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got down to talking properly. Sophie

Long has been covering this all day

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and here is her latest report.

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North and South Korean delegations

shaking hands and exchanging

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new years greetings.

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This is the first time the two

governments have met

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for more than two years.

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Within hours of negotiations getting

underway the South Korean government

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announced the first breakthrough.

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Pyongyang had agreed to send

a delegation to the Winter Olympics.

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It will include athletes,

cheering squad, and a tae kwon

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do demonstration team.

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Welcome news particularly

for the South Korean president

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who believes that the games

are the opportunity for

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ground-breaking change.

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The discussions then moved

on to the other inter-Korean issues

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like the thousands of people

separated from their families

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for decades by the heavily

fortified border zone.

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TRANSLATION: We propose to hold

a Red Cross meeting to discuss

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family reunions in time

for the lunar New Year

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which is a national holiday.

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Later the South Korean government

announced a military hotline,

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closed two years ago as relations

soured, would reopen.

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We can then show you the Chinese

reaction to the talks. TRANSLATION:

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Is a neighbour of the Korean

Palencia we welcome all positive

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steps that will allow an easing of

tensions between South and North

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Korea. -- Korean peninsula.

Here is

Robert Wingfield Hayes.

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Well I think there is a huge amount

of relief because it has been

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a pretty scary year at least

here in this region.

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It is felt very much

like a times we have been

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teetering on the edge of war.

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We've seen missiles flying,

nuclear tests, America sending

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aircraft carrier battle groups

to the coast of Korea.

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Making very bloodcurdling

threats towards each other,

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North Korea and the United States.

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So in many ways this,

there is relief that these

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talks are taking place,

just because talks are now happening

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and also because it appears

that the North Korean side is now

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very keen to de-escalate

the tensions.

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The bigger question is is this

an opening to really deeper dialogue

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between North and the south

and will the denuclearisation of the

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Korean peninsula be on the table.

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And there is no sign

of that at the moment.

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I think what has happened

is the North Korean leadership has

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looked into the abyss of a possible

conflict with America

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and stepped back and said,

we need to do something

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to de-escalate tensions,

we need to find an off ramp.

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The Winter Olympics here

in South Korea are that ladder

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to climb down for the North Korean

regime, a kind of cover for them

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to de-escalate this very

frightening situation.

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To Tunisia.

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There have been violent

protests in ten cities

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across the country this week.

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And the anger we're

seeing in these places

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is directed at the government

and its austerity policies.

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For example, the New Year

budget government brought

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price and tax increases.

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The BBC's Rana Jawad

is in based in Tunis.

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These protests are essentially are

about the price hikes that Tunisians

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have seen since the beginning of

this new financial year. The

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government has had to impose new

austerity measures in compliance

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with donor countries who are giving

it the much-needed foreign aid. And

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this has included things like a rise

on the tax on imports as well as a

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rise in prices on things like gas

and other essential goods which will

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also affect the prices of for

example the intranet. So people have

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taken to the streets in at least £10

and earlier today in Tunis itself

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there was a small protest downtown.

-- ten towns. People protesting the

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new financial measures and also the

death of the protester in one town

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yesterday night.

Now the government

and opposition do not agree as ever.

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Tunisia's prime minister says he;'s

working to end economic hardship.

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The country's main opposition party

wants these protests to continue.

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Here's Rana on the politics.

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Well we've heard from the Tunisian

Prime Minister so far and he has

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promised the people that this will

be the last difficult financial

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year, economically speaking. He said

that they are facing extraordinary

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and difficult times. However he did

not woody present a plan as to how

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he would ease the burden on the

people which analysts say is mainly

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affecting the weaker class or poorer

population of Tunisia.

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Remember Tunisia was where

the Arab Spring began

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over seven years ago -

a street vendor set himself on fire.

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That eventually led to a Revolution

and the overthrow of the Tunisian

0:07:340:07:38

president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

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But that didn't remove

all of people's frustrations.

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Here's Rana once more.

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Since the revolution in 2011

overthrowing Zine El Abidine Ben Ali

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from power, economically speaking it

has gone backwards. The cost of

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living has steadily risen, inflation

is at its highest at the moment. And

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people are still facing high rates

of unemployment. To top it off of

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course there was the 2014 terror

attacks targeting the tourism

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industry here which also affected

state revenues because Tunisia is

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heavily reliant on the tourism

industry. So all in all it has been

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quite a struggle for the country and

the people to economically recover

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since this revolution.

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This is Norishige Kanai -

he's Japanese - and right now he's

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on the International Space Station.

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He's only been there three weeks

and already he's grown 9cm.

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He's been talking -

I assume tongue in cheek -

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about concerns he won't fit

into his seat on the rocket that

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will bring it back to earth.

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I spoke with Libby Jackson

from the UK Space Agency -

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mostly just to find out how

concerned we should be.

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It is normal for astronauts to grow,

for their back to extend in space

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because as soon as you get up there

floating around you cannot feel the

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effects of gravity and your spine

decompresses and the vertebrae and

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muscles relax. Nine centimetres is a

lot, normally it is between two and

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five centimetres.

Does that have

ramifications for your more general

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health?

Yes, it can cause pain in

your back while you're up there and

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as he said he has got to fit into

his seat in home but I'm sure it

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will not be a problem. The same

colour problems affect ageing

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people, people who have to spend a

long time in bed so it is quite

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important that we studied these

things. And that is what this space

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agency is helping to fund. Is he

going to shrink when he gets back

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home? Yes, as soon as it gets back

on Earth and feels gravity the spine

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will compress again and the muscles

get stronger. There is some risk of

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problems when people come back to

earth and the spine does that but he

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will be fine within a few weeks.

