03/04/2014 World News Today


03/04/2014

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This is BBC World News Today with me, Zeinab Badawi.

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It's being described as a "devastating milestone" - the UN

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registers the one millionth Syrian refugee in Lebanon.

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We have a special report on the harsh conditions many endure in

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Lebanon and the pressures it creates in a country that has itself endured

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political and sectarian strife for decades.

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TRANSLATION: The number one million is too big for refugees in Lebanon.

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Refugees inside Syria are moving from one area to the other. When

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fleeing to Lebanon, they are finding it very hard here.

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Ukraine's interim government blames the ousted President, Viktor

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Yanukovych, for ordering riot police to fire on protestors in February.

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More than 100 people died during the demonstrations in Kiev.

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The Ukrainian authorities started an investigation. He is accused of mass

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murder and we will bring him to justice.

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Also coming up: Four weeks on and the search for the missing Malaysian

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airliner goes on. We ask who's co-ordinating the massive

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international search mission and what is it costing.

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And a treasure from the silent movie golden age - how this lost film with

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a once famous British star has been found gathering dust in the

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Netherlands. Hello and welcome. It is a grim

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milestone and still the numbers are increasing as Syria's four-year

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conflict shows no sign of ending. The United Nations has registered

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more than one million Syrian refugees in neighbouring Lebanon,

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half of them are children. Altogether, the UN says a total of

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2.5 million Syrians are registered as refugees abroad. But the actual

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number who fled is unknown. It is widely thought to be much higher

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because many are too frightened to register. Joining us now from Beirut

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is the BBC's Paul Wood. Paul, behind these grim statistics, every single

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number, there is a sad story behind it? Yes, that's right. We should

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also remember the Lebanese Foreign Minister has said that the refugee

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crisis here threatens Lebanon's continuing existence as a country.

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That very alarming language reflects the dimensions of this crisis. It is

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a country of 4.5 million people. There are one million registered

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refugees. One in four people in Lebanon is a refugee. The official

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figures don't reflect the unregistered refugees here. It could

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be as many as one in three people. As you were saying, those staggering

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numbers reflect many individual human tragedies.

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Beirut's notorious Shatila refugee camp was built for Palestinians.

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Now, Syrians squeeze in here, too. Refugees hosted by refugees. Here,

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two families are forced to live. Ten people to a single room.

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TRANSLATION: Life is hard here. I used to find myself wishing I would

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die. It would have been easier. Many of the people living here are

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invisible. They are not registered for aid. That means getting papers

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and they fear the long reach of the Syrian authorities.

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TRANSLATION: I can't pay the rent. Nobody helps me. I'm exhausted.

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If I had any money, I would live anywhere but here.

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Hundreds of thousands of Syrians now measure their time as refugees not

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in months, but in years. With the war grinding on, they have little

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hope of going home. Like the Palestinians who built this place,

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the Syrians in Lebanon are becoming a permanent refugee population.

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Today, the UN registered the one millionth Syrian refugee in Lebanon.

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It means an unwanted celebrity for this 18-year-old from Homs. 2,500

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more Syrians arrive every day. TRANSLATION: We have this message:

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Help Lebanon carry the burden of these refugees before Lebanon

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becomes a burden to you. That is a warning about stability in

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this country. Troops have been deployed in the north because of

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sectarian fighting. The refugee crisis makes it more likely that

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Syria's war will become Lebanon's, too.

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The refugees are continuing to come across the Syrian-Lebanese border

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because of a government offensive. It might successfully seal that

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border. There is a great deal of war wariness on both sides of the

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border. I was struck by the many refugees saying that life as a

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refugee was so miserable, they would consider going back even while the

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bullets and bombs were still falling in Syria.

