02/05/2016 World News Today


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Hello and welcome to BBC World News Today.


Scientists reveal a breakthrough in understanding breast cancer.


An almost perfect picture of the genetic mutations that


lead to the disease, which could mean fresh


We should all be very optimistic, because we have more


opportunities now for thinking about new therapeutics than we've


ever had in the past and we know how to do it.


Russia and the US urge all parties in Syria to observe a ceasefire


as violence in Aleppo threatens the total collapse


Astronomers discover three planets close to our solar system


The Russian MP who feels his country's musical


traditions are under threat - from the Eurovision Song Contest.


It's been described as a hugely significant moment


which could help unlock new ways of treating and preventing


An international team of scientists has completed the largest-ever


genetic study of the disease, which they say gives them


a near complete picture of what causes breast cancer.


The study, which has just been published in Nature,


unpicked practically all the errors that cause healthy breast tissue


The team sequenced the whole genome of more


than 500 patients with breast cancer.


The scientists then looked at all three billion letters


of their genetic code - their entire blueprint of life.


They uncovered 93 sets of instructions, or genes,


Researchers say the information could help develop new drugs.


Our health correspondent, Dominic Hughes, has more.


Enjoying a spot of Bank Holiday Monday gardening,


Vanessa Babbage looks the picture of health.


But Vanessa has fought a long, arduous battle


After extensive surgery, chemo and radiotherapy,


she knows how devastating the disease and its treatment can be.


It's actually worse than the cancer itself,


because you are constantly ill, so they do try to help you to


minimise the side-effects by giving you other drugs to help the nausea


and things like that, so the treatment is very, very harsh.


Scanners like this one are used to detect and monitor cancerous tumours


once they've already developed, but to understand the underlying


causes of cancer, scientists have had to go much deeper,


to the level of DNA, to try and work out what happens


An international team of scientists, led by the Sanger Institute


in Cambridge, examined all three billion letters


What they've found has transformed the understanding of what happens


Getting a comprehensive collection of information, including the


mutations that are causing cancer, tells us something about why that


cancer is going wrong, why that cell is turning


into a cancerous cell, and if you can understand that,


you can understand the causes of the cancer, and then you can


This opens up the possibility of much greater individualised


treatments for cancer, targeting each of the mutations.


That's already happening with some treatments, like the drug


Herceptin, but experts believe this could be a big step forward.


What this study might achieve is finding


better treatments, matching them better to women.


By understanding the causes that underline the biology


of different types of the disease, we might be able to match better


treatments and offer them things that are more likely


Back at home, Vanessa Babbage is moving on with her life after


cancer, and she is optimistic that science is starting to make real


headway in the fight against the disease.


It gives people hope, because when people are affected


by someone that they love and they have breast cancer,


they hope for a better future for other women that are going to be


This research has transformed the understanding of cancer,


and offers the tantalising prospect it could prevent the disease


Dominic Hughes joins me now from our studio in Manchester.


It sounds as though this was a very complex piece of research.


Her very significant study, the largest of its kind looking at those


560 different patients who are all experienced breast cancer, decoding


more than 3 billion bits of DNA across those 560 patients. It is


significant as well because that DMA is a record of what happens to us


throughout our lives, from the moment we start life as a tiny


fertilised egg in our mothers with breakthrough to adult food through


the course of life. Records all the damage we sustain both from the


environment and infections and from that the scientists are able to


glean some clues about what underlies the cancerous tumours that


some that they are susceptible to. This is being hailed


as a big breakthrough. How much progress in the fight


against cancer have It is interesting when you think it


wasn't that long ago that breast cancer was seen as a one disease.


Now we know which there are many different types of breast cancer,


and this kind of sequencing of DNA is really seen as a very big step


forward in trying to unravel some of the mysteries that lie at the heart


of cancer. Why do some tissues turn from healthy to cancerous tissue?