Presumably this is just one of a

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number of physical changes that

occur in space.

Absolutely. Going

0:10:240:10:30

into space, as soon as you get there

at your body starts to adapt because

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you do not feel gravity, your bones

and muscles are weakened and a fluid

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shifts around, lots of things. If

you stayed in space forever it would

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not be a problem with the astronauts

coming back, they do a lot of

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exercise to make sure their strong

as possible for coming back.

If you

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stay up for longer and longer do you

keep getting bigger and bigger dose

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the expansion occur in the first few

days?

Generally in the first few

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days. Scott Kelly spent a year in

space and he grew about six

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centimetres after his stay in space

but he is all back to normal now.

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The body adapts and then you

stabilise and just get used to

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living and working in space.

Thank

you.

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Stay with us on Outside Source -

still to come.

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We'll report from Las Vegas, the

biggest tech event in the world and

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this is one of thousands of gadgets

on show. That is a suitcase that

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will follow you around the airport

without you holding it.

0:11:310:11:42

It is one year since Martin

McGuinness resigned as the Deputy

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First Minister of Northern Ireland

bringing down the Stormont

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government.

The big question is

whether it would be possible to get

0:12:010:12:07

members of the power-sharing

executive back into the building

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behind me. Especially given the bad

blood that exists between the main

0:12:090:12:14

parties the DUP and Sinn Fein.

Yesterday when the former secretary

0:12:140:12:19

of state James Brokenshire released

his resignation letter he said

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Northern Ireland was well into

overtime to try to get this

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executive up and running. And

further intervention would not be

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needed in other words, a return to

direct rule. So the new secular

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state Karen Bradley has got a

challenging job ahead and a very

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full entry. -- in tray.

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This is Outside Source live

from the BBC newsroom.

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Our lead story is...

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North Korea has offered to send

a delegation including athletes

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and journalists to next month's

Winter Olympics in South Korea.

0:13:040:13:06

The offer was made at the first

talks in two years between

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the north and the south.

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Zimbabwe's anti-corruption agency

is investigating whether the former

0:13:120:13:16

First Lady Grace Mugabe fraudulently

obtained a doctorate.

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She was awarded the PhD just

months after enrolling

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at university in 2014.

0:13:240:13:28

A suicide bombing in

the Western Pakistani city of Quetta

0:13:280:13:31

has killed at least seven people.

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A police van was nearby -

and the Pakistan Taliban

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is claiming responsibility.

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And this is the Sahara Desert -

the hottest desert in the world -

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after a very rare snowstorm.

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The biggest tech event

in the world is happening

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in Las Vegas - right now.

0:13:560:13:58

Every year we cover

the Consumer Electronics Show.

0:13:580:14:02

All bases are covered.

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For example this is a suitcase which

we are told will follow you around

0:14:080:14:15

the airport without you having to

touch it. There's a camera that can

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send videos from your home to your

phone. And robots that will take

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simple sketches like this and turn

them into much more complex works of

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art. And all of this of course sits

right on the edge of what is

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possible. Things do not always go to

plan. This bit is excruciating, LG

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Electronics with the robot, Chloe.

Am I on my wash cycle. Even robots

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have bad days! What is for dinner

tonight?

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OK, she's not going to talk to me.

She does not like me, evidently.

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I feel for the robot because I have

days like that when I do not want to

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answer your questions! But this time

I will respond. It is cutting edge

0:15:250:15:31

technology and sometimes goes wrong

but we are seeing great advances,

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even that whole field of robotics

and generally artificial. What we're

0:15:350:15:40

not sure about yet is what will be

the hot new products emerging from

0:15:400:15:45

that. A lot of it is underground,

making your phone smarter,

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recognising photos of you on

Facebook saying that is someone

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else, that is you and that is very

advanced science which has happened

0:15:540:15:58

over the last few years. What we're

seeing is something of a battle

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between the big American companies,

Google of course here in force and

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the newcomers from China. China

really staking claim to be huge in

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artificial intelligence.

In terms of

how CES works, is a business to

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business or can people pay and

coming?

This is just a trade show,

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what you have here is the worlds

technology companies their customers

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in the form of the retailers, their

partners and so on. All eyeing up

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the latest products. Tens of

thousands of products launched each

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year and I think quite a few

disappear without trace. But I have

0:16:360:16:39

been standing in in front of a robot

dog on the Sony stand and the woman

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next to me said to her colleague, I

think we will take that in our store

0:16:450:16:51

later this year. And he was more

sceptical saying, you do not know

0:16:510:16:55

where the dog has come from. Is it a

rescue dog or what. Conversations

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happening all over about which

gadgets are going to take off and

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which are not.

And more of that

through the week.

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Just before the New Year dissed

Ukrainian lawyer was murdered. A few

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days before that she had argued in

court against the release of the man

0:17:180:17:24

who killed her sister in a drink and

drugs car crash in 2015. Today

0:17:240:17:32

Irinia was buried on the outskirts

of Kiev where she had lived and

0:17:320:17:37

died. These are some of the pictures

that came in from the funeral

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earlier and we know that she was

buried next to her sister was my

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great. For the people who knew her

of course this is an incredibly

0:17:460:17:50

upsetting time but her murder has

caused outrage across Ukraine.

0:17:500:17:54

Investigations being seen as a test

of the police and judiciary, both

0:17:540:18:00

seen as being corrupt. The police

are moving quickly and have already

0:18:000:18:03

made an arrest. That has been

greeted with some scepticism. This

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is one MP and activist.

