02/05/2012 World News Today


02/05/2012

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This is BBC World News Today with me Kirsty Lang. The Chinese

:00:11.:00:15.

activist who sought santuary at the American Embassy in Beijing speaks

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out. Chen Guangcheng says he only left because the Chinese

:00:19.:00:24.

authorities threatened to beat his wife to death if the he didn't. An

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echo of last year's Arab Spring as more than 20 demonstrators in care

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owe are killed in front of the Ministry of Defence. We saw four

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people come in with head injuries. They died instantly and three other

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injuries were also very critical. They died on their way here.

:00:42.:00:47.

France's presidential candidates prepare for a live TV debate. Can

:00:47.:00:51.

Nicolas Sarkozy better his opponent, Francois Hollande, and turn his

:00:51.:00:55.

campaign around? Also coming up in the programme. From the United

:00:55.:00:59.

Nations, how the lives of nearly a million premature babies could be

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saved across the world. The way we live now. Why the Bauhaus movement

:01:04.:01:14.
:01:14.:01:23.

set up nearly a century ago is The extraordinary story of one of

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China's most prominent dissidents took a sinister twist today. After

:01:27.:01:37.
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Tempers flares. This was one of Beijing's biggest hospitals this

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afternoon. Chinese security agents desperate to keep one of the

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country's best-known human rights activists hidden from us. At the

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end of the corridor, in a wheelchair, we caught him. Chen

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Guangcheng, his leg injured in a dramatic escape to the US Embassy

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last week. The sill wets are his wife and two children, long held

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captive by Chinese security, today reunited with him. We see Chen

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Guangcheng inside and his wife. She told the BBC she was fine, her two

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children are there. Her husband is having a checkup. We are being

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moved out of the hospital. blind lawyer became an icon after

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he exposed how thousands of women had undergone forced abortions. For

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several years he was held under house arrest. He escaped last week,

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even though he had nearly 100 guards watching him. His overriding

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desire was to ensure his family could live fear -- free from the

:03:13.:03:21.

harassment and beatings they had endured. His escape has embarrassed

:03:21.:03:27.

the Chinese leaders. Chinese state television today said America's

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actions amounted to unacceptable ininterference in China's affairs

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and they demanded a authority. The US said there won't be one. Hillary

:03:39.:03:44.

Clinton is in Beijing for talks on a host of Major issues. Chen

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Guangcheng said US officials told him China was threatening to beat

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his family to death if he didn't leave the embassy. Chen Guangcheng

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said the threat to his family was the reason he quit the embassy.

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TRANSLATION: If I didn't leave Chinese authorities were going to

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put my family in danger. I need help now. Tonight, Chen Guangcheng

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and his family are in the hospital under guard with no US diplomats

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protecting them, afraid once more for his own safety much he says he

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wants to leave China. I'm joined now by Robert Kuhn, advisor to the

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Chinese government, chairman of The Kuhn Foundation and author of, How

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China's Leaders Think. What do you make of this allegation by Mr Chen

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that he was threatened, his wife was threatened unless he left the

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embassy? First of all, we have a confused situation. It's helpful to

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begin with the background. This is a very embarrassing situation for

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China in the run-up to the change of leadership, the 18th party

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congress and in light of all the recent scandal with the firing and

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all the allegations. We have the bad timing from China's point of

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view of the strategic and economic dialogue with Hillary Clinton and

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Timothy good nighter in in China. The second situation we have to

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consider is that the fact that we have such a confused situation

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often is normal. We really don't know the status. Mr Chen actually

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with the ambassador called the Washington Post on the way to the

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hospital in a positive mood. Now, we hear the report from the

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Associated Press that you just reported. We don't know the status.