What we have seen today is a big step forward, and the key thing they


are talking about is trying to does decimate lead to a breakthrough in


individualised treatments. Instead of treating people as though they


have one disease, breast cancer, they can say this is at a particular


type of breast cancer, and also it may tell scientists how someone


might respond to a particular treatment, so it opens up all sorts


of possibilities. Dominick, thank you very much.


Astronomers have announced the discovery of three planets


relatively close to our solar system which could be able to sustain life.


The three orbit an ultra-cool dwarf star 39 light-years away


and are comparable in size and probably also temperature


Dr Michael Gillon is an astronomer from the University


He led the team of researchers who discovered the planets


Tell us a little more about what you found. Hello. We have discovered


three planets orbiting a nearby star, which is extremely small, the


size of Jupiter. These planets are very interesting because they are


irradiated at the same level, more or less, as Venus, Earth and Mars.


This means they could tap water and maybe life. Furthermore what is


interesting is they are well-suited for detailed study of the


atmospheric composition with existing technology, telescopes that


are about to began operating. This means we can really study this


planet and even detect life on these planets right now. So we could do


this remotely? Yes, indeed. Just by using telescopes and by working at


the atmospheric composition -- looking at the atmospheric


composition of the solar system. The atmosphere would block the light of


the start, and this effect will depend on the composition of the


atmosphere. We know they are 39 light-years away, which sounds like


an awfully long distance, but an Astra and call times for scientists


like you that is close. -- in astronomical terms. Yes, very close.


The Milky Way is a big disc of 300 billion stars, and this one is among


the 1000 most nearby stars, saw it really is a star in the


neighbourhood of the sun. How does that help understand our universe if


we can find out more about these particular planets' make up? What


does it do for us? It could help us to understand how unique is our


terrestrial planets, especially our planet, and how unique is life in


the universe, which is a very important question to answer.


Further more it helps us understand other environments, because these


planets even if they are like the Earth in terms of size and


radiation, should be like the Earth, -- deference to the Earth, because


there are stories different to the sun. It is all part of a very


ambitious project. Yes, this research was obtained with a


prototype telescope that we have in Chile. It is a prototype for a


bigger project about to start, which will explore the nearest star is for


which we could have temperatures of planets which are well-suited for


detailed studies. And to catalogue planets like Earth in which we could


detect life in the next decade. Thank you very much. We wish you


luck with your project. US Secretary of State John Kerry


says foreign powers are "getting closer to a place of understanding"


at talks in Geneva - trying There's been a two month pause


in hostilities, but the last ten days have seen


an upsurge of violence. Mr Kerry said a renewed


ceasefire must include the besieged city of Aleppo,


where more than 250 civilians have Our correspondent Barbara


Plett-Usher has been travelling War has returned to Syria's


largest city after two The air strikes on a hospital last


week thrust the carnage back into the spotlight,


but hundreds of civilians have been killed in the past


ten days of fighting. The Syrian military says


it is targeting Jihadists, But the lines between such groups


and other rebels in Aleppo If the cease-fire breaks down here,


it may crumble across the country. The crisis triggered


emergency meetings in Geneva, the city that's been hosting


Syrian peace talks. America's top diplomat came


here to try to salvage the truce. We are engaged in an effort


with all of the members of the International


Syria Support Group, and with Russia particularly,


in an effort to restore that cessation of hostilities in those


places where it has been most There is no excuse for not finding,


again, a reinvigorating and reinstalling and re-implementing


what has been the only strong message the Syrian people have


heard from all of us. Mr Kerry is urging Moscow


to push its Syrian ally to stop But the most he announced


was a joint agreement to strengthen the monitoring


and implementation of the truce. So they are wrestling with a formula


to bring quiet back to Aleppo. There will be intensive talks


involving the Russians Mr Kerry said there should soon be


greater clarity about the details of But the bigger question


is whether Damascus and Moscow are serious


about the UN path to peace, or whether they are using it to make


military gains on the ground. Barbara Plett-Usher,


BBC News, Geneva. Leading Iraqi members of parliament


have called on Prime Minister MPs are demanding the creation


of a new Government, excluding the political party


of the Shia cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, who they blame for ordering