People

understand that the judicial system

0:18:080:18:15

is not about people at all, we

understand it is about corruption

0:18:150:18:20

first of all because all of these

judges for 25 years, first of all we

0:18:200:18:26

have corrupt politicians, the whole

system is corrupt.

Well the identity

0:18:260:18:30

of the person in custody was

confirmed just a short time ago.

0:18:300:18:37

Here are the details. So the man in

custody has been confirmed as the

0:18:370:18:42

63-year-old man who is the father of

the guy whose custody has been

0:18:420:18:50

prolonged by the court. On the day

that Irinia disappear. And was

0:18:500:18:55

killed. Her lawyers, her family

lawyers told the BBC that they have

0:18:550:19:07

suspicions about the ease and

convenience of this particular

0:19:070:19:10

suspect. They consider him to be an

easy target, a scapegoat. He

0:19:100:19:15

admitted that he is indeed the

culprit.

And this is generating

0:19:150:19:24

tension in Ukraine and even the

president has been commenting on

0:19:240:19:27

that. Why has it become this

national issue?

Well Irinia was

0:19:270:19:33

practically unknown in the country

until her activism was brought to

0:19:330:19:39

national media attention by a tweet

from the American embassy expressing

0:19:390:19:45

regret that she disappeared and was

probably died. And then hundreds of

0:19:450:19:49

activists came picketing and

protesting at the interior ministry

0:19:490:19:55

building demanding that she be

found. The society is no longer

0:19:550:19:59

prepared to let the judiciary,

broadly considered to be corrupt and

0:19:590:20:06

inefficient, get away with it. In a

way it is a vigilante activism,

0:20:060:20:12

people demand that the authorities

investigate and find something. It

0:20:120:20:18

is unlike anything we've seen in the

past.

There could be a perception

0:20:180:20:22

the judiciary and police are corrupt

but have they been studies to prove

0:20:220:20:26

that that is the case? Any evidence

that backs up that perception?

Just

0:20:260:20:32

under 10% of criminal, of all crimes

and criminal investigations in

0:20:320:20:39

Ukraine and in prosecutions, Ukraine

has conducted more in the previous

0:20:390:20:46

24 years and yet for society

patience is running out and the

0:20:460:20:52

perception is that the rule of law

that still remains almost

0:20:520:20:57

unachievable as a goal, is not quite

there yet.

We are indebted to the

0:20:570:21:08

BBC World Service for covering these

issues. Later on we hear about the

0:21:080:21:15

manual Macron in Beijing and an old

video of the Iranians supreme leader

0:21:150:21:21

that has gone viral.

0:21:210:21:24

Shares in some big tech firms

are down after Microsoft said it had

0:21:240:21:27

suspended some patches to fix two

major computer chip flaws.

0:21:270:21:33

That's because they froze some

machines powered by AMD chips.

0:21:330:21:43

Samira Hussain is in New York.

0:21:460:21:50

We were told that this would take

one week to fix but it seems it will

0:21:500:21:54

take longer.

What we're talking

about, there are two major

0:21:540:21:59

chip-makers, Intel and AMD. We

already heard from the Intel boss

0:21:590:22:08

saying that the Intel chips, it is

going to be fixed within the next

0:22:080:22:14

week or so. But AMD is suffering

some other problems, these chips had

0:22:140:22:20

a patch and they put out the patch

to try to fix it but Microsoft has

0:22:200:22:24

been receiving complaints from its

customers saying that after they put

0:22:240:22:28

in this fix they are getting a

frozen screen, the dreaded blue

0:22:280:22:33

frozen screen and as a result

Microsoft has said we are not going

0:22:330:22:38

to issue this patch any more until

we can try and figure out some kind

0:22:380:22:42

of six with AMD.

And is there any

evidence that anyone has been

0:22:420:22:48

adversely affected by these

problems?

Not as yet and what a lot

0:22:480:22:53

of people suggest is bad it offers

some kind of window into people's

0:22:530:22:58

computers. But in terms of the

possibility of being hacked people

0:22:580:23:07

say, you are more vulnerable to

other forms of hacking really than

0:23:070:23:11

the kind of vulnerability that

exists in these particular chips.

0:23:110:23:14

And if you're really worried you

should just contact whoever takes

0:23:140:23:17

care of your computer operating

systems. And they should be able to

0:23:170:23:23

try and rectify the situation faster

for you.

How does it work on these

0:23:230:23:28

big firms need to come together to

resolve a problem because usually

0:23:280:23:31

they are rivals were not share any

information with each other.

They're

0:23:310:23:37

not exactly rivals, I would say, in

the case of AMD and Microsoft, AMD

0:23:370:23:43

depends on Microsoft to use their

chips in their computers so it is in

0:23:430:23:47

the best interest of these companies

to work together to try to find a

0:23:470:23:50

fix. The same thing with Intel, a

lot of tech companies use Intel

0:23:500:23:56

chips and it is in the best

interests of Intel to really get

0:23:560:24:00

moving on a patch.

Thank you very

much.

0:24:000:24:02

US President Donald Trump

will mingle with the global elite

0:24:020:24:05

at the World Economic Forum in Davos

later this month.

0:24:050:24:13

The first US president in almost 20

years to go to this gathering in

0:24:130:24:17

Davos.

0:24:170:24:23

Trump's "America First"

policy has put US trade,

0:24:230:24:29

industry and jobs at the fore.

0:24:300:24:34

A strategy at odds with many

0:24:340:24:35

of the poitical and business leaders

flockng to the Swiss Alpine

0:24:350:24:38

gathering.

