01/03/2016 World News Today


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This is BBC World News Today, with me Karin Giannone.


The headlines: One of the most important moments in the run up


It's Super Tuesday, when 11 states vote for their candidates


for the White House, and this could be the moment


Donald Trump cements his lead in the race for the


8,500 migrants stuck at Greece's border with Macedonia in worsening


conditions, at a camp that can't cope with the numbers.


The trial collapses of a man accused of murdering 29 people in the Omagh


And understanding how memories actually change our brains,


three British researchers win a million Euro prize


for their outstanding contribution to neuroscience.


Voting is in full swing in the biggest test so far for candidates


running for the White House in Super Tuesday. It is seen as a make or


break for republican and democratic hopefuls.


Voters from Vermont to Texas and Georgia are heading


to the polls on this, the biggest day in the nomination


Donald Trump is widely expected to pick up enough votes to be chosen


as the Republican candidate for the White House.


Hillary Clinton is ahead in the Democratic race,


but is still facing a stiff challenge from Bernie Sanders


James Cook in is Houston, Texas, a key Republican battleground.


Yes, as you say, Texas is a big deal in this election, as it is in so


many other ways, such a huge state here in the southern US. We have


seen Ted Cruz here in the last couple of hours. This is a polling


station here in Huston. He is the Texan Senator and he would hope to


win in this part of the world. If he doesn't he may as well pack his bags


and make a very short journey home because if he cannot win his home


state and his chances of getting on towards winning the presidential


nomination for the Republican party seemed to be receding. The positive


news for service Ted Cruz is that the polls suggest that he is doing


well here in Tesco's -- Texas. Not so much for Marco Rubio, the Florida


senator. Polls in Florida suggest he is lagging quite a long way behind


but he has a few weeks to catch up if he wants to do so. He really


needs to do so because Florida is not voting today on Super Tuesday.


11 states voting across the country in an election that has been


extraordinary in many ways. I have spoken to voters here, asking them


what they think of the presidential election campaign so far and it was


striking that three of them, independently of each other, or use


the same word, crazy, to describe the campaign. That could be because


Donald Trump, the outsider and property tycoon has really shaken up


this race and on the other side there has been a challenge that has


shaken at least in the early stages Hillary Clinton as well from Bernie


Sanders, a challenge from the last but this is really the moment -- a


challenge from the left but this really is the moment when we find


out who is all at and no cattle. In Houston, it's the


biggest show in town. Not Super Tuesday, but the annual


livestock fair and Rodeo. They've come to Texas from all over


the United States for this event and when it comes to politics,


folk here, like everywhere, Donald Trump is stating exactly


and what this country needs is a leader in business and not


I don't really care for Trump because I feel like he attacks


people when he's trying to make a point.


I believe he's trying to point out everyone else's flaws and not really


It's kind of crazy right now, if I can go-ahead and say


I dislike, kind of, what he stands for.


Whatever he tells you, he does what he tells you.


In 11 states, Democrats and Republicans are doing just that


today - picking the person they want to stand for President.


Here in Texas there are local elections, too.


But in the White House race the votes will be counted,


shared out among the candidates and then turned into delegates


who will confirm their choice at party conventions in the summer.


For everyone involved in the presidential race this


is the biggest test so far, but here in Texas there's particular


If he loses here, his campaign will be in real trouble.


Polls suggest the Texas Senator is on course for victory


Almost everywhere else though Donald Trump is the favourite.


Today, he campaigned in Ohio, which votes in a fortnight.


Illegal immigration has turned out to be one of the big factors


You wouldn't even be talking about it.


You wouldn't be hearing about it if I didn't take take all that heat.


As for the Democrats, Bernie Sanders left-wing challenge


to Hillary Clinton seems to be fading.


Secretary Clinton stands out in a very positive way and I think


Mr Trump is an embarrassment to our country.


Bernie Sanders, he makes the most sense, he has the most experience


and he's really making a change for America.


The presidential election isn't until November,


but already it feels like make-or-break.


James Cook, BBC News, Houston in Texas.


