Travel Antiques Uncovered


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Travel

A look at the stories behind antiques. Dr Lucy Worsley discovers how taking a holiday became something everyone aspires to do, while Mark Hill examines Wedgwood pottery.


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Antiques.

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What do we really know about them?

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Apart from being beautiful to look at, exquisitely made

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and often hugely valuable.

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Fabulous!

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It was the equivalent of the Rolex watch of its day, let's say.

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'But why were they made in the first place?

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'And who were they made for?'

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This is totally brilliant. It's a folding bed in a suitcase.

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Whether from a country house or a market stall,

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they unlock a fascinating history of the way we lived then and now.

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This is like taking your satnav on a journey today.

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'I'm historian Doctor Lucy Worsley.

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'And I'm going to uncover

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'the stories behind some of these remarkable objects.'

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'I'm antiques expert Mark Hill.

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'And I'll be looking at why some items have become priceless,

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'whilst others are the collectables of tomorrow.'

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"Can I be a butler when I grow up, Mum?" We know exactly what he's seen.

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We'll meet the people who preserve them.

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Those who still make them.

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Oh, my goodness!

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And the passionate enthusiasts who collect them.

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When's it going to end - when East Anglia is covered with your railway?

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HE LAUGHS

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'We're going to put antiques in their historical and social context.

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'In this programme, we're examining antiques from the world of travel.

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'We'll discover who made them,

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what they cost, how they changed our behaviour,

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'and follow their journey through history into our homes.'

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Quex House in Kent is a monument to travel.

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It was home to a wealthy Victorian landowner

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who explored Asia and Africa.

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So it seems like the ideal place to start.

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This house was owned by Major Powell-Cotton,

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who was the most terrific Victorian explorer.

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I've heard that it's stuffed with treasures from his travels.

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Many former travel essentials are now just glorious relics of the past.

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And nothing sums this up more than a globe.

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Globes have been in existence since the ancient Greeks.

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Here at Quex's house, we're looking at some mid-Victorian globes.

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Why are you so obsessed with globes?

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For me, they're a snapshot of history.

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A snapshot of our social history and our exploration of the world.

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So, at this particular point, Australia has been discovered.

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There it is.

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And we can tell that Captain Cook has done his stuff

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because his route is marked.

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Absolutely. There are two routes. Cook's voyages from 1768 to 1774

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help us to date a globe.

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I like to imagine your Victorian or your Georgian gentleman,

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or particularly a merchant, sitting at home in his study,

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caressing his globe and thinking, "My ships are over here

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"and I've got good links with China."

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It must've felt like being a master of the universe, to twizzle your own globe.

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Absolutely. These were the playthings of very wealthy people.

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Certainly during the Georgian period,

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when globes really rose in popularity.

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They're still the playthings of the wealthy.

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Indeed, people still commission globes to be made.

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If you wanted to buy antique globes, a set like this, quite a small size,

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would probably set you back around £2,000-£3,000.

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And they wouldn't be very useful

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if you wanted to visit the South Pole because it's not marked.

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We hadn't got there yet.

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I'm heading over to the Isle of Wight

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to meet a globe maker and collector.

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Greaves & Thomas is one of only two places in the UK

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that still handcrafts globes the traditional way.

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Mark, do come in. Welcome to the Globe Works.

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My goodness! Looking at all these globes hanging here,

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I can almost imagine being in an 18th-century shop

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selling scientific or navigational instruments. It's fantastic!

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-Why globes? What kicked you off?

-I have a passion for globes.

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And it's because it is man's image of the world he's on.

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And because of that, there are such diverse, different

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possibilities of what to make the globe of,

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what the subject matter is and what the globe actually does.

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These traditionally-made globes

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take more than three weeks to produce.

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The process starts with master globemaker David Gower

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pouring plaster into a mould.

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Once it has dried, David reinforces it with hessian sack

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and then adds more plaster.

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The globe is blown out using pressurised air

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and then left to dry for two weeks.

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The two semicircles are joined together.

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The globe will then be hand-papered with segments of map, known as gores.

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There's a special technique to pasting a gore onto the plaster ball,

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which makes it appear three-dimensional.

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But this process is a trade secret dating back over 500 years.

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And here it is, the finished globe.

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It's a reproduction of the earliest surviving known terrestrial globe,

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and it was designed by Martin Behaim, a German,

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around 1491 or 1492.

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But what's really significant about it is the fact that

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if you spin it around,...there's no America.