0:24:380:24:45

Inequality in the workplace

is worse in high tech jobs,

0:24:450:24:47

says a report from US think tank

Pew.

0:24:470:24:50

It polled more than 2,300 workers

in science, technology,

0:24:500:24:52

engineering and maths,

known as STEM.

0:24:520:24:58

And found half of women working

here have experienced

0:24:580:25:00

gender discrimination.

0:25:000:25:02

It's worst in male dominated

workplaces - 78% said they'd

0:25:020:25:05

faced discrimination.

0:25:060:25:07

And almost as bad for those

working in computer jobs -

0:25:070:25:09

the figure is 74%.

0:25:090:25:10

Cary Funk from Pew Research Centre

is the author of the report.

0:25:100:25:16

There are striking differences

between women and men in computer

0:25:160:25:19

jobs, some work in the tech industry

and some do not but this is a wide

0:25:190:25:23

section of people, 74% of women in

these jobs said they had experienced

0:25:230:25:28

workplace discrimination. And both

women are more likely to think that

0:25:280:25:33

where they work, women are not

typically getting a fair shake when

0:25:330:25:36

it comes to opportunities for

promotion and advancement.

An

0:25:360:25:42

interesting development in the US in

the last few minutes, Reuters saying

0:25:420:25:48

that Steve Bannon formerly chief

strategist at the White House,

0:25:480:25:51

currently in charge of Breitbart

News Network commie stepping down as

0:25:510:25:54

executive chairman. So he has gone.

All connected to that book about

0:25:540:25:58

Donald Trump. More on that in the

next few minutes.

0:25:580:26:07

Donald Trump. More on that in the

next few minutes.

0:26:070:26:10

Time for a round-up of some weather

stories from around the globe and we

0:26:110:26:15

start by heading down under and

record-breaking heat in Sydney. And

0:26:150:26:23

here is an image of one of the big

shower clouds looming over Sydney

0:26:230:26:27

after that heat. It was a colossal

storm. It could be seen from space.

0:26:270:26:34

It started off pretty small, then

swung through the morning bringing

0:26:340:26:42

torrents of rain and flashes of

lightning and thunder. That system

0:26:420:26:46

tagging onto the tail end of this

area of low pressure and we start to

0:26:460:26:52

see that affecting New Zealand later

in the week. A fresher feel finally

0:26:520:27:00

for Sydney for the next few days.

Now the Eastern seaboard of the

0:27:000:27:05

United States is warming up through

Wednesday, Thursday and Friday.

0:27:050:27:10

Notice those brighter colours but

another plunge of cold air coming

0:27:100:27:13

down across the plains by Friday.

That could give some complications

0:27:130:27:19

once again on the Eastern seaboard.

We are keeping an eye on this low

0:27:190:27:22

pressure as it moves East Tuesday

and Wednesday, introducing mild air

0:27:220:27:27

and bringing some rain to the Ohio

Valley. Freezing rain in fact

0:27:270:27:36

because it lands on frozen surfaces.

Then milder air brushing through the

0:27:360:27:39

East coast on Friday with colder

tagging in behind. Again we could

0:27:390:27:44

see some torrential rain and snow

storms again through the north-east.

0:27:440:27:54

Across to Europe now and it is a ski

resort, not used to seeing quite

0:27:540:28:04

such an inundation of snow. In fact

some resorts have been forced to

0:28:040:28:09

shut on Tuesday because of such

large amounts of snow. And very high

0:28:090:28:15

avalanche conditions as well. That

low now clearing away eastwards but

0:28:150:28:23

we have this area developing and

pushing towards the Bay of this

0:28:230:28:27

paper Wednesday. That looks as if it

will bring nasty conditioned into

0:28:270:28:32

Spain, France and across the

Pyrenees. Wednesday night into

0:28:320:28:39

Thursday. And as for the Alps

themselves, looking a little bit

0:28:390:28:43

quieter for the middle of the week.

Closer to home some rain soaked bush

0:28:430:28:48

across the British Isles and the

next 24 hours but brighter skies on

0:28:480:28:52

the way on Wednesday for many. More

details on that in half an hour.

0:28:520:29:00

Hello, I'm Ros Atkins,

this is Outside Source,

0:30:100:30:12

and these are the main stories

here in the BBC Newsroom.

0:30:120:30:14

North and South Korea meet

for the first time in two years,

0:30:140:30:17

but is it enough to diffuse

the nuclear threats and what does it

0:30:170:30:20

mean for relations with the west.

0:30:200:30:22

We have learned the North Koreans

will be sending a significant

0:30:220:30:24

delegation to the Winter Olympics in

South Korea next month.

0:30:240:30:30

Violent clashes against

the government's austerity

0:30:300:30:31

measures sweep over Tunisia,

seven years after protests

0:30:310:30:33

there sparked the Arab Spring.

0:30:330:30:34

there sparked the Arab Spring.

0:30:340:30:35

This Ukrainian lawyer successfully

argued in court against the release

0:30:350:30:37

of her sister's killer.

0:30:370:30:40

But then she was murdered.

0:30:400:30:48

We look into the case that has

outraged the country.

0:30:480:30:53

Steve Bannon has stepped down from

Breitbart News after that public

0:30:530:30:57

break with President Trump.

0:30:570:31:00

Your questions are always welcome.

0:31:000:31:01

#BBCOS is the hashtag.

0:31:010:31:08

Every day we bring you some of the

most pressing global stories.