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The fact that the government is put out on the official media that

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demanding an apology and being very indignant, this could be quite

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normal because, in these types of situations, it is proper diplomacy

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for each side to present their own view. Hillary Clinton has talked

:06:06.:06:09.

about that America will be in touch with him. That everything has been

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assured. I want to ask you about that. The story was that Hillary

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Clinton said, don't worry, we will make sure we follow his progress,

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welfare visits to the family? Will the Chinese authorise authorities

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really allow America to monitor a Chinese citizen like that? Well,

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look, the world is different today because of the internet and

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everybody having immediate access to information. The Chinese

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leadership will have one objective, to make this story go away as

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quickly as possible without dramatically losing face,

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particularly with its own people. They have to find a way to make

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that happen. Normally, the way it happens is that both sides are

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allowed to describe the same situation in what seems to be

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radically different terms. That seems to be happening. Hillary

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Clinton statements were very clear and the Chinese government, when

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they are saying they demand an apology, that is also clear. If you

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read it carefully, they do not contradict. My best guess is that

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this has been a negotiated and carefully designed programme that

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both sides have greed to, in terms of the United States leadership and

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Chinese leadership. The question is Mr Chen himself is in an emotional

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state. He may be making different comments at different times. That

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is clearly the case today. We have to wait on that. My suspicion is

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that the Americans and Chinese have worked this out very carefully.

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Thank you very much. In Cairo, at least 20 people have been killed

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while holding a demonstration outside the Egyptian Ministry of

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Defence. In the early hours of this morning, an unknown group of

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attackers set upon the protesters using rocks, clubs and shotguns.

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The demonstrators were complaining about the exclusion of a hard line

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Islamist candidate from the Presidental election, which is

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being held in three weeks' time. Here is Jon Leyne. Political

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violence is back on the streets of Cairo, just three weeks before the

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Egyptian presidential elections. Mostly the weapons are sticks and

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stones and firebombs, there is the sound of gunfire somewhere in the

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background. Demonstrators who were protesting about the exclusion of

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their candidate from the election say they were attacked unprovoked

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just before dawn. The people who are here are peaceful protesters.

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They don't do anything. They stay here, sleeping here, that is it.

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There are some people could come from the other side attacking them.

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The people protesting here don't do anything. Just defence. Since then

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the exchanges have continued throughout the morning with a rise

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in casualty tolls. Many victims are taken to an emergency field

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hospital. That has been struggling to cope.

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TRANSLATION: We saw four people come in with head injuries. They

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died instantly. Three other injuries were also very critical.

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They died on their way here. This is where the confrontation broke

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out in the early hours of the morning. The demonstrators say

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people came in from the surrounding area and attacked them at this

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crossroads. Prot tersors have set up these barricades to protect

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their protest. It's beginning to feel a bit like ta rear square

:09:35.:09:45.
:09:45.:09:46.

during the revolution last year. They used some people to kill us.

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They give them money, food and weapons to kill us. I think that

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they are wishing us to attack them so they say that we are not the

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victims, but we are the attackers. With the protest continuing two

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presidential candidates have suspended their campaign. More

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demonstrators are arriving here all the time. I'm joined now from Cairo

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by the Egyptian journalist, Shahira Amin, who witnessed the

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demonstrations today. Do you have any theories about who these

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attackers might of been? No-one is really sure who they are. They are

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unknown assailants, but they are well armed. They were carrying

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batons, some of them, teargas canisters, mol to have cocktails

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and live munitions. There are suspicions they may be security

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officers in plain clothes otherwise how would they of got the teargas.

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You were watching it, was it well organised? Very well organised. The

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security forces have stood by and let this happen. It looks like they

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are implicated in what's taking place. You were watching security

:11:11.:11:18.

forces standing there watching people being killed? Absolutely.

:11:18.:11:22.

They've done very little to stop the clashes. They just let this

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happen. It started off as a peaceful protest. It's turned into

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a blood bath, a full fledged massacre, really. Say it is members,

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plain clothesed members of the security forces, what would their

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intention be? Why would they want it to happen? There are all sorts

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of theories flying around. There are suspicions that the military

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council would like to postpone the Presidental election. They called a

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meeting today with political parties, but seven political

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parties boycotted the meeting in protest at the events. Some of them

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think that the military council was going to tell them that they want

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to postpone the Presidental election and, of course, this will

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set off another wave of unrest, if it happens. So, in other words, the

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idea is to cause maximum chaos so the military council can say, we

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can't Holdsworth an election right now? These are the suspicions, yes,

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:12:40.:12:42.

but not confirmed. Thank you very much. The other news. Aung San Suu

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Kyi has taken up her seat in Burma's Parliament, a month after

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she and her party enjoyed sweeping success in by-elections. The

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ceremony is the first time that the Nobel Laureate has held public

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office. She also said it didn't "bother" her to sit in the same

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chamber as the military leadership despite her long incarceration at

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their hands. Syrian government forces have clashed with army

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defectors in the country's north, further inflaming an area near the

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Turkish border where rebel fighters have tried to seize territory.