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That was because it was produced before Columbus returned with his discovery.

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Across the surface, you'll find all manner of inscriptions,

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including ports and major cities.

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But I think my favourite inscription is somewhere in Mongolia,

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where it very clearly states,

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"Here grows much rhubarb."

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James specialises in making historical reproductions,

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but he also has a collection of slightly more unusual globes.

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So, what's the craziest version you've come across?

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I think the most unusual globe I have is that cow,

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which depicts a world map on it.

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So you could call it a globe.

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The landmasses are in black and the ocean is in white. You don't see it.

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You think, "Why is this person showing me a cow?"

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But it's actually a globe and it was made about 1921.

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Now, this to me looks like a Phillips globe.

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-They were a very prolific maker, weren't they?

-Yes, they were.

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They were making globes from late Victorian times up until 1988.

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The most wonderful thing for me about these Phillips globes

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-is that they're much more affordable.

-That's right.

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You can buy a Phillips globe on an Internet auction site

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for as little as £50.

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A good one will sell for a lot, lot more.

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What's the oldest globe you have in your collection?

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I've got here a pocket globe,

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which was made about 1810, 1820.

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Thank you very much.

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What a gorgeous thing!

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This is in a fish-skin covered case

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and it has the map of the heavens, the celestial map, on the inside.

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That's right. And hand coloured. Both aspects hand coloured here.

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And then you have the globe here.

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-These were popular items to have if you could afford it.

-Yes.

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I think it was the equivalent of the Rolex watch of its day, let's say.

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So something like this, very small, what would this be worth?

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I would have said in auction, this would be worth £2000-£3000.

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But you could pay a bit more if it was in fantastic condition.

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-I notice that's a little bit damaged.

-A little bit scuffed.

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To me, that is not detrimental to its appeal for me.

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If you were to buy this from a good dealer in the West End,

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it would probably be about £5,000 in very good condition.

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That's incredible. And a beautiful, beautiful thing.

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Until the middle of the 19th century,

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travellers would have relied on a public stagecoach

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or a private carriage for transport.

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But private carriages were expensive.

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Employing a coachman with a couple of horses

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cost an annual £20,000 in today's money.

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The coachman's uniform alone cost more than he earned in a year.

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For the wealthy, there was an essential travel accessory,

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a specially-made clock that could withstand bumpy carriage journeys

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and still give accurate time.

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This is called a carriage clock.

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You often see these on people's mantelpieces.

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Perhaps your dad got one as his retirement present.

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But here, it's not in its natural environment.

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You're supposed to take it with you on a journey.

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It has its own little travelling case.

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As the name suggests, you take it in your carriage.

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Rich Georgian travellers depended on their carriage clocks

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to be strong enough to survive the shock

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of the 18th century's rugged roads.

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The first carriage clocks were made in Paris in the 1790s.

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Originally, they were status symbols.

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A sure sign that their owner had the time and money to travel.

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I'm going to test-drive the carriage clock

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with the collector, Robert Wren.

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It's like a big, enormous, expensive, fancy watch.

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-Absolutely. Yes.

-That's its purpose.

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If you've got a proper carriage clock,

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it will have a handle on the top

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-so you can lift it up and carry it around.

-Yes.

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-And it will have a little travelling case.

-Yes.

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And the key thing is that we can hold it like that,

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-and like that, and it keeps going, right?

-Absolutely.

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The advantage of the carriage clock for travelling

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was they're reasonably small, they were portable,

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but they were able to keep time on the move,

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they didn't have to be stationary and very steady.

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This clock was made in 1835 and it was made

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by Howell & James of Regent Street, London.

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And inside is going to have a mechanism.

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-A balance.

-A balance with escapement,

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which you can see running there.

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That's enabling it to work while it's being bounced along and tilted.

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That's your time keeper.

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Before that, clocks had a pendulum in them

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and obviously, if you juggle that about it gets...

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It would stop and not keep time.

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So, before the carriage clock, there wasn't such a thing

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as Standard Time, was there?

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No, you had local time, your sundial time.

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and you would have had non-portable clocks at home.

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It's really the Napoleonic wars, isn't it,

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when people start needing

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to know what the time is, because they've got to get to the battlefield on time.

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Napoleon says all of his officers must have one of these.

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Yes.

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-This is a super-luxury item, isn't it?

-Yes, yes.

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This is a very rare example and today,

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the value of such a fine piece would be about £16,000.