0:31:200:31:25

Now I want to turn to

the Central African Republic -

0:31:250:31:28

it's not a country we cover very

often here on Outside Source.

0:31:280:31:31

It's not because we don't want to -

it's just really difficult to get

0:31:310:31:34

clear and accurate information.

0:31:340:31:35

Today we had this tweet.

0:31:350:31:41

Around 30,000 people have fled

fighting and are taking

0:31:410:31:43

refuge in Paoua town.

0:31:430:31:44

All peripheral health centres

are closed and very few

0:31:440:31:46

wounded casualties have

reached the hospital.

0:31:460:31:55

There's the broader map

of Central African Republic and

0:31:550:31:57

you can see that town

near the border with Chad.

0:31:570:31:59

A Medicines Sans Frontier team has

been to the hospital which is why

0:31:590:32:02

it's a source of new information.

0:32:020:32:04

To understand what's

happening, we turned

0:32:040:32:05

as we often do to Mary Harper.

0:32:050:32:13

MSF says 30,000 people have been

displaced by some recent fighting in

0:32:130:32:17

the west of the Central African

Republic which is an area that

0:32:170:32:20

hasn't been that badly affected by

fighting until now. They've come to

0:32:200:32:25

this town called Paoua. They are

telling the most horrific stories of

0:32:250:32:29

people being killed, injured. They

describe men on horseback coming and

0:32:290:32:35

shooting people, anything that moves

they shoot. An SF is particularly

0:32:350:32:39

worried because it had to abandon

the health centres where it was

0:32:390:32:44

working in these areas. Seven health

centres. MSF worried out of the

0:32:440:32:49

dirty dozen people who have fled and

the others killed and injured, only

0:32:490:32:55

13 people have checked themselves

into this town -- MSF are worried

0:32:550:33:00

that out of the 30,000 people who

have fled.

What's driving the

0:33:000:33:05

violence?

MSF says this violence,

even though there are some rebel

0:33:050:33:11

groups, they are basically taxing

people for their livestock and

0:33:110:33:19

houses. They are basically exporting

from people and killing them on

0:33:190:33:23

their way. It seems to be the most

purposeless violence that hasn't got

0:33:230:33:30

any A more ambition in mind except

to create mayhem and chaos and total

0:33:300:33:35

misery for civilians.

Evidently

central government and the regional

0:33:350:33:40

authorities are not able to stop

this?

Interestingly, MSF which

0:33:400:33:46

normally avoids politics came out

with quite a harsh statement. They

0:33:460:33:51

basically said the government is

unable to protect civilians and

0:33:510:33:55

that's why all of these problems are

occurring. If you look at a map of

0:33:550:34:00

the Central African Republic right

in the heart of Africa, and you look

0:34:000:34:03

at the areas where there is

conflict, there are little

0:34:030:34:07

explosions almost everywhere in the

country and the government is

0:34:070:34:12

confined to the capital, unable to

protect people beyond the confines

0:34:120:34:16

of the capital. That's the problem.

I appreciate the similarities are

0:34:160:34:21

limited but Somalia is a place with

a government that can't control all

0:34:210:34:25

of its territory and it gets a lot

of support from the African union

0:34:250:34:29

and other agencies. Does the

government in CAR get the same?

If

0:34:290:34:36

you think about Somalia not only do

they have 22,000 African union

0:34:360:34:41

troops, they have American military

advisers and people from other

0:34:410:34:45

countries in the world. Central

African Republic has a minimal

0:34:450:34:48

amount of outside intervention and

is often described as Africa's

0:34:480:34:54

forgotten conflict. This conflict

has been going on for five years and

0:34:540:34:59

it's still one that appears to have

no end in sight.

Why is it that CAR

0:34:590:35:04

is forgotten to the degree that

Somalia isn't?

Probably because

0:35:040:35:12

Somalia has an Islamist militia that

is allied with Al-Qaeda leader. It

0:35:120:35:15

is seen as a sort of threat, not

just to the people of Somalia but

0:35:150:35:19

that the people of the region and to

the wider world. The Islamist group

0:35:190:35:25

Al-Shabaab has threatened western

shopping centres, its threatened

0:35:250:35:28

London. That means it attracts

international attention. Whereas

0:35:280:35:34

Central African Republic, even

though so many people are displaced,

0:35:340:35:37

so many people are suffering, it

isn't a conflict that threatens

0:35:370:35:42

anything except for itself and its

neighbouring countries because so

0:35:420:35:47

many displaced people are fleeing.

It doesn't have international

0:35:470:35:51

repercussions really and the world

has been able to turn its back on

0:35:510:35:56

the country.

If you want to

0:35:560:35:58

learn more about any of the

countries we cover their country

0:35:580:36:03

profiles available on the News

website. A huge political story in

0:36:030:36:09

the US, Steve Bannon was the chief

strategist in the White House is not

0:36:090:36:12

so many months ago. Now he is not

only out of the White House, he now

0:36:120:36:16

stood down as the person in charge

of Breitbart News. Our reporter is

0:36:160:36:23

live from Washington, DC. Did we see

this coming?

I think the writing was

0:36:230:36:28

on the wall. We've seen a press

release from Rebecca Mercer who was

0:36:280:36:33

one of Breitbart's chief funders,

very wealthy family, disavowing

0:36:330:36:37

their ties to Steve Bannon. There

was talk about meetings at

0:36:370:36:42

high-level about whether to keep him

on at Breitbart. Here we are,

0:36:420:36:48

apparently it's going to be

effective Tuesday but the news is

0:36:480:36:50

already posted on the Breitbart

website. It is a remarkable fall for

0:36:500:36:55

Steve Bannon. Just five months ago

he was a senior adviser at the White

0:36:550:36:59

House. He was Trump's campaign

chair, very influential in the early

0:36:590:37:05

days of the administration and here

he is now effectively unemployed.