anti-government protesters to storm Our correspondent Ahmed Maher has


had special access to the main hall of the Iraqi parliament


and sends this report. We are in the main hall


of the Iraqi parliament, the centre of the unprecedented


political crisis. This parliament descended into chaos


after anti-government protesters stormed this hall


and ransacked its furniture. They damaged headphones, speaker


devices, and scattered documents, This place is one of the main


symbols of power and authority in Iraq, and that's why


the anti-government protesters chose it to send a strong message


to the MPs who used to be seated here in this session


that they are fed up, angry, at their failure to choose


the long-awaited cabinet of technocrats


or non-partisan ministers. They are aiming at pressuring


the embattled government of Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi


into enacting the promised reforms, That was our correspondent


Ahmed Maher reporting from A British company has apologised


for selling a cleaning product that led to a number of deaths


in South Korea. About 100 people died


after inhaling toxic fumes from liquids used to clean


humidifiers, although only some of those deaths are linked


to the British company. At an emotional news conference


in Seoul, an executive At one point, a man jumped


on stage and slapped him The health risks from


the disinfectants were first discovered in 2011 after several


pregnant women died Later that year, authorities said


the chemicals PHMG and PGH in the disinfectants used to cleanse


humidifiers were to blame. Nearly all households in South Korea


use a humidifier Reckitt Benckiser sold millions


of bottles of liquid disinfectant, called Oxy Ssak Ssak,


containing the harmful chemicals It's among several firms


whose products are blamed For five years the


company had refused Reckitt Benckiser now says


it'll come up with a plan It's also setting up a multi-million


dollar humanitarian fund An Australian computer scientist has


ended years of speculation, saying he is the creator


of the controversial Dr Craig Wright, who lives


in London, showed the BBC evidence that he launched the currency,


back in 2009, using a pseudonym. Dr Wright is believed to hold


hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of Bitcoins,


which are a virtual currency transferred via the internet,


and which can be exchanged This report from our technology


correspondent Rory Cellan Jones. In an office in London,


a mystery that has been an Internet obsession for seven years


is about to be solved. So you are going to show me that


Satoshi Nakamoto is you? If that's true, then


Craig Wright is the reason Bitcoin is a currency invented


on the Internet and designed to operate outside the control


of any central bank. Its value and its reputation - it's


being widely used by criminals - And there is a chain of Bitcoin cash


machines called SatoshiPoints. It was back in 2008 that someone


calling themselves Satoshi Nakamoto published a paper on the Internet


describing a plan for Bitcoin. It was the following the year


that he released the software Ever since, Satoshi's precise


identity has been a mystery. But there have been


a number of false trails. In the search for Satoshi,


a number of people, I think we will probably start


with Dr Craig Wright... Last year, there was speculation


about Craig Wright, an Australian computer scientist, here seen


speaking at a Bitcoin convention. Now he's confirmed that he is


Satoshi Nakamoto. Some people will believe,


some people won't. To tell you the truth,


I don't really care. You can say, hand on heart,


to me, "I am Satoshi Nakamoto"? He showed us that he possessed


the unique digital signature used by Nakamoto in the very first


Bitcoin transaction. That is the first generated


and transferred Bitcoin ever. That evidence has been shown


to a Bitcoin expert who says Dr Wright's achievement


can't be overstated. If Bitcoin is the separation


of money and state, I put this achievement on the scale


of the Gutenberg printing press, which was the beginning


of the decline of the Vatican's power, once we could have


mass printing of things. Last December, the Australian tax


authorities searched He says they are auditing his


businesses and don't He wouldn't tell us how wealthy


the currency has made him, but made clear he didn't want to be


a public figure. I don't want money, I don't want


fame, I don't want adoration. I'm going to do this


