03/04/2014 World News Today


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This is BBC World News Today with me, Zeinab Badawi.


It's being described as a "devastating milestone" - the UN


registers the one millionth Syrian refugee in Lebanon.


We have a special report on the harsh conditions many endure in


Lebanon and the pressures it creates in a country that has itself endured


political and sectarian strife for decades.


TRANSLATION: The number one million is too big for refugees in Lebanon.


Refugees inside Syria are moving from one area to the other. When


fleeing to Lebanon, they are finding it very hard here.


Ukraine's interim government blames the ousted President, Viktor


Yanukovych, for ordering riot police to fire on protestors in February.


More than 100 people died during the demonstrations in Kiev.


The Ukrainian authorities started an investigation. He is accused of mass


murder and we will bring him to justice.


Also coming up: Four weeks on and the search for the missing Malaysian


airliner goes on. We ask who's co-ordinating the massive


international search mission and what is it costing.


And a treasure from the silent movie golden age - how this lost film with


a once famous British star has been found gathering dust in the


Netherlands. Hello and welcome. It is a grim


milestone and still the numbers are increasing as Syria's four-year


conflict shows no sign of ending. The United Nations has registered


more than one million Syrian refugees in neighbouring Lebanon,


half of them are children. Altogether, the UN says a total of


2.5 million Syrians are registered as refugees abroad. But the actual


number who fled is unknown. It is widely thought to be much higher


because many are too frightened to register. Joining us now from Beirut


is the BBC's Paul Wood. Paul, behind these grim statistics, every single


number, there is a sad story behind it? Yes, that's right. We should


also remember the Lebanese Foreign Minister has said that the refugee


crisis here threatens Lebanon's continuing existence as a country.


That very alarming language reflects the dimensions of this crisis. It is


a country of 4.5 million people. There are one million registered


refugees. One in four people in Lebanon is a refugee. The official


figures don't reflect the unregistered refugees here. It could


be as many as one in three people. As you were saying, those staggering


numbers reflect many individual human tragedies.


Beirut's notorious Shatila refugee camp was built for Palestinians.


Now, Syrians squeeze in here, too. Refugees hosted by refugees. Here,


two families are forced to live. Ten people to a single room.


TRANSLATION: Life is hard here. I used to find myself wishing I would


die. It would have been easier. Many of the people living here are


invisible. They are not registered for aid. That means getting papers


and they fear the long reach of the Syrian authorities.


TRANSLATION: I can't pay the rent. Nobody helps me. I'm exhausted.


If I had any money, I would live anywhere but here.


Hundreds of thousands of Syrians now measure their time as refugees not


in months, but in years. With the war grinding on, they have little


hope of going home. Like the Palestinians who built this place,


the Syrians in Lebanon are becoming a permanent refugee population.


Today, the UN registered the one millionth Syrian refugee in Lebanon.


It means an unwanted celebrity for this 18-year-old from Homs. 2,500


more Syrians arrive every day. TRANSLATION: We have this message:


Help Lebanon carry the burden of these refugees before Lebanon


becomes a burden to you. That is a warning about stability in


this country. Troops have been deployed in the north because of


sectarian fighting. The refugee crisis makes it more likely that


Syria's war will become Lebanon's, too.


The refugees are continuing to come across the Syrian-Lebanese border


because of a government offensive. It might successfully seal that


border. There is a great deal of war wariness on both sides of the


border. I was struck by the many refugees saying that life as a


refugee was so miserable, they would consider going back even while the


bullets and bombs were still falling in Syria.


STUDIO: As you said in your report, Lebanon is no stranger to hosting


refugees. It's had the Palestinians in the past. What do you think the


general population are making of these Syrians in their midst? What


things are they saying? We heard what thele official response has


been. I think the tensions are at breaking point. Even when the Sunni


community, which initially welcomed the refugees, people are complaining


about rents going up, wages going down, about the sheer number of


people here. Of course, the ethnic and sectarian divisions in Lebanon


are reflected over the border in Syria. That's why it is such a great


risk that the war will eventually travel here to Lebanon, either


because different armed groups are using Lebanon as a rear operating


base, or because there are so many people here that the same sectarian


tensions that you see in Syria are now being manifested on the streets


in Tripoli as well. It is a very, very dangerous moment for Lebanon.