In

0:37:050:37:09

terms of the politics of the

country, I guess this reasserts

0:37:090:37:13

Donald Trump as the primary figure

for a particular type of American

0:37:130:37:17

who wants a particular type of

politics.

Right. It's interesting

0:37:170:37:22

earlier today Donald Trump was

sitting down holding a bipartisan

0:37:220:37:28

meeting to talk about comprehensive

immigration reform. That's an issue

0:37:280:37:31

that the Steve Bannon s of the world

were very much against, any kind of

0:37:310:37:38

compromise on immigration. It could

represent that the Trump

0:37:380:37:42

administration is at least moving

somewhat away from this

0:37:420:37:46

nationalistic populism that Steve

Bannon represents, at least on

0:37:460:37:50

things like immigration or tax

reform with the big corporate tax

0:37:500:37:54

cut that was just past.

I'm assuming

we should draw a straight line

0:37:540:37:57

between what's happened here and the

book by Michael Wolff.

I think that

0:37:570:38:02

obviously was the nail in the coffin

of Steve Bannon. Steve Bannon went

0:38:020:38:06

after Donald Trump's family in very

personal terms, he said Donald Trump

0:38:060:38:13

Jr may have committed treason by

meeting with Russians during the

0:38:130:38:18

presidential campaign. He called

Ivanka Trump dumb as a brick and

0:38:180:38:22

said she had her own presidential

ambitions. That prompted a sharply

0:38:220:38:26

worded rebuttal from Trump who said

Steve Bannon had effectively lost

0:38:260:38:30

his mind. I think that was what put

him over the edge as far as his

0:38:300:38:36

involvement with Breitbart News.

Help me out with the midterms. They

0:38:360:38:40

are coming up later in the year.

Steve Bannon had big plans to put up

0:38:400:38:46

particular candidates against

mainstream Republican candidates,

0:38:460:38:49

presumably without Breitbart

alongside that tasks becomes harder?

0:38:490:38:53

I think there are a lots of

Republican incumbents smiling right

0:38:530:38:56

now. First and foremost Mitch

McConnell who had been in a war of

0:38:560:39:01

words for months with Steve Bannon.

Steve Bannon said he was going to

0:39:010:39:04

fund and support antiestablishment

candidates to run against every

0:39:040:39:10

single Republican senator up for

re-election later this year except

0:39:100:39:13

for Ted Cruz in Texas. The first one

he backed was Roy Moore who ran in

0:39:130:39:21

Alabama and upset the incumbent

Republican in a primary at the

0:39:210:39:26

middle of last year, and then lost

in the general election to a

0:39:260:39:30

Democrat in December. That was the

beginning signs of his star

0:39:300:39:34

diminishing somewhat. There are

Republicans in the establishment,

0:39:340:39:39

officeholders across Washington

right now, that are probably

0:39:390:39:41

breathing a sigh of relief because

Bannon doesn't have the media empire

0:39:410:39:46

or the money at all with the Mercers

pulling out.

0:39:460:40:02

Steve Bannon is stepping down as the

man in charge of right part. On most

0:40:040:40:11

of the big US political developments

when you go on the website you find

0:40:110:40:15

Anthony or Jon Sobel's analysis.

0:40:150:40:22

Next a report on Bitcoin in Uganda.

0:40:220:40:23

Not something we've covered before -

You'll know what's been

0:40:230:40:26

happening with bitcoin.

0:40:260:40:31

It's a digital currency. Last year

its value was around $1000. It went

0:40:310:40:41

up to around $16,000. Some people

made an awful lot of money on that,

0:40:410:40:46

but not everyone.

0:40:460:40:48

Here's Catherine Byaruhanga.

0:40:480:40:52

Like many Ugandans, this lady is

always looking for new ways to make

0:40:520:40:56

cash. After trying different options

such as selling clothes and even

0:40:560:41:01

moneylending, she settled on

Bitcoin. Since August she's bought

0:41:010:41:06

more than $1000 worth of Bitcoin.

That investment has multiplied.

When

0:41:060:41:13

I first invested in Bitcoin I just

wanted my income to grow. Now that

0:41:130:41:16

it has grown, I'd like to buy a car,

I'd like to buy land, build a house.

0:41:160:41:27

No one knows how many people own

cryptocurrency is in Uganda. But

0:41:270:41:32

anecdotal evidence shows the numbers

are growing. Mobile phones and

0:41:320:41:38

growing access to the internet are

making it easier for Ugandans to buy

0:41:380:41:43

digital currencies. You just

download an apt and then can use

0:41:430:41:47

Mobile money already stored with

your network or even a bank

0:41:470:41:54

transferred to buy cryptocurrency.

There are now lessons on trading the

0:41:540:41:59

new currencies. Over 50 people

attend these weekly classes by

0:41:590:42:05

Martin. He says high youth

unemployment is attracting

0:42:050:42:09

individuals to digital currencies.

If you don't have factory jobs and

0:42:090:42:13

you don't have corporate jobs, to

serve the thousands of young people

0:42:130:42:20

coming out of the universities, this

is an alternative.

But as well as

0:42:200:42:24

the winners, some are making big

losses. This man has just finished

0:42:240:42:33

university and is looking for his

first job.

I lost everything, within

0:42:330:42:36

12 hours. Cryptocurrencies can

easily bring in low sales. If it's a

0:42:360:42:45

low sale it's really low. If it's a

profit, I'd make $200.

