15/11/2013 World News Today


15/11/2013

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This is BBC World News Today with me, Zeinab Badawi. The official

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death toll for the victims of Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines is

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now more than 3500 and is expected to rise even more.

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Desperate survivors, especially in the worst affected areas, wait for

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relief. The logistical help from foreign donors is crucial to the aid

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effort. A lots of houses, if not completely

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destroyed, all very damaged. It is pretty bad. The roads are getting

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better, but there is a lot of debris.

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Also, one of the most controversial policies of recent times, China's

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one-child policy, is relaxed as part of a series of economic and social

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reforms. Also coming up: David Cameron breaks

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away from the Commonwealth summit in Sri Lanka to meet Tamil leaders and

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victims of the country's civil war, as the controversy mounts over Sri

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Lanka's hosting of the event. From childhood friends to political

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rivals - we look at the story behind the frontrunners for this weekend's

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presidential election in Chile. It may be a week since Typhoon

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Haiyan struck the central Philippines and the storm has long

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subsided, but the number of people killed is rising. The official death

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toll is now more than 3,500 and the UN says the final figure could be

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much higher. Many more have suffered the effects of the devastation.

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The number of people affected has risen to 11.8 million. At least

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673,000 have been displaced and the typhoon has caused widespread damage

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to agriculture and infrastructure, with most buildings, homes and farms

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flattened in the worst hit areas. Aid is now beginning to arrive in

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some of the worst-hit cities, including Tacloban, from where

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Jeremy Cooke sent this report. The waters are calm in Tacloban to

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date. The children play in peace. But, the reality. Their homes

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destroyed by the giant waves that struck here a week ago. Their love

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-- young lives changed forever. This girl was badly injured as she swung

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for her life, the gash in her head now becoming infected.

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She lives in a ruined hospital while her parents wait for someone to

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help. She is badly hurt, he says. The

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doctors say that she really needs to be transferred to another hospital,

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but they don't have the facilities to treat her here.

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Amid the ruins and the chaos and the confusion, tens of thousands of

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children in this one city are homeless. Their schools, if they

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still stand, become shelters. Classrooms and corridors packed to

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capacity. Infant babies, who somehow survived the disaster, entire

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families with no other place to go. In an upstairs dormitory, teenagers

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reflect on how totally, utterly life has changed.

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Everything was normal. It was a sunny day. We thought that the storm

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wasn't true. But, looking at the school now and seeing how the storm

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happened, how it hit our school, it's like it's never go to be the

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same. The children and their families here

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could consider themselves to be the lucky ones. They have survived and

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they have found themselves a place of safety. The future is still

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uncertain, but at least they are live. So far, the international aid

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hasn't got this far. But the teachers, like this lady,

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are organising for when it does. Everyone, they say, will get their

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fair share. The requirements are basic.

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The needs of the people of food and medicine. And the inspiration to

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move on. Inspiration, yes, but practical help

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needed as well. There is hunger here, but -- no starvation. They

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need help, but the children are holding on, despite so much

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destruction and tragedy. The US military is leading the

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effort to deliver aid from overseas. A thousand more American troops are

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expected to arrive in the next few days and helicopters from a US

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aircraft carrier have been transporting supplies to a number of

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areas. Wherever the aid comes from, it remains desperately needed.

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Rajini Vaidyanathan went to see one distribution programme in action.

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This air base near Manila has become a nerve centre for the US

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military's relief effort to the Philippines. This aircraft arrived

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earlier this week from Japan. It is used to survey damage on the ground

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and helped what Nate relief operations. We were the first

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journalists on-board to see it work in the aftermath of the typhoon.

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in the aftermath of the typhoon We are going down to conduct

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disaster relief. What are we likely to see? It

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depends on the area, but many houses, if not destroyed, are very

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damaged. It is pretty bad. The roads are

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getting better, but there is not a lot of debris. -- there is a lot of

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debris. The planes are in the air for hours at a time, taking hours of

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video from the worst affected areas. This play might not be carrying any

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age, but it is crucial when it comes to humanitarian relief efforts.

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The camera 's hair are recording the devastation below in a way that she

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could not see down on the ground. It is able to work out the best basis

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for aircraft to land in a motor areas, to ensure that those who need

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the aid the most competitive -- the most can get it quickly. It is from

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the air that you get a sense of what Typhoon Haiyan has left behind.