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STUDIO: As you said in your report, Lebanon is no stranger to hosting

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refugees. It's had the Palestinians in the past. What do you think the

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general population are making of these Syrians in their midst? What

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things are they saying? We heard what thele official response has

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been. I think the tensions are at breaking point. Even when the Sunni

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community, which initially welcomed the refugees, people are complaining

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about rents going up, wages going down, about the sheer number of

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people here. Of course, the ethnic and sectarian divisions in Lebanon

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are reflected over the border in Syria. That's why it is such a great

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risk that the war will eventually travel here to Lebanon, either

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because different armed groups are using Lebanon as a rear operating

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base, or because there are so many people here that the same sectarian

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tensions that you see in Syria are now being manifested on the streets

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in Tripoli as well. It is a very, very dangerous moment for Lebanon.

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Paul Wood, thank you. A report by Ukraine's government

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into the violence in February which left 76 people dead lays the blame

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on riot police and special services officers. The report adds that the

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Russian security services the FSB were also implicated. And in an

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interview with the BBC, Ukraine's interim Prime Minister, Arseny

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Yatsenyuk, has gone one step further. He said it's "crystal

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clear" that the former President, Viktor Yanukovych, was ultimately

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responsible for the killing of anti-government protesters. From

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Kiev, David Stern reports. It was the culmination of one of the

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most violent periods in Ukraine's recent history. On February 20th,

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after three months of protests, riot police and anti-government activists

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clashed in Kiev's centre. On both sides, there were casualties. But

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the protesters suffered worst of all. On that single bloody day, more

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than 50 of them died. Now, Ukraine's new leaders have presented their

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first findings into what caused the carnage. They said they had hard

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evidence proving elements of the riot police targeted the protesters

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with the intention to kill. But they failed to show any documents. What's

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more, they said, Russia's Security Services provided arms and helped

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plan and carry out the shootings. Ukraine's leaders accused Yanukovych

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of giving the command. Former President Yanukovych will be

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prosecuted. The Ukrainian authorities started an

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investigation. He is accused of mass murder. And we will bring him to

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justice. However, Mr Yanukovych fled Ukraine after the events and is now

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in Russia. Tensions between Moscow and Kiev continue to rise. On

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Thursday, the Kremlin said it was withdrawing some troops from the two

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countries' border. For now, the rest would remain.

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TRANSLATION: One battalion that participated in training on the

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Russian border has returned to its permanent location. Other

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sub-divisions will return to their permanent location when their

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operations are complete. The February events in Kiev have

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left lingering wounds. More than a month after the shootings, mourners

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still come to Kiev's central Independence Square to lay flowers

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and candles. They ask - how could this happen? It remains to be seen

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if Ukraine's officials can provide satisfying answers.

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Some news just coming in: Russia says it has detained 25 Ukrainians

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which it suspects of planning terrorist attacks in the central and

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southern part of the country. Russian reports said those detained

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were members of ultra-nationalist movements. The press service of the

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Ukrainian State Security Service dismissed the report as "nonsense".

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Now a look at some of the days other news: Turkey's

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government says it is restoring access to Twitter, a day after a

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high court ruling against the ban. A statement from Turkey's

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Communications Ministry Thursday said it was in the process of

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restoring access to the website. Access to YouTube however, remains

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blocked. President Obama says he's

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heartbroken over the shooting at Fort Hood in Texas, one of the US

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military's biggest army bases. Four people died, including the gunman.

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The base commander says there is no indication of any terrorist

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involvement. The gunman was an Iraq War veteran being treated for mental

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illness. Ambulance services in Britain say

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there's been a significant rise in emergency calls from people with

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breathing problems, as large parts of the country continue to be

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affected by air pollution. The hazy cloud has been caused by a mix of

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Saharan dust and emissions from here and the continent.