Paul Wood, thank you. A report by Ukraine's government


into the violence in February which left 76 people dead lays the blame


on riot police and special services officers. The report adds that the


Russian security services the FSB were also implicated. And in an


interview with the BBC, Ukraine's interim Prime Minister, Arseny


Yatsenyuk, has gone one step further. He said it's "crystal


clear" that the former President, Viktor Yanukovych, was ultimately


responsible for the killing of anti-government protesters. From


Kiev, David Stern reports. It was the culmination of one of the


most violent periods in Ukraine's recent history. On February 20th,


after three months of protests, riot police and anti-government activists


clashed in Kiev's centre. On both sides, there were casualties. But


the protesters suffered worst of all. On that single bloody day, more


than 50 of them died. Now, Ukraine's new leaders have presented their


first findings into what caused the carnage. They said they had hard


evidence proving elements of the riot police targeted the protesters


with the intention to kill. But they failed to show any documents. What's


more, they said, Russia's Security Services provided arms and helped


plan and carry out the shootings. Ukraine's leaders accused Yanukovych


of giving the command. Former President Yanukovych will be


prosecuted. The Ukrainian authorities started an


investigation. He is accused of mass murder. And we will bring him to


justice. However, Mr Yanukovych fled Ukraine after the events and is now


in Russia. Tensions between Moscow and Kiev continue to rise. On


Thursday, the Kremlin said it was withdrawing some troops from the two


countries' border. For now, the rest would remain.


TRANSLATION: One battalion that participated in training on the


Russian border has returned to its permanent location. Other


sub-divisions will return to their permanent location when their


operations are complete. The February events in Kiev have


left lingering wounds. More than a month after the shootings, mourners


still come to Kiev's central Independence Square to lay flowers


and candles. They ask - how could this happen? It remains to be seen


if Ukraine's officials can provide satisfying answers.


Some news just coming in: Russia says it has detained 25 Ukrainians


which it suspects of planning terrorist attacks in the central and


southern part of the country. Russian reports said those detained


were members of ultra-nationalist movements. The press service of the


Ukrainian State Security Service dismissed the report as "nonsense".


Now a look at some of the days other news: Turkey's


government says it is restoring access to Twitter, a day after a


high court ruling against the ban. A statement from Turkey's


Communications Ministry Thursday said it was in the process of


restoring access to the website. Access to YouTube however, remains


blocked. President Obama says he's


heartbroken over the shooting at Fort Hood in Texas, one of the US


military's biggest army bases. Four people died, including the gunman.


The base commander says there is no indication of any terrorist


involvement. The gunman was an Iraq War veteran being treated for mental


illness. Ambulance services in Britain say


there's been a significant rise in emergency calls from people with


breathing problems, as large parts of the country continue to be


affected by air pollution. The hazy cloud has been caused by a mix of


Saharan dust and emissions from here and the continent.


The Kremlin has confirmed that the Russian President, Vladimir Putin,


and his wife, Lyudmila, have officially divorced. In June last


year the couple made this appearance on state television to announce the


end by mutual consent of their 30-year marriage. Lyudmila Putina


and the couple's two adult daughters have since kept a low public


profile. Cases of HIV and AIDS-related


illnesses are the rise again in Uganda, despite successful


prevention and awareness campaigns costing billions of dollars. In a


deeply conservative society, there's a huge stigma attached to being HIV


positive, it can make it difficult for instance to get a job. So it's


little wonder that some people try to buy a fake certificate stating


HIV negative results. A BBC Africa investigation has found that such


certificates can change hands for as little as twenty dollars. Catherine


Byaruhanga worked with Matthew Stein to get this exclusive report from


Kampala. Uganda is a young country growing in


confidence. But some demons like HIV are proving hard to shake. As you


drive around Kampala, there are billboards everywhere urging people


to get tested. Despite the long-term campaigns, HIV-positive people still


face a lot of stigma. This woman has had the virus since she was raped.


She's chosen to be open about it. When they hear my story, they tend


to point fingers. You went looking for AIDS. They don't know. They


don't understand what somebody goes through. For quite some time now, I


haven't been working because everywhere I go to look for a job,


the first thing they ask me is my status. We have discovered that some


HIV-positive Ugandans are going as far as breaking the law to hide


their status. We sent one of our team undercover to several clinics


in Kampala, pretending to be an HIV-positive job seeker. I need your


help. I know I am positive. I have to present a negative test at my


workplace. You want me to write there what? Positive or... Negative.