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Syrian human rights group says 20 military personnel and two rebel

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fighters were killed in the fighting in Aleppo and Damascus.

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The UN Security Council has threatened Sudan and South Sudan

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with sanctions if the former civil war foes don't stop an escalating

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conflict. The UN also wants the two countries to resume talks within a

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fortnight on a string of disputes over oil revenues and border

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demarcation. A British coroner says an intelligence worker, whose naked

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body was found inside a padlocked but his death might never be

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explained. Gareth Williams worked as a code breaker for the British

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intelligence agency, MI6. His body was discovered in a sports bag in

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the bath at his London flat in 2010. Two British tourists in Australia

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have been find $1,000 after breaking into a theme park where

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they swam with dolphins and then stole a penguin. The penguin was

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later rescued and returned to the marine park unharmed. The two

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candidates in the French presidential election will meet

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face-to-face for a live TV debate. Nicolas Sarkozy, the current

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President, wanted three, his socialist challenger Francois

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Hollande greed to just one. The debate is widely seen as Mr

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Sarkozy's last chance to regain the initiative after losing to Mr

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Hollande in the first round of voting last months? Have they

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arrived yet? No. Mr Hollande looks very relaxed. Nicolas Sarkozy the

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under dog trailing behind in the polls looking edgey and aggressive.

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Again, how the French public perceive him. Style is very much as

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important as content. The French will want to hear about the economy,

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about rising unemployment, they also want to see which man better

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fits the role of the French It is thought that Nicolas Sarkozy

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is a better TV performer. That is what he believes, and that is why

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he said,, and face the full three debates, because he believes that

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he can flatten his opponent. He has said that he is going to

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atomisation. There is going to be a lot of progress of talks. But

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Francois Hollande should not be underestimated. He has lost a lot

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of weight, after being mocked for that. Since the first round of the

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election, he has been getting down to the nitty-gritty of his policies,

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and he is coming good across as presidential and a man with a sense

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of humour. Nicolas Sarkozy could meet his match tonight. They have

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seen each other before it televised debate in the 1990s, but 20 million

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French people or more are expected to tune in tonight to see them

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face-off, one against the other. The economy is the top issue, but

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they will also discuss international affairs, and the

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welfare state. People will be looking at the style. It has been

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compared to a heavyweight boxing match. We have heard every detail

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of the debate before the debate, how high they are sitting up, the

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fact that each one of them will have their own air-conditioning

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unit, and how the lighting has been adjusted to make sure that Francois

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Hollande's pulled patch will not shine too much. The French know

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everything about the debate, now they want to know what the men have

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to say. Every year, 15 million babies

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around the world are born prematurely, and 1.1 million will

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die. According to a report just released by the United Nations. The

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report reveals the disparities between high and low income

:17:41.:17:47.

countries in strategies for cutting the number of deaths globally.

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A pregnant woman being examined in India, the country with the

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greatest number of premature births each year, over 3.5 million. Next,

:17:56.:18:02.