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The Kremlin has confirmed that the Russian President, Vladimir Putin,

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and his wife, Lyudmila, have officially divorced. In June last

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year the couple made this appearance on state television to announce the

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end by mutual consent of their 30-year marriage. Lyudmila Putina

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and the couple's two adult daughters have since kept a low public

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profile. Cases of HIV and AIDS-related

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illnesses are the rise again in Uganda, despite successful

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prevention and awareness campaigns costing billions of dollars. In a

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deeply conservative society, there's a huge stigma attached to being HIV

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positive, it can make it difficult for instance to get a job. So it's

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little wonder that some people try to buy a fake certificate stating

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HIV negative results. A BBC Africa investigation has found that such

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certificates can change hands for as little as twenty dollars. Catherine

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Byaruhanga worked with Matthew Stein to get this exclusive report from

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Kampala. Uganda is a young country growing in

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confidence. But some demons like HIV are proving hard to shake. As you

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drive around Kampala, there are billboards everywhere urging people

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to get tested. Despite the long-term campaigns, HIV-positive people still

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face a lot of stigma. This woman has had the virus since she was raped.

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She's chosen to be open about it. When they hear my story, they tend

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to point fingers. You went looking for AIDS. They don't know. They

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don't understand what somebody goes through. For quite some time now, I

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haven't been working because everywhere I go to look for a job,

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the first thing they ask me is my status. We have discovered that some

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HIV-positive Ugandans are going as far as breaking the law to hide

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their status. We sent one of our team undercover to several clinics

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in Kampala, pretending to be an HIV-positive job seeker. I need your

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help. I know I am positive. I have to present a negative test at my

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workplace. You want me to write there what? Positive or... Negative.

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After a quick negotiation, the lab technician agrees to give her a

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negative result for about $20. Will it work? OK. Getting a fake negative

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result turned out to be much easier than we thought. We have plenty of

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them. We went to 15 clinics across Kampala and 12 were prepared to give

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us a bogus negative. One woman who bought a fake result agreed to speak

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to us, but asked that we hide her identity. I had to get a fake result

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so that I can be accepted in this company, so that I can feed my

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child, you know. I went, I know it is illegal, it is not right. But at

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least he has saved my life. Experts say this stigma is hurting the

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country's fight against the disease because it can result in

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HIV-positive people becoming too scared to access treatment. I need

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your help, please. We showed our footage to Uganda's Minister of

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Health. He admitted the Government wasn't dealing effectively with the

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problem. It does not shock me. Nevertheless

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it is a challenge for the Government and the country, to pull up its

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socks, and squarely face this problem.

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Uganda's fight against HIV has been impressive. But unless it tackles

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the evened stigma against those who are infected with the virus, it runs

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the risk of HIV rates continuing to rise. Leaving a large section of the

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population living in the shadows. Four weeks on, and the mystery of

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the disappearance of the missing Malaysian airliner is as deep as

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ever. Malaysia's Prime Minister Najib Razak has pledged not to give

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up in the search for the missing plane. Mr Razak was speaking during

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a visit to the airbase in Australia with his Australian counterpart Tony

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Abbott. The search for the plane has been massive and multinational,

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complex and expensive. We will discuss this in a moment. First,

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from Kuala Lumpur, Jonah Fisher reports. Brought together by a

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tragedy that still defies explanation, the Prime Ministers of

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Malaysia and Australia came to Perth to thank the men and women tasked

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with solving this mystery. For the last two weeks aircraft from seven

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countries have looked for traces of Flight MH370 and found only rubbish.

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Far from giving up, the talk from both leaders was of continuing to

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search. I am confident that everything that possibly can be done

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to find this aircraft will be done, we cannot be certain of success, but

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we can be certain of the professionalism and the effort that

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will be brought to the task. The world expects us to do our level

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best, and I am very confident that you will indeed show what we can do

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together, as a group of nations, that we want to find answers, we

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want to provide comfort to the families, and we will not rest until

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answers are indeed found. So the search resumed today with

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eight planes, nine ships and a British submarine. No-one wants to

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put a figure on how much this is all costing but it is not cheap. Take

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the main surveillance plane being used, the orrian P3. That cost about

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$10,000 an hour, when it is in the air.

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Add the ships m the bill is easily several million dollars a day.

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With the focus still on finding the plane, it is not clear who will pick

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up the tab. Some now see politics as play, and say the presence of so

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many Chinese passengers makes it very difficult to stop looking.