After a quick negotiation, the lab technician agrees to give her a


negative result for about $20. Will it work? OK. Getting a fake negative


result turned out to be much easier than we thought. We have plenty of


them. We went to 15 clinics across Kampala and 12 were prepared to give


us a bogus negative. One woman who bought a fake result agreed to speak


to us, but asked that we hide her identity. I had to get a fake result


so that I can be accepted in this company, so that I can feed my


child, you know. I went, I know it is illegal, it is not right. But at


least he has saved my life. Experts say this stigma is hurting the


country's fight against the disease because it can result in


HIV-positive people becoming too scared to access treatment. I need


your help, please. We showed our footage to Uganda's Minister of


Health. He admitted the Government wasn't dealing effectively with the


problem. It does not shock me. Nevertheless


it is a challenge for the Government and the country, to pull up its


socks, and squarely face this problem.


Uganda's fight against HIV has been impressive. But unless it tackles


the evened stigma against those who are infected with the virus, it runs


the risk of HIV rates continuing to rise. Leaving a large section of the


population living in the shadows. Four weeks on, and the mystery of


the disappearance of the missing Malaysian airliner is as deep as


ever. Malaysia's Prime Minister Najib Razak has pledged not to give


up in the search for the missing plane. Mr Razak was speaking during


a visit to the airbase in Australia with his Australian counterpart Tony


Abbott. The search for the plane has been massive and multinational,


complex and expensive. We will discuss this in a moment. First,


from Kuala Lumpur, Jonah Fisher reports. Brought together by a


tragedy that still defies explanation, the Prime Ministers of


Malaysia and Australia came to Perth to thank the men and women tasked


with solving this mystery. For the last two weeks aircraft from seven


countries have looked for traces of Flight MH370 and found only rubbish.


Far from giving up, the talk from both leaders was of continuing to


search. I am confident that everything that possibly can be done


to find this aircraft will be done, we cannot be certain of success, but


we can be certain of the professionalism and the effort that


will be brought to the task. The world expects us to do our level


best, and I am very confident that you will indeed show what we can do


together, as a group of nations, that we want to find answers, we


want to provide comfort to the families, and we will not rest until


answers are indeed found. So the search resumed today with


eight planes, nine ships and a British submarine. No-one wants to


put a figure on how much this is all costing but it is not cheap. Take


the main surveillance plane being used, the orrian P3. That cost about


$10,000 an hour, when it is in the air.


Add the ships m the bill is easily several million dollars a day.


With the focus still on finding the plane, it is not clear who will pick


up the tab. Some now see politics as play, and say the presence of so


many Chinese passengers makes it very difficult to stop looking.


I am certain that the search will continue until we find this plane


because the relationship between Australia and China is critical to


the Australians, and the relationship with China is very


important to the United States, very important for the British, and other


countries as well. I believe that no effort will be spared to recover


this plane, where ever it happens to be.


Solving the mystery of Flight MH370 will take month, if not year, and a


vast amount of resources. After three-and-a-half weeks of


looking, there are still precious few leads.


Well, we are joined from California by Antony Roman who has more than 35


years of security and investigation expense, he is licensed commercial


pilot and former flight instructor. First of all, who is co-ordinating


and taking the lead on this massive international search operation,


would you say? Well... PROBLEM WITH SOUND


We are terribly sorry about that, but you can see the line from


California wasn't great, was it. Antony Roman there, experiencing a


few problems trying to speak to him. I think we have lost that line to


him. The era of silent films has been


over for nearly nine decades, and many great works have been destroyed


or simply lost. Well, one lost treasure has recently been found. It


features one of the best known stars of her day, in a film by one of


Britain's finest early film directors. The 90 minute silent


movie, called Love, Life and Laughter, is considered a British


masterpiece. It's by George Pearson and stars Betty Balfour.