Stay with us for full coverage of who Americans are choosing


We'll be talking to BBC correspondents in states including


Katty Kay will be bringing it all together live from


Then we'll have the results live from midnight GMT.


And do go to our website for comprehensive analysis


and a live page with the very latest developments.


Europe is on the cusp of a self-induced humanitarian


crisis, that's the verdict of the UN's refugee agency


24,000 people are stranded there because


neighbouring states have imposed restrictions on their borders.


8,500 are stuck at Idomeni on Greece's border


with Macedonia, the scene of fighting yesterday when hundreds


We are just on the edge of the main road running up to the edge


of the border camps between Greece and Macedonia.


What is noticeable this morning is that many hundreds of people


Some of them have been dropped off by taxis about 2km away but these


people here have walked 25km so far this morning from another


They are determined to get to the border today.


You can see the stream of people, I have counted dozens,


if not hundreds, of people walking across this field this morning


heading up to the border camp, which is about 1.5 miles from here.


There are camps further south with capacity for these people.


But the feeling among them is they don't want to be there,


they feel that they will only be able to make progress if they make


So they are determined to get to the border camp despite it


being overcrowded because they think that will give them a better chance


So you have this constant stream now, people walking down this road


and across these fields trying to get to frontier.


This is the main line that runs through the heart of the border camp


here, we are looking south into Greece.


It is being used as a resting place now.


The protests yesterday took place at the border gate,


about 150 metres away and you can see the Greek police have blocked


They are actually preventing people from going up


And a repeat of yesterday's scenes when the tear gas was fired.


So the police here are stopping people from proceeding.


But again you talk to people here, they have been there for many days,


they are not sure when if ever they are going to get


And it just feels even busier every time you come here.


They are trying to feed the people but again there are four


It rained heavily last night so you will see on the fences a lot


of belongings hanging up to dry after the heavy rain.


Lots of the tents here are not waterproof.


It is calmer here today, but still lots of people arriving


and they are getting increasingly fed up with the long wait


they are facing when they say they have the right papers to move


The migrant crisis is putting extreme pressure on Europe's borders


and different countries are responding in different ways.


It's not just Macedonia which is putting up fences.


Migrants heading north are faced with a razor-wire fence


15-feet high along parts of Bulgaria's border with Turkey.


Hungary has put up barriers along its borders with Serbia and Croatia.


There are also fences between Croatia and Slovenia,


All this has meant that migrants and refugees arriving in Greece


are having trouble moving north, deepening the country's crisis.


Speaking from Athens, the Greek Defence Minister,


Panos Kammenos, told the BBC his country is doing its best to manage,


but the actions of countries like Austria are not helping.


It is very important, if they all want to really find a solution, to


not press Greece but pressed Turkey. To operate as we have agreed in Nato


and accept back all these special relations of the middle of the


emergency and to provide them with possibilities to build a camp under


the European Union and UN GR rules, that means the refugee people are


taken to a safe county -- country and don't give the blame game to


Greece. What is happening increases only part of a much wider crisis at


the moment. Clashes have happened in Calais where a camp known as the


jungle is being torn down. This camp has been marked for


demolition. They cried, take our house and we will take our lives! It


was a protest of the powerless, ended in minutes by the police.


Around them other figures watched, defiant from their own flimsy


rooftops, wrapped against the cold. The irony is that migrants here are


clinging on to makeshift shelters in a country most do not want to be.


Moving to official migrant camps with heat and electricity means


registering in France. These temporary shacks show their resolve


not to settle here. This road marks the new boundary of the Jungle.


Everything to the south will be cleared out and the people evicted.


Everything, that is, except for the communal buildings, the mosque


summer schools in the community centres and the churches. Many of


the people who are facing eviction today say that rather than leave


their community the communal buildings where they sleep tonight.


After yesterday's violence, there is a sense of resignation among many


migrants here. As more shelters burns today the government directed


its anger towards the extreme and violent actions by some of the


activists here. Police on the ground told us off camera that most of the


agitators are British. We have arrested four people, mostly


British. These are people who use other spot are never on the


front-line themselves. They use the migrants, inciting them to start


fires and throw stones. The shrinking of the migrant camp hides


a bigger truth. Fresh figures from the UN refugee agency suggest the


rate of new arrivals across the Mediterranean has almost tripled


since last year. The building's might be cleared, but as for their


owners, many are still waiting for their chance in England and many


more are on their way. Next week European leaders will meet


again to find a way out of the crisis. I asked our brussels


correspondent what hope success?