China. Between them, they account for nearly a third. When the size

:18:02.:18:05.

of the population is taken into account, the highest rate of

:18:05.:18:11.

premature births is in Malawi, 18 out of every 100 births. The number

:18:11.:18:17.

of pre-term births across the world is increasing. In many low income

:18:17.:18:21.

countries, the reasons for the increase include infections,

:18:21.:18:27.

malaria, HIV and high adolescent pregnancy rates. In high-income

:18:27.:18:31.

countries, it is linked to the number of older women having babies,

:18:31.:18:35.

the increased use of fertility drugs, begin to multiple

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pregnancies, and in some countries, medically unnecessary inductions

:18:39.:18:43.

and Caesarean deliveries before full term. It is the differences in

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survival rates that the author has focused on to prevent a premature

:18:48.:18:54.

birth continuing to be an unrecognised killer. The premature

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baby unit in a hospital in New Jersey. The USA ranks among the top

:19:00.:19:04.

countries for premature births. It is higher for black Americans than

:19:04.:19:12.

white. Less than 10% of extremely early 80s will bite in the first

:19:12.:19:17.

few weeks of life in the USA and other high-income countries are --

:19:17.:19:25.

extremely early babies will die. There is a dramatic survival cap.

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The so-called kangaroo care being practised here in Malawi, where the

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baby is held skin to skin on the mother's chest, could help to save

:19:34.:19:37.

at least three-quarters of premature babies in the developing

:19:37.:19:43.

world. Antenatal steroids and antibiotics are other inexpensive,

:19:43.:19:48.

proven ways to reduce the risks that surround premature births.

:19:48.:19:58.
:19:58.:19:59.

Risks, the report says, too long overlooked and neglected.

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Joining the now, the author of the report. -- joining me. If there are

:20:06.:20:13.

these easy, relatively cheap methods of saving premature babies,

:20:13.:20:21.

or why are more not saved like that? That is a good question. This

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report is the first time to highlight this problem of deaths.

:20:26.:20:31.

Your introduction said 1.1 million babies dying from pre-term birth,

:20:31.:20:37.

this is the second leading cause of child death, six times as many as

:20:37.:20:41.

HIV and double as malaria. It is the first time this has been

:20:41.:20:47.

highlighted as a problem on the global agenda. The report puts out

:20:47.:20:51.

the fact that we really can do something different. Kangaroo care

:20:51.:20:58.

was invented 20 years ago in Colombia, because of overcrowded

:20:58.:21:01.

incubators, but it is only just starting to be taken up in these

:21:01.:21:06.

countries. The belief that focus and attention could really see that

:21:06.:21:09.

change over the next year in a dramatic way, to save a lot of

:21:09.:21:14.

lives. It comes down to education and information, which is easier if

:21:14.:21:18.

you are dealing with hospitals and clinics but more difficult getting

:21:18.:21:26.

to the mother's who have babies at home? Even in hospitals and clinics,

:21:26.:21:30.

in Ghana, they have had a fantastic increase in births that have moved

:21:30.:21:37.

into facilities, 75%, but often, four or five babies per cot, and

:21:37.:21:42.

they have only just started kangaroo care. I think the whole

:21:42.:21:47.

issue of what can be done, taking four babies out of incubators and

:21:47.:21:52.

attaching them to their mother, skin to skin, it not only reduces

:21:52.:21:58.

deaths compared to being in an incubator, but there are fewer

:21:58.:22:02.

infections, the baby feeds better, the temperature control is better.

:22:02.:22:09.

It also saves nursing time, reduces costs, and it empowers women.

:22:10.:22:14.

anything be done to stop babies being born early? That is one of

:22:14.:22:19.

the duality is of the report. There are many things that can be done

:22:19.:22:24.

now to save lives that have not been done. In terms of the

:22:24.:22:29.

Prevention side, as your introduction highlighted, 65

:22:29.:22:33.

countries that we have data for, all but three have had an increase

:22:33.:22:37.

in the rate of pre-term birth. In low income countries, there are

:22:37.:22:41.

definitely things we can do better, family planning might be the most

:22:41.:22:46.

cost-effective way, reducing adolescent pregnancies and those

:22:46.:22:51.

women who have berths to quickly and too close together. But in

:22:51.:22:56.

high-income countries, the increase is not fully understood. This is

:22:56.:23:06.
:23:06.:23:10.

the critical area for more research, The chances are that the design of

:23:10.:23:13.

the phone in your pocket, the chair you are sitting on and the building

:23:13.:23:17.

you work in were influenced by a German school of art and design

:23:18.:23:23.

that opened nearly 100 years ago. The clean lines and modernist

:23:23.:23:27.

aesthetic first created by the Bauhaus School has influenced

:23:27.:23:31.

everyone from Steve Jobs to Ikea. A major new exhibition of Bauhaus has

:23:31.:23:41.
:23:41.:23:44.