Surprisingly, it lay gathering dust for more than 80 years and was


discovered in a small cinema in the Netherlands. Well, with me here in


the studio is Jason Solomons, chairman of the London film critics


choice. First of all, tell us about the circumstances of this find It is


an extraordinary story, one of those, it is one of those cinema


stories you count make it up, you couldn't put it in a movie. There


was a rusting canister of film that was found in a derelict building in


a town in the Netherlands, it used to be a cinema, it was only a cinema


for three years, owned by a family. And someone was going to destroy it,


the council were going to make it into a public building and someone


found all this tin canned stuff, celluloid at the bottom of the


cellar, which is very dangerous, because it is flammable. They had


the sense to investigate What they thought, they were looking for local


films of the Nazi occupation of that era, of the Second World War, they


sent it to the Dutch cinema institute, who recognised this sort


of lost film and, for a British film by George ball for. They sent it to


us here. By George Pearson and starring Betty Balfour. You are


getting mixed up. She was like the marry Pickford of the day A hugely


popular star, I have seen her in an Alfred Hitchcock film, she had the


impact of a Jennifer Aniston, he was delightful. We can see from some of


the footage, he played a Corus girl who lives in a garage who falls in


love with a young artister they run ay from the streets of London. What


strikes you about this film and much about 20s cinema that is lost, is


the modernity and how similar their lives were today, everybody thinks


it is confined to sepia tones and another era, but it is as modern as


now, and film-making is still kind of, in thrall to this method of


film-making and this way of talking. That is why it is important to find


them. The film was on the list, the BFI drew up a list of lost


treasures. It looks very jolly Films like this, the Hitchcocks, the Ring,


they were full of joy and laughter. George Pearson made many films with


Betty Balfour, because he was infatuated with her I think


directors that the time tended to be infatuated with their stars, stars


had a huge sway. That doesn't go on any more! Many have a muse. Many


directors work with their women as long as they can, David Lean used to


do it all the times. In terms. It is history and these things are


terribly important to the kind of continuance of culture of cinema.


Not a lot of this stuff survives and what is extraordinary is the


condition it is in. It is beautiful. The tone is wonderful. It is going


to be released. And more and more of these things are. The Artist won the


Oscar. That was the silent movie Everyone said it is dead and theer


ra died, but more and more event movies like this, they restored the


Hitchcock films and they put great shows on, they showed them with


great scores and give them a jazz score that is modern. Artisted like


it innen sawny, suddenly the film lives again, it is not from 1925 it


is from 2014 again. The silent movie died out in the late 20s. When they


invented sound in 1929 no-one was interested in it any more. It became


a duff print style of acting, they used to do, the acting was broader


and wider and stars who were big stars in the silent era when they


opened their mouths they found they couldn't speak very well. That was


the joke. They had squeaky voice, bad accents or couldn't project


properly. So it finished off. Valentino you never heard him speak


but he was a God. So I don't know what Betty Balfour sounded like. She


probably sounded like that (in a Cockney accent: It has it fans It


will be wonderful when we have the premier and the sound and the


lights. Britain's Queen Elizabeth and her


husband the Duke of Edinburgh had tea with the Pope in a private


meeting this afternoon. It's the Queen's first trip abroad for three


years. A day trip to Rome, the Queen's


first journey outside the United Kingdom for two-and-a-half years,


for lunch with Italy's President, who is said to be a great admirer of


hers. And then across Rome to the Vatican to meet Pope Francis. With a


slight bow of the head, the supreme Pontiff and vicar of Christ greeted


the Defender of the Faith. Who apologised for being a little late.


It was a deliberately informal meeting, they exchanged gifts, from


her to him, hamper of food from the royal estates, including something


described as grandad's chutney. A familiar royal grandad was on hand


to check it out. Plus venison and beer. From him to her at the back,


an orb with the cross of St Edward the confessor, a gift for Prince


George. He will be thrilled with it said the Queen, when he is a little


older. They sat down to talk, to reflect on


relations between the Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches, might there


have been one discordant note? The Pope is from Buenos Aires and the


Argentine Government has been hoping he will push the claim to the


Falkland islands. We will never know whether he did mention the fall lack


lands. It seeps unconceivable he would. It isn't about substance,


what matters is symbolism. And the symbolism was clear, of two leaders


at ease with each other and two churches in much greater harmony.


Now some breaking news we are getting in. The Colombian novelist


Gabrielle Garcia has been taken to hospital in Mexico City. The


87-year-old laureate is Spanish language's most popular writer. His


Novembers include love in the time of cholera. He has drawn comparisons


with Mark Twain and Charles Dicks on. That is it from me and the team,


Hello, many parts of the UK have been suffering with poor air quality


over past few day, some good news, by tomorrow things will feel fresher


and there will be less pollution, so an improving story, that is down the


fact we have this weather front that has pushed northwards. It is


bringing rain


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