There is a process going on as we speak of European leaders and


meetings going on to try and prepare for that summit on Monday. We have


European leaders from the European Commission, European union leaders,


going to talk with countries along the migrant route, Austria, Balkan


countries, Greece, also going to Turkey and we know on Friday that


Angela Merkel will meet with the French president, Francois Hollande,


to try and coordinate policy there. What they are facing really is the


need to try and get in place this unified European response that they


have been talking about for months, policies that they have already


decided on to institute better controls in Greece, to take those


who have refugee status from Greece and spread them around Europe. All


of those sorts of things. They need to make work efficiently. They


simply have not been functioning and that will be the focus on Monday and


it is something that Angela Merkel is pushing hard and we will see if


she has much success. A look now some of the avenues.


The South African President Jacob Zuma has survived another


no-confidence debate in Parliament. The second in a year. He was


repeatedly accused of destroying the economy he was told he was being


insulted with no luck at his track record. In the end he was defeated.


Police in India have charged a former head of the UN's climates


channel with sexual offences, including harassment and stalking.


The charges come one year after a female colleague at his


environmental think tank in Delhi filed a complaint, accusing him of


sending inappropriate texts and e-mails. He denies all charges.


President Hasan Rouhani has said the results of the elections have


shown that Iranians wanted moderation.


His supporters and their reformist allies won a landslide in Tehran


and deprived the Islamic hardliners of their majority in Parliament.


But their success is largely due to the efforts of two former


presidents who are now back at the centre stage


Former Presidents Mohammad Khatami, on the left here, and Ali Akbar


Hashemi-Rafsanjani, both the bane of the life of the hardliners who,


over the years, have done as much as they


can to isolate them and their political lives.


can to isolate them and end their political lives.


But both are now back from the political wilderness


Former president Rafsanjani here on Friday,


voting in elections that he managed to turn into a big challenge


for Islamic hardliners, hardliners, uniting all the strands of moderate


Islamists behind the supporters of the President Rouhani.


This is a group of almost all the candidates


that he managed together under one umbrella for the elections in


All of them have now been elected, all 30 of them, to the 30


Over the years he has been under ferocious attack from the hardliners


who have deprived him of his position as the Friday prayer


leader of the capital, who pushed him from


the chair of the crucial Assembly Of Experts.


Who jailed his son on charges that are widely seen as


politically motivated and jailed his


daughter for supporting the opposition movement.


But he is now back, elected with the most number


of votes in the elections for the Assembly Of Experts,


with a shot at choosing the next supreme leader.


As for the former president Mohammad Khatami here entering


a polling station to vote on Friday, the hardliners had


even banned the use of his photographs, let alone his words.


This is why in this campaign poster you only see


In spite of being barred from politics he recorded this


video, posted on social media, calling on his supporters,


the reformists and all of those who support democracy to come out


and vote in big numbers for all of their candidates.