once and once only. I'm going to come in front


of the camera once. And I will never, ever be


on a camera ever again, for any TV station,


or any media, ever. If he's to be believed


he is a modern-day Midas, the man who conjured


new money out of thin air. It's a remarkable achievement


but having emerged from the shadows, Craig "Satoshi Nakamoto" Wright now


wants to disappear once more. Dr Wright's claim has


divided opinion online, with some observers casting doubt


on whether he's provided enough proof that he is indeed


the creator of Bitcoin. Users of the chat site


Reddit have been pointing out in the method Mr Wright used,


saying that the signature he used Technology journalist Lorenzo


Franceschi-Bicchierai also questions in his demonstration and uses


another one in private - "how does that make


any sense?", he asks. points out that Gavin Andresen,


chief scientist of the Bitcoin Foundation, has said he believes


Mr Wright's claim is true. Now a look at some of


the day's other news. The Republican presidential


frontrunner Donald Trump has stepped up his criticism of Chinese trade


policy. He said Beijing was conducting the greatest theft in the


history of the world. The mosquito-borne Zika virus may


be even more dangerous than previously thought,


scientists in Brazil say. They told the BBC that Zika could be


behind more damaging neurological conditions,


affecting the babies of up to A solar-powered plane has


taken off from California for the state of Arizona,


the latest stage of its The 16-hour flight will take


the Solar Impulse to Solar Impulse began its attempt


to circumnavigate the globe in March last year in Abu Dhabi,


but the flight was delayed by the need for lengthy repairs


after its batteries overheated. It's that time of year again -


next week, hundreds of millions of viewers around the world


will tune in to watch the annual extravaganza


that is the Eurovision Song Contest. But sequins and Euro pop are not


to everyone's taste. In Russia, one MP is planning


a rival contest with Our musical correspondent,


Steve Rosenberg, reports Hang on, who feels threatened


by that? Oleg Nilov is a Russian MP


on a crooning crusade to promote He loves folk songs and loathes


the Europop invading Russia. TRANSLATION: You don't need weapons


to conquer a country, The minds of our young


people are coming under the influence of TV,


trying to impose Two years ago, when Eurovision


was won by Conchita, the bearded lady, he was


so shocked, he did this. He sings, "Black crow,


why are you circling above us?" What the MP wants to hear


is more music like this. He is planning a rival


to Eurovision called Good Vision, where all the songs


will be, well, good. TRANSLATION: The songs will be folk


style, with national instruments I am sure this will get more viewers


and be more useful. Mind you, not everyone here


is out of tune with This year's Russian entrant believes


Eurovision can promote I really like the main message


that this Eurovision Because the music does


not have any religion, But Oleg Nilov is sticking


with what he knows best. With a chorus like that,


perhaps he should enter Eurovision. A very different sound. Thousands of


people gathered in commemoration of one of Africa's stars.


Thousands gathered in front of Congo's National Assembly to try and


catch a glimpse of what was going inside. One of the culture 's most


beloved ambassadors. People sometimes think when you speak about


Congolese music, it makes you dance, but no structure. The president


himself honoured Papa Wemba with one of the highest national titles for


his services to Congolese music and the world. Papa Wemba's body was


carried out of the National Assembly at midday. Papa Wemba's body has


been taken to his family home in this neighbourhood, it is a bustling


place. There are thousands of people here including many highly


fashionable ones. Papa Wemba was really the saviour of the Society of


elegant people. Everywhere he went he promoted Congolese style. We have


lost him today and it is a great sadness. The party will continue for


most of today and tomorrow as the Congolese celebrate their hero. Papa


Wemba, forever an icon and an inspiration you will be varied in


the capital on Wednesday. Our main story - a team of


scientists has completed the largest ever genetic study of breast cancer


which they say gives a near complete picture of what


Good evening. Better news for the week ahead,


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