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Under the clear skies, villagers that look like they have been

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trampled on. Trees light on their side like matchsticks. Picked up on

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the cameras, a one word message from the ground.

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Help. As soon as we see that, we can send the quart nuts and have people

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there immediately. When you first see someone, how do

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you feel? It makes you feel bad, but it is why

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you are there. -- we can send the location.

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A view minutes later, the cameras pick up an image of rows and rows of

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graves. It is too late for them, but graves. It is too late for them but

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the crews are determined to reach other people as quickly as possible.

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One of the most eye-catching and controversial social policies

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introduced by any government in the last century is to be relaxed. China

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has unveiled a series of reforms today which include a loosening of

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its one-child policy. It's also ending forced labour camps and is

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further boosting the role of the private sector in the economy. The

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one-child policy began in 1979 to curb rapid population growth. But

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human rights campaigners say it has led to forced abortions and female

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infanticide, that's resulted in a gender imbalance. By 2020, experts

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reckon 24 million Chinese men won't be able to find a Chinese wife.

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The country's population is also ageing rapidly. 110 million people

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are estimated to be over 65. And the burden of looking after them is

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falling on fewer and fewer young people. From Beijing, Martin

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Patience reports. It is the world's most famous family

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planning law, but now the one child policy is being relaxed. That could

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only show a baby bonanza. An official estimate predicts a million

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extra births a year. Many couples in cities will be allowed to have an

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extra child. Most of the public seemed to be in favour.

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This woman says she is trying for her first baby, but she wants to

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have to, so they can talk to each other.

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But this man says the new policy is wrong. There are too many people in

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China already. Fearing a population explosion,

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China's leader introduced family planning laws 30 years ago. They

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have also -- often been brutally enforced, with forced abortions in

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hospitals. But the policy means that the population is rapidly ageing. In

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1980, there were around 50 million people over 65.

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By 2010, it had doubled, to more than 100 million. And, in the next

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20 years, it will be more than 200 million.

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China may have the world's because population, but it needs more

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babies. The number of workers here is shrinking, and the costs of

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supporting the elderly are rising. The big concern for the country s

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The big concern for the country's leaders is that China will become

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old before it gets rich. We will talk about this some more.

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Dr Cheng Li is a renowned expert on China studies at the Brookings

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Institution in Washington and he joins us now.

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So, give us your thoughts. Is this real change in China or is it a

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cosmetic change? No, it is a real change. It is very

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much expected, because the one child policy was severely implemented in

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the 1980s and 1990s and in the past decade, it has become looser.

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Because of free migration and people able to have more children. And

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also, in the urban area, because of the rise of the middle class, they

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are not concerned about the penalty of having more than one child. Sadat

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is providing an environment for a policy change. So people are wanting

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a complete abolition of the one child policy, rather than this. Some

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families can afford to have more than one child.

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But health and education are expensive for other people?

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Yes, the middle-class in China, like in Europe and elsewhere. If you ask

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them to have more than one child, many people do not want. But now

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they have more freedom to choose and the policy will become relaxed. This

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is important politically and also democratically. And especially

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economically, because China needs labourers.

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Yes, let's look at the labour camps, or what is known as education

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through labour. There have been many people inside China campaigning for

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its abolition. Is this a good thing, or will the government find an

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alternative method to try to take care of people it is have done

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something wrong? It is a wonderful improvement. This

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is the legacy of the cultural Revolution, the legacy of the soffit

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system, which did not rely on the legal system, but put people in the

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labour camp. -- Soviet system. But this is a major improvement on human

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rights and a major improvement of going to the legal process, rather

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than going to the government. Local government had lots of authority to

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arrest people without legal procedure. And is this China moving

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towards a real free-market economy? The most important news. I think

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people in China will pay less attention to the one child policy or

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the labour camps, but the opening up of the Chinese economy to make the

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middle-class expands, and to have more investment opportunity to

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consume more, this is a very important development. It is another

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turning point after 1978, when China started the reform. This is the

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Chinese government's a second version of opening up. So I think

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this, potentially, will be very important that the Chinese

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government and will help the global economy.