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I am certain that the search will continue until we find this plane

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because the relationship between Australia and China is critical to

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the Australians, and the relationship with China is very

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important to the United States, very important for the British, and other

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countries as well. I believe that no effort will be spared to recover

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this plane, where ever it happens to be.

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Solving the mystery of Flight MH370 will take month, if not year, and a

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vast amount of resources. After three-and-a-half weeks of

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looking, there are still precious few leads.

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Well, we are joined from California by Antony Roman who has more than 35

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years of security and investigation expense, he is licensed commercial

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pilot and former flight instructor. First of all, who is co-ordinating

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and taking the lead on this massive international search operation,

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would you say? Well... PROBLEM WITH SOUND

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We are terribly sorry about that, but you can see the line from

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California wasn't great, was it. Antony Roman there, experiencing a

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few problems trying to speak to him. I think we have lost that line to

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him. The era of silent films has been

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over for nearly nine decades, and many great works have been destroyed

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or simply lost. Well, one lost treasure has recently been found. It

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features one of the best known stars of her day, in a film by one of

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Britain's finest early film directors. The 90 minute silent

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movie, called Love, Life and Laughter, is considered a British

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masterpiece. It's by George Pearson and stars Betty Balfour.

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Surprisingly, it lay gathering dust for more than 80 years and was

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discovered in a small cinema in the Netherlands. Well, with me here in

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the studio is Jason Solomons, chairman of the London film critics

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choice. First of all, tell us about the circumstances of this find It is

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an extraordinary story, one of those, it is one of those cinema

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stories you count make it up, you couldn't put it in a movie. There

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was a rusting canister of film that was found in a derelict building in

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a town in the Netherlands, it used to be a cinema, it was only a cinema

:20:32.:20:36.

for three years, owned by a family. And someone was going to destroy it,

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the council were going to make it into a public building and someone

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found all this tin canned stuff, celluloid at the bottom of the

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cellar, which is very dangerous, because it is flammable. They had

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the sense to investigate What they thought, they were looking for local

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films of the Nazi occupation of that era, of the Second World War, they

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sent it to the Dutch cinema institute, who recognised this sort

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of lost film and, for a British film by George ball for. They sent it to

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us here. By George Pearson and starring Betty Balfour. You are

:21:15.:21:17.

getting mixed up. She was like the marry Pickford of the day A hugely

:21:18.:21:25.

popular star, I have seen her in an Alfred Hitchcock film, she had the

:21:26.:21:30.

impact of a Jennifer Aniston, he was delightful. We can see from some of

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the footage, he played a Corus girl who lives in a garage who falls in

:21:35.:21:38.

love with a young artister they run ay from the streets of London. What

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strikes you about this film and much about 20s cinema that is lost, is

:21:43.:21:50.

the modernity and how similar their lives were today, everybody thinks

:21:51.:21:53.

it is confined to sepia tones and another era, but it is as modern as

:21:54.:22:01.

now, and film-making is still kind of, in thrall to this method of

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film-making and this way of talking. That is why it is important to find

:22:05.:22:09.

them. The film was on the list, the BFI drew up a list of lost

:22:10.:22:14.

treasures. It looks very jolly Films like this, the Hitchcocks, the Ring,

:22:15.:22:20.

they were full of joy and laughter. George Pearson made many films with

:22:21.:22:24.

Betty Balfour, because he was infatuated with her I think

:22:25.:22:29.

directors that the time tended to be infatuated with their stars, stars

:22:30.:22:33.

had a huge sway. That doesn't go on any more! Many have a muse. Many

:22:34.:22:43.

directors work with their women as long as they can, David Lean used to

:22:44.:22:49.

do it all the times. In terms. It is history and these things are

:22:50.:22:54.

terribly important to the kind of continuance of culture of cinema.

:22:55.:22:58.