Whilst some

0:42:450:42:54

Ugandans see this new industry as

the future, regulators here warned

0:42:540:42:58

that it's risky. And only for those

who can handle the losses when they

0:42:580:43:04

happen.

0:43:040:43:11

We started this half in Kampala and

Washington. Next we turned to Iran

0:43:110:43:16

because a video of its supreme

leader speaking almost 30 years ago

0:43:160:43:19

has emerged. In it he says he's not

qualified for the job. The clip has

0:43:190:43:24

gone viral. TRANSLATION:

One should

shed tears of blood for an Islamic

0:43:240:43:35

society that would even consider

someone like me to be its leader.

0:43:350:43:40

There are serious technical issues

with this decision.

Undoubtedly one

0:43:400:43:48

of the things driving beehive

viewing figures is the fact he

0:43:480:43:54

supreme leader spoke out against

those anti-government protests last

0:43:540:43:57

week.

There are constitutional

issues with him being the leader,

0:43:570:44:04

and what became clear was that this

was a session behind closed doors

0:44:040:44:09

that the members of the assembly

don't want the people to know about.

0:44:090:44:14

Now there are serious questions. 30

years on, how he's still the leader

0:44:140:44:18

of Iran and how come nobody has

talked about the fact he was

0:44:180:44:23

supposed to be a caretaker not a

lifetime leader? Like most leagues

0:44:230:44:27

there is definitely a political

agenda behind it. The journalists we

0:44:270:44:31

spoke with said that he received the

video last week during the height of

0:44:310:44:35

the protests in Iran and he knows

his sources wanted to publish it but

0:44:350:44:41

he wanted to make sure it was

credible. Clearly the supreme leader

0:44:410:44:45

is going through a crisis. His

legitimacy is in doubt. After the

0:44:450:44:50

protests in which people said debt

to the dictator, death to the

0:44:500:44:54

supreme leader, now this video has

emerged which shows he himself

0:44:540:44:57

wasn't sure about the job.

0:44:570:45:01

Toby Young has resigned

from his role on the board

0:45:010:45:03

of a new university regulator.

0:45:030:45:05

He says he was forced to stand down

because "My appointment has become

0:45:050:45:08

a distraction from its vital work

of broadening access

0:45:080:45:10

to higher education

and defending academic freedom".

0:45:100:45:14

He got the job because of his role

in co-founding and running this

0:45:140:45:18

free school in London.

0:45:180:45:22

But comments he's made

in the past on social media

0:45:220:45:24

quickly became the story.

0:45:240:45:28

Here's an example from 2012.

0:45:280:45:31

And in a Spectator article

from the same year, he wrote

0:45:380:45:41

schools have got to be

"inclusive" these days.

0:45:410:45:44

There was no shortage of people

lining up to condemn

0:46:000:46:02

Toby Young for these comments.

0:46:020:46:03

This is the chair of

the Education Select Committee.

0:46:030:46:09

I thought that if you are put on a

regulator for students, for

0:46:100:46:15

universities, it would undermine

confidence in that institution if

0:46:150:46:19

you had somebody with those kind of

use in post. I just thought it was

0:46:190:46:22

wrong.

0:46:220:46:24

Toby Young has his supporters too.

0:46:240:46:27

Here's the political

journalist Isabel Oakeshott.

0:46:290:46:34

She went on to say his resignation

is a great loss.

0:46:410:46:46

Toby Young's departure comes

on the same day as lots of comings

0:46:460:46:48

and goings at Number 10.

0:46:490:46:50

Here's Theresa May's new cabinet -

her reshuffle has seen more women

0:46:500:46:56

and MP's from ethnic minority

backgrounds appointed as ministers.

0:46:560:47:04

Not everyone is happy with how that

issue is being described.

0:47:040:47:09

Although the Telegraph's senior

political correspondent Kate McCann

0:47:090:47:12

makes this point.

0:47:120:47:15

For more on all of this let's speak

to Iain Watson at Millbank.

0:47:210:47:26

Do you think the Prime Minister was

setting out to suggest that this is

0:47:260:47:30

a more diverse approach to senior

government?

Absolutely. That was one

0:47:300:47:36

of the key things she wanted to

achieve from this reshuffle. She is

0:47:360:47:41

able to say there are 37 female

ministers. Not all round the Cabinet

0:47:410:47:47

table. Also more ethnic minority

ministers than ever before, up from

0:47:470:47:52

four to nine. The argument being

made by dining street is that

0:47:520:47:56

although some are in junior

positions, they are beginning the

0:47:560:48:00

construction of a ministerial

pipeline. People getting their first

0:48:000:48:03

fit in the ministerial door and will

in future be able to take more

0:48:030:48:08

prominent positions. When I was

speaking to Downing Street official

0:48:080:48:13

spokesman he wouldn't be drawn on

suggestions that this was about

0:48:130:48:19

political correctness or box

ticking. He simply said they've got

0:48:190:48:22

the best team to take on Britain's

challengers. Yes, no question the

0:48:220:48:26

Prime Minister herself set out to

have a more diverse team and she

0:48:260:48:31

herself has said effectively

government ministers should look a

0:48:310:48:33

bit more like the country that they

are aspiring to govern. But was a

0:48:330:48:37

motivating factor. Of course the

very top team, those at the very top

0:48:370:48:45

state either because she felt too

weak to move them in the first blaze

0:48:450:48:48

because some of them dug their heels

in.

It's been an interesting day.