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Thank you for giving us your interpretation of the new economic

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and social reforms in China. It's not often that a meeting of

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Commonwealth heads of government gets so much attention, but that is

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because it is being held in Sri Lanka and three countries are

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boycotting the summit which began today. The Canadian, Indian, and

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Mauritian Prime Ministers are staying away in protest at

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allegations of human rights abuses by the Sri Lankan government. The

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Sri Lankan authorities deny the claims, which include the deaths of

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thousands of civilians at the end of the war against Tamil Tiger

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separatists as well as allegations of torture and abduction. James

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Robbins reports. of torture and abduction. James

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Robbins they called them the disappeared. Fathers, sons, husbands

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who surrendered at the end of Sri Lanka's Civil War and have not been

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seen since. UN says that only in Iraq are the more who have simply

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vanished without trace. Today, police stopped their relatives

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handing in their photos, letters and petitions to the first world leader

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ever to visit their part of this troubled island. But David Cameron

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could not see them. He claims this visit to a region which once dreamt

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of forming its own country will shine spotlight on the abuses of the

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past as well as the present. There to greet him, protesters, there are

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signs written in perfect English. They were supporters of this man.

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The president who welcomed more than 50 leaders to the summit. At his

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side, Prince Charles. Whilst the leaders talked, David Cameron

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visited the mean newspaper in the north, its presses smashed and

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burnt. Who did it? The government said one journalist. And here is

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why. On the walls of the newspaper office, pictures of the six

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journalists killed in recent years. Everywhere we went, a reminder of

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home the president exerts control. A Tamil leader told the Prime Minister

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there are still 120,000 security forces in this region, four years

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after the war ended. The Prime Minister's last visit was to offer

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-- to what the government calls a welfare centre, a refugee centre to

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you and me. The Prime Minister has said he is shining a spotlight on

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the abuses of human rights in Sri Lanka. But now that prove more

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powerful than the legitimacy which this country's president believes he

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is secured by cheering the Commonwealth summit? -- chairing.

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David Cameron was clearly moved by what he had seen and he insists that

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two-day's visit will make a difference. You said you would shine

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a spotlight on human rights abuses, do you fear that are bigger

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spotlight is being shone on the president who is saying he is

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legitimate? After this terrible war ended, what we needed from the Sri

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Lankan government was more magnanimity, bringing the country

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together. Here we are in a village of basically refugees inside their

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own country. They have been here for 20 years or more. They have had

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children here. They want to go home. I think that is a very powerful

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message. This is a day that David Cameron will never forget. But the

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leader of this country is counting on the fact that others will forget

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and move on. With me is Richard Bourne, a senior

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fellow of the Institute of Commonwealth Studies here in London,

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who has been involved in Commonwealth activities for more

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than 30 years. Do you think the Commonwealth heads

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of government meeting should have gone ahead in Sri Lanka? No, it was

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a great mistake. If you think about it, after the Nigerian civil war, it

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was over 30 years before there was a Nigerian summit. It was plainly far

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too soon. Just had to settle. These human rights allegations, very

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serious, should have dealt with. There should have been a process of

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reconciliation which has hardly begun. Why do you think it has

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happened then? As I understand it, in 2009, there was a suggestion it

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should be held in 2011 in Sri Lanka. But the then British Prime

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Minister, Gordon Brown, persuaded his ministers and others to delay

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this and the Australians hosted it. I think what was very unfortunate

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was that the Sri Lankans was left with the expectation of holding it

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now. And it has the chairmanship of the Commonwealth now? Yes, but this

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is fairly meaningless. But it is symbolic. This was only invented in

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1999, so it is a fairly recent innovation and the so-called element

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to persons group -- eminent persons group who were tasked with

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modernising the Commonwealth think it should be abolished. There have

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been three Australian Prime Minister 's .Mac but could there be a move to

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strip Sri Lanka of this? I know that other countries have been pressing

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for this. I red of an MP in New Zealand asking for this. -- I heard

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of an MP in New Zealand. The fact that the Sri Lankan government

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denies these allegations, saying they have their own justice system,

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but the Commonwealth is based on shared values, and if there has-been

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shared values, and if there has been devaluation, should there be a

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stronger response? Yes. This has been proposed. But leaders have

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decided not to go ahead with proposals. It would have provided a

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more objective approach. At the moment, they are very dependent on

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what the secretary general does or does not want to do and he is

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concerned with politics. In this case, the Indian Prime Minister is

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not in Sri Lanka. It sounds very intricate. Thank you.

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Now a look at some of the day's other news.

:22:26.:22:29.