Not a lot of this stuff survives and what is extraordinary is the

:22:59.:23:01.

condition it is in. It is beautiful. The tone is wonderful. It is going

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to be released. And more and more of these things are. The Artist won the

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Oscar. That was the silent movie Everyone said it is dead and theer

:23:12.:23:15.

ra died, but more and more event movies like this, they restored the

:23:16.:23:19.

Hitchcock films and they put great shows on, they showed them with

:23:20.:23:24.

great scores and give them a jazz score that is modern. Artisted like

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it innen sawny, suddenly the film lives again, it is not from 1925 it

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is from 2014 again. The silent movie died out in the late 20s. When they

:23:37.:23:42.

invented sound in 1929 no-one was interested in it any more. It became

:23:43.:23:46.

a duff print style of acting, they used to do, the acting was broader

:23:47.:23:51.

and wider and stars who were big stars in the silent era when they

:23:52.:23:54.

opened their mouths they found they couldn't speak very well. That was

:23:55.:23:58.

the joke. They had squeaky voice, bad accents or couldn't project

:23:59.:24:03.

properly. So it finished off. Valentino you never heard him speak

:24:04.:24:10.

but he was a God. So I don't know what Betty Balfour sounded like. She

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probably sounded like that (in a Cockney accent: It has it fans It

:24:18.:24:22.

will be wonderful when we have the premier and the sound and the

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lights. Britain's Queen Elizabeth and her

:24:27.:24:29.

husband the Duke of Edinburgh had tea with the Pope in a private

:24:30.:24:32.

meeting this afternoon. It's the Queen's first trip abroad for three

:24:33.:24:34.

years. A day trip to Rome, the Queen's

:24:35.:24:46.

first journey outside the United Kingdom for two-and-a-half years,

:24:47.:24:50.

for lunch with Italy's President, who is said to be a great admirer of

:24:51.:24:56.

hers. And then across Rome to the Vatican to meet Pope Francis. With a

:24:57.:25:01.

slight bow of the head, the supreme Pontiff and vicar of Christ greeted

:25:02.:25:05.

the Defender of the Faith. Who apologised for being a little late.

:25:06.:25:12.

It was a deliberately informal meeting, they exchanged gifts, from

:25:13.:25:17.

her to him, hamper of food from the royal estates, including something

:25:18.:25:24.

described as grandad's chutney. A familiar royal grandad was on hand

:25:25.:25:28.

to check it out. Plus venison and beer. From him to her at the back,

:25:29.:25:35.

an orb with the cross of St Edward the confessor, a gift for Prince

:25:36.:25:38.

George. He will be thrilled with it said the Queen, when he is a little

:25:39.:25:42.

older. They sat down to talk, to reflect on

:25:43.:25:48.

relations between the Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches, might there

:25:49.:25:52.

have been one discordant note? The Pope is from Buenos Aires and the

:25:53.:25:56.

Argentine Government has been hoping he will push the claim to the

:25:57.:26:01.

Falkland islands. We will never know whether he did mention the fall lack

:26:02.:26:06.

lands. It seeps unconceivable he would. It isn't about substance,

:26:07.:26:12.

what matters is symbolism. And the symbolism was clear, of two leaders

:26:13.:26:15.

at ease with each other and two churches in much greater harmony.

:26:16.:26:23.

Now some breaking news we are getting in. The Colombian novelist

:26:24.:26:28.

Gabrielle Garcia has been taken to hospital in Mexico City. The

:26:29.:26:34.

87-year-old laureate is Spanish language's most popular writer. His

:26:35.:26:39.

Novembers include love in the time of cholera. He has drawn comparisons

:26:40.:26:44.

with Mark Twain and Charles Dicks on. That is it from me and the team,

:26:45.:26:50.

Hello, many parts of the UK have been suffering with poor air quality

:26:51.:27:01.

over past few day, some good news, by tomorrow things will feel fresher

:27:02.:27:06.

and there will be less pollution, so an improving story, that is down the

:27:07.:27:09.

fact we have this weather front that has pushed northwards. It is

:27:10.:27:11.

bringing rain

:27:12.:27:13.

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