0:48:480:48:53

Some people say the Prime Minister

is weak and can't reshuffle the

0:48:530:48:57

people at the top, you read other

people who say the Brexit Bill

0:48:570:49:00

before Christmas has strengthened

her. The fact she can pick these

0:49:000:49:03

people with a long-term view shows

she is stronger than ever. What

0:49:030:49:07

you're reading?

I think both can

actually be true. On the one hand

0:49:070:49:14

she wants to see a more diverse

range of ministers and in due course

0:49:140:49:19

perhaps even her eventual successor

will come from a new crop. She wants

0:49:190:49:23

to bring on people elected in 2015

and 2017 who may have some specific

0:49:230:49:28

skills. Also putting extra ministers

into areas that she regards as a

0:49:280:49:35

priority, including the Brexit

Department. Also a new social care

0:49:350:49:40

minister and an additional minister

for housing. These are seen as

0:49:400:49:45

priorities in areas where she will

be battling against a Labour

0:49:450:49:49

government. She didn't set out to

move some of her top team. Many of

0:49:490:49:54

the Brexiteers were critical of

Philip Hammond as Chancellor. She

0:49:540:49:58

certainly didn't feel strong enough

to take them on and what was also

0:49:580:50:02

interesting was when Jeremy Hunt

didn't want to move, then frankly

0:50:020:50:05

she didn't move him. In addition to

that, talking about more diversity,

0:50:050:50:11

she lost an MP, the Education

Secretary, who comes from a northern

0:50:110:50:15

background, who is gay and also

educated at a comprehensive School.

0:50:150:50:21

There has been some criticism that

the new cabinet is more reliant on

0:50:210:50:25

people who come from fee-paying

schools and Oxbridge than the

0:50:250:50:29

cabinet it replaced.

Thank you.

0:50:290:50:33

Emmanuel Macron in Beijing.

0:50:330:50:34

The very important trade matters

talks he's been holding -

0:50:340:50:36

have been somewhat overshadowed

by his effort - in mandarin - to say

0:50:360:50:39

"make our planet great again".

0:50:390:50:49

SPEAKS MANDARIN.

0:51:010:51:05

Here's how Vincent Ni from the BBC's

Chinese Service rated

0:51:050:51:08

Mr Macron's efforts.

0:51:080:51:13

Very good. In fact this is one of

the most tweeted videos and China's

0:51:130:51:20

internet this morning. This has been

seen as a very successful trip. I

0:51:200:51:24

think it has been branded and in

practice is a very successful trip

0:51:240:51:29

from both sides.

Why is Mr Macron

going down well?

First of all he is

0:51:290:51:35

hugely popular, ever since his

election as the youngest ever leader

0:51:350:51:38

in France. He has been very popular

in China. He has an amazing story to

0:51:380:51:47

tell in China. He has also been very

eloquent in front of the Chinese

0:51:470:51:52

leader Xi Jinping. But on the other

hand, the Chinese president also has

0:51:520:51:59

something he wants from Macron. For

example he went to one of the Asian

0:51:590:52:04

cities in China as an endorsement of

Xi Jinping's initiative.

Is he being

0:52:040:52:14

treated as just the president of

France or being seen as a

0:52:140:52:17

representative of the EU as well?

I

think he has been seen as both. From

0:52:170:52:24

one side he is a representative of

France. He has sent 15 business

0:52:240:52:29

delegates to China to sign these

deals. On the other hand Emmanuel

0:52:290:52:32

Macron has been working hard to

brand himself as a competent

0:52:320:52:39

emerging leader in Europe at a time.

Germany is mired in this complicated

0:52:390:52:48

coalition talks. So he is now

branding himself as this leader in a

0:52:480:52:53

New Year. On the other hand, he is a

descent of France, he is a leader of

0:52:530:53:03

the new Europe.

We are going to

finish the programme on Australia's

0:53:030:53:07

Great Barrier Reef. Today we are

being told that the green sea turtle

0:53:070:53:15

population on the reef is now 99%

female.

0:53:150:53:20

The reason is that the temperature

of the water around

0:53:200:53:22

the reef is rising.

0:53:220:53:23

Researchers say climate change

is causing that rise.

0:53:230:53:25

This is a green turtle -

and their sex is influenced

0:53:250:53:28

by temperatures during

their incubation period.

0:53:280:53:31

The turtles dig nests in beaches -

and small differences in temperature

0:53:310:53:34

can turn the whole nest 100%

male or female.

0:53:340:53:39

Here's more on this

from the charity WWF Australia.

0:53:390:53:48

This new research has found that of

the Northern population of the green

0:53:480:53:55

sea turtle on the Great Barrier

Reef, virtually over the last decade

0:53:550:54:00

or two decades, virtually no males

have been born from turtle nests.

0:54:000:54:05

This is due to higher temperatures

resulting in higher sand, and of

0:54:050:54:10

course the male to female sex ratio

is determined by the temperature of

0:54:100:54:17

the sand in which they are laid.

This population is a very important

0:54:170:54:22

population for the Great Barrier

Reef but is also globally important.

0:54:220:54:26

It is the first time we've been able

to use science to show what is a

0:54:260:54:32

really invisible impact of climate

change. No males being born over a

0:54:320:54:39

20 year period. The coral bleaching

we've had over the last couple of

0:54:390:54:42

years have been very visible, we've

lost nearly 50% of inshore reefs.

0:54:420:54:47

This is an invisible threat that

science has been able to shine a

0:54:470:54:51

light and.

I'll see you tomorrow at

the same time for more of the

0:54:510:54:54

biggest global stories.

0:54:540:54:59