It was a marriage of form and function, art and technology, no

:23:44.:23:49.

wonder Steve Jobs loved it. Power has was fault in the wake of World

:23:49.:23:54.

War One in Weimar Germany, as a laboratory for new ideas --

:23:54.:24:01.

powerhouse was formed. It was about bringing together fine art like

:24:01.:24:11.
:24:11.:24:12.

these teapots with craft, to create a modern, Utopian society. It was

:24:12.:24:16.

about producing high end design for manufacture in the mass market,

:24:16.:24:25.

which included Toys, such as these puppets. Play, according to ban has,

:24:25.:24:32.

unleash creativity. It was a group of people working together, and

:24:32.:24:36.

artists were raising families there. Other artists make toys, sometimes

:24:36.:24:41.

for their children, but other times for manufacture, and also, the idea

:24:41.:24:47.

of playing at and making do and influencing creative ideas in

:24:47.:24:52.

children went into the classroom. It is striking how contemporary all

:24:52.:25:01.

of this furniture looks. Look at this chair. The artist got the idea

:25:01.:25:07.

from looking at his bicycle frame. Unfortunately, he was ahead of his

:25:07.:25:12.

time, because manufacturers found his design ideas quite difficult to

:25:12.:25:19.

implement, but imagine how radical that looked in 1925. The roll-call

:25:19.:25:29.
:25:29.:25:30.

of Teachers also included the likes of Kandinsky. Michael Craig Martin

:25:30.:25:34.

would be responsible for fostering the score of young British artists

:25:34.:25:40.

in their 80s and 90s, which included Damien Hirst. -- in the

:25:40.:25:45.

80s and 90s. There was a time when people tried to think of everything

:25:45.:25:52.

again, we think the world from the most basic principles. It is the

:25:52.:25:57.

first school that attempts to look at the idea of creativity, that you

:25:57.:26:02.

do not just teach people things, you teach them how to think, how to

:26:02.:26:09.

the cuttings, how to be inventive. -- have to look at things. It was

:26:09.:26:15.

closed down by the Nazis in 1933, its founders were denounced as

:26:15.:26:19.

Communists. The teachers emigrated to, taking with them the aesthetic

:26:20.:26:29.
:26:30.:26:30.

and thus ensuring its survival to The main news.

:26:30.:26:36.

It the prominent Chinese dissident Chen quandong -- Chen Guangcheng

:26:36.:26:40.

says the Chinese authorities threatened to beat his wife to

:26:40.:26:46.

death if he did not leave the American embassy.

:26:46.:26:52.

From the, Kirsty Lang, goodbye to start -- from May, Kirsty Lang,

:26:52.:27:00.

start -- from May, Kirsty Lang, We had varying amounts of sunshine

:27:00.:27:05.

through the day, but for most, it was dry. For England and Wales,

:27:05.:27:10.

tomorrow, more rain in the forecast. It will move north. We are starting

:27:10.:27:14.

to see a weather front to come down to was the northern and western

:27:14.:27:19.

Isles. The weather front is becoming more active across the

:27:19.:27:23.

south. Into tomorrow morning, it is cloudy and wet in the southern

:27:23.:27:28.

areas. Some sunshine up north, but it stays very cloudy along the

:27:28.:27:33.

north-east coast of England. It stays cloudy, grey and damp across

:27:33.:27:38.

many southern counties of England. Later in the afternoon, we might

:27:38.:27:42.

see a glimmer of brightness along the south coast, but for North

:27:43.:27:51.

Devon and Cornwall, we keep a lot of the cloud. It is a cloudy day

:27:51.:27:56.

across much of Wales. Heavy rain for the afternoon in the north.

:27:56.:28:03.

Northern Ireland stays dry and bright and warm. It is this area

:28:03.:28:06.

across Northern Ireland, south-west Scotland, where we see the highest

:28:06.:28:12.

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