A tactic he said could defeat the hardliners, a tactic


Both are now back, having engineered to defeat


the hardliners, who have now lost the control of parliament


Now, the Omagh bombing was the worst single atrocity of the Northern


Ireland Troubles and today the prospect of justice for the victims


remains as remote as ever. The trial has collapsed. Seamus Daly has


always denied the murders and today he was released from prison. The


prosecution said it was withdrawing the charges because a key witness


was unreliable. August 15th, 1998 was


a day unparalleled. Even in Northern Ireland's


history of brutality. This was a Saturday afternoon


in a busy market town. By evening, children and parents


were grieving because of a massive 18 years later, shops have been


repaired, this street rebuilt but nothing is forgotten in Omagh


with the relatives of those who died However, they didn't find it


when they went to court today. The case against Seamus Daly,


the man accused of all 29 murders collapsed before it


even reached trial. If you notice here this morning,


there's not many families. Most families have given


up on justice. They've given up


on the justice system. Seamus Daly's always strongly denied


any part in the explosion in Omagh. I'd like to ask you some questions,


please, about the Omagh bombing. However, in 2000, Panorama named him


as one of the Real IRA gang Key to the prosecution case


was a mobile phone used Their main witness said


he could connect Seamus Daly However in court he gave


inconsistent evidence and contradicted his


earlier testimony. The prosecution against


the defendant, Seamus Daly, The failure of this case to reach


trial means only one man has ever been prosecuted


for the murders at Omagh. In December 2007, Sean Howie


was acquitted and cleared of involvement in the attacks


after a lengthy criminal case. Two years later, four other men,


including Seamus Daly, were found liable in a civil case


but they continued to push Two years ago, Seamus Daly


was arrested and charged. However, today, the case against him


collapsed with the prosecutors admitting they didn't


have enough evidence. To bring it to that level where it's


even been at a committal I don't understand why they put


families continually through it. This afternoon, Seamus Daly left


prison where he's been held He's no longer wanted in connection


with the murders of all those But the town's them otherial garden


also serves as a reminder no-one's been held to account


for their deaths. Three British researchers have won a


coveted award for their work in the brain. They all made scientific


advances into research on the memory and how we all remember.


Throughout our lives we collect memories,


some remaining clear, others fading, they're part of a system that allows


Without it, we'd never advance and everyday tasks,


like driving, would be simply impossible.


Until recently, no-one knew how the brain could store information,


but researchers at this lab in Edinburgh, together with teams


in Bristol and London, have found ways to explain


Memory we've now got a good handle on because we know about the events


that occur when memories are laid down.


We know more or less where it happens and we know at the level


or connections between nerve cells what's happening.


How the brain actually holds memories was for years something


that was too difficult to understand, but scientists then


realised that one part of it, called the hippocampus,


Inside it there are billions of connections between the brain


cells and, when those links become stronger,


that's the key mechanism allowing us to remember.


So one crucial discovery is that the brain can change,


creating new connections and breaking them.


Another is that faults with this process can be linked to conditions


including depression, autism, addiction and Alzheimer's.


An image of some of the billions of connections inside the brain.


One hope with this research is to fight Alzheimer's


If we could zero in on this connection process between brain


cells and understand why that connection process is,


as it were, under stress, and making it difficult for people


to keep a record of their daily events, then maybe we could develop


new kinds of drugs that could help that process.


As the scientists delve into the mechanism of memory,


That some day in the future people who are suffering from trauma,


like soldiers after battle, might be helped by having their bad


memories deleted, a whole new world of possible treatments has


Now, a lot of people have been talking about this online, wondering


what it could have been. Pictures have emerged of a suspected meteor


shower, lighting up the sky across the north-east of Scotland. Many


people reported seeing what looked like a fireball and a bright flash.


Others said they heard a rumbling sound caused by something like a


sonic boom. Very impressive. The Rolling Stones have announced they


will play their first ever concert in Cuba on the 25th of March.


It will be a free, open a gate. It will be held in the Cuban capital


Havana and it will come four days after the scheduled visit of


President Barack Obama to the island. In a statement the band


said, we have performed in many special places throughout our long


career but this show in Havana is going to be a landmark event for us.


Let us return to our top story. It is crunch time for the Republican


and Democratic hopefuls for the race in the White House. In 11 states are


making a choice and we will get a brief flavour of the mood amongst


those casting their ballots. Hillary Clinton supporters in Virginia. She


is more qualified than any other candidacy history. Her experience as


Secretary of State and Senator makes a very impressive candidate. I think


she will win today and as far as going for words I think she will do


great. A little bit depends on who the


Republican candidate is. In my opinion if it is Donald Trump, I


think she will win overwhelmingly. Donald Trump will make America great


again. A lot of things that go on in this city, we don't need a


socialist. They raced my property taxes through the roof. I stood in


line for six hours the other day at Trump rally because to me he is just


the man, the one who will make the country great again. Full results of


Super Tuesday on BBC News. That is it from the programme. Good night.


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