Gunmen have opened fire on a protest against armed militias in the Libyan

:22:30.:22:33.

capital Tripoli, killing at least 13 people and wounding dozens more. The

:22:34.:22:36.

protesters were demanding that a militia from Misrata leave the city.

:22:37.:22:39.

There have been increasing demonstrations demanding that the

:22:40.:22:42.

militias disband or join the army, in line with an end-of-year deadline

:22:43.:22:46.

set by the interim government. Albania has rejected a US request to

:22:47.:22:50.

host the destruction of Syria's stockpile of almost 1,000 tonnes of

:22:51.:22:54.

chemical weapons. Protesters have been demonstrating in Albania for

:22:55.:22:58.

days to voice their opposition to the plan. Albania's prime minister

:22:59.:23:01.

said it was impossible for his country to get involved in the

:23:02.:23:11.

operation. People in chilly go to the polls

:23:12.:23:15.

this weekend to choose a new President and the two main

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contenders are women who are childhood friends - the former

:23:20.:23:21.

president Michelle Bachelet and Evelyn Matthei. Dr Bachelet is the

:23:22.:23:25.

candidate for a centre-left coalition of parties and has a

:23:26.:23:29.

healthy lead in the opinion polls. She was president between 2006 and

:23:30.:23:33.

2010. She's the daughter of a high-ranking air force officer who

:23:34.:23:37.

died while a prisoner of the military junta led by General

:23:38.:23:40.

Augusto Pinochet. Dr Bachelet was herself tortured and spent some

:23:41.:23:44.

years in exile. Meanwhile, Evelyn Matthei is the conservative Alianza

:23:45.:23:49.

party candidate. She's also the daughter of a high-ranking air force

:23:50.:23:54.

officer and the two families were friends until her father was

:23:55.:23:58.

promoted as head of the air force under General Pinochet. Seven others

:23:59.:24:03.

candidates are also standing. If nobody gets more than 50% in the

:24:04.:24:08.

first round, there will be a run-off. Gideon Long joins us from

:24:09.:24:17.

Santiago. First of all, it is extraordinary

:24:18.:24:21.

that you have these two women, childhood friends, very different

:24:22.:24:26.

histories and backgrounds as the main contenders? Yes, an

:24:27.:24:31.

extraordinary story. They met each other over 50 years ago. They grew

:24:32.:24:39.

up on this year for space in the North of chilly. Their fathers were

:24:40.:24:52.

close friends until the military coup. Dr Bachelet's father was

:24:53.:24:59.

tortured and died in custody. Meanwhile, Evelyn Matthei's father

:25:00.:25:04.

went on to ban the Armed Forces. Meanwhile, Evelyn Matthei's father

:25:05.:25:07.

went on to ban the Armed Forces An incredible personal story behind

:25:08.:25:12.

these elections. How far are these backgrounds relevant to electors? It

:25:13.:25:20.

has not been a huge issue during the election campaign, in part because

:25:21.:25:24.

the two women have tried to play down their past. They think it is

:25:25.:25:30.

more important to concentrate on the issues of the future. But I do

:25:31.:25:34.

wonder if Evelyn Matthei's background has not played against

:25:35.:25:57.

her slightly. Many years ago, she voted for another eight years of

:25:58.:26:06.

rule by military junta. Dr Bachelet is overwhelming favourite to win

:26:07.:26:17.

this election. Education is her number one aim. It has been a huge

:26:18.:26:23.

issue here over the last few years. She was the education for all

:26:24.:26:26.

students. She will pay for that through tax reforms. She wants to

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these tax reform -- she wants to raise corporation taxes.

:26:38.:26:43.

Thank you. That is all from this programme.

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From the, and the rest of the team, good night.

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Good evening. The weekend is pretty much upon us. Tomorrow looks like

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being a cloud of fear for many areas with the brain across northern and

:27:11.:27:14.

western parts. High pressure will keep it fairly settled a cross their

:27:15.:27:19.

south. The wind is ever present as well. Watch out for the density of

:27:20.:27:26.

this for all the way from the West Country to the wash. The far South

:27:27.:27:34.

East keeping the best of the sunshine. Generally speaking, and a

:27:35.:27:39.

lot of cloud around. The best of the sunshine there. Not doing very much

:27:40.:27:43.

for the temperatures have ever. In the West, the cloud is thickening

:27:44.:27:48.

up. Then maybe the odd spot

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