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Hold on tight! Hold on tight!

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In the 18th century,

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young aristocrats would travel across Europe

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in carriages on journeys that would take up to two years at a time.

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They were making what became known as the grand tour.

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This is where the word tourist originates from.

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The most popular destinations

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were to the ancient ruins of Greece and Rome,

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regarded then as the centres of civilisation.

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The British in particular were fascinated by these ancient worlds.

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A potter, Josiah Wedgwood, saw the opportunity and started to design

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new products that looked like classical antiques.

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Wedgwood studied illustrations and drawings

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of objects which were being found in excavations at Pompeii

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and Herculaneum.

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In 1769, he created four vases,

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which were exact replicas of some of these finds.

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Wedgwood called them First Day's Vases.

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Today, they are priceless

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and two of them sit in the Wedgwood Museum near Stoke-on-Trent.

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So how much would that have cost in the 18th century?

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That vase would have cost four guineas - four pounds and four shillings.

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It doesn't sound very much in today's term,

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but, in fact, that would be half the price

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of an annual artisan's wage.

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So, it was actually a huge amount of money.

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You'd spend six months working just to own that vase,

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should you want to?

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Which is why it's remained very much the aristocracy

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and that burgeoning class of industrialists,

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who were the new money,

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who were commissioning the great new houses.

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And of course all this is driven by an absolute desire

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to have the classical again? Things seen on the grand tour?

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It's driven by what the public demanded,

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what they wanted,

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the most up-to-date fashion taste as you said.

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But for Wedgwood to become the success he did,

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he had to have more than just the aristocracy buying his work?

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Absolutely. He made a wide range of tea bowls, teacups,

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teawares... Even down to salt cellars for the tables.

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Everybody could have something that was fashionable and up-to-date?

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Yes. Everybody could aspire to acquiring a piece of blue-and-white Jasper.

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Wedgwood's showrooms must have been fantastic.

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I would have loved to have seen one.

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He even had a bargain basement

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where people could go

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and rummage for that slightly damaged or slightly crooked vase,

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so that they could actually have something

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like their more aristocratic friends,

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that probably was just slightly off!

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The style that Wedgwood used is known as neo-classical,

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which flourished in eighteenth-century Britain.

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The word neo-classical is often used to describe

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architecture, but neo-classicism

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can also be applied to furniture, metalwork and ceramics.

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Its approach to design drew its inspiration

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from the classical art and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome.

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There are several ways to spot neo-classicism.

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The design will refer back to the ancient world,

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architectural details will include pillars or columns,

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the decoration will be simple and symmetrical.

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And any figures on it will be idealised.

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Over 200 years later, the factory still handcrafts its pottery

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and I'm going to discover how a classic piece is made.

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This lump of clay will eventually become the Portland Vase.

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It is made today in exactly the same way it was under Josiah.

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The first step is what's called throwing the body.

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The Portland Vase is a copy of a blue and white Roman glass vase,

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made around the first century.

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Josiah Wedgwood was obsessed with trying to recreate it, not in glass but in pottery.

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It took him nearly four years to perfect

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and was the crowning technical achievement of his life.

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-The process now is... I'm going to start bringing the neck in.

-OK.

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It's probably the most complicated part of the vase.

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'Chris trained for two years to master this technique.'

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-Quite proud of that one!

-Absolutely. That's a good one.

-That's a good one.

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'The pot is now the correct shape and size,

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'but it needs to be smoothed down with a lathe.'

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-So, Sue, your job is to create the decoration that's applied to the body.

-That's right, yes.

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-I have to press the clay in...

-Aha.

-Make sure all the air's out.

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And all the details put in.

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-Because the moulds themselves are incredibly fine.

-Yes.

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Considering what you produce with this bashing is so delicate,

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I'm sort of surprised!

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-So now you're removing the excess clay from the top.

-That's it.

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When the clay's put through the mould, presumably,

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it loses this buff pinky colour.

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Yes. It will turn out white. It's only a vegetable dye.

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It's just colouring in it so we can see the figures better.

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-Ah, and that burns off in the kiln?

-Yeah.

-I see.

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It's amazing to think you're using the same process that was used over two centuries ago.

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-Yes. Exactly the same.

-Pioneered.

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Now this is the bit I've always wondered. How do you get them out?

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OK, here we go. Oh, my goodness! Oh, my goodness!

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-So...

-That's damp. It's just damp.

-I see.

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It's the suction between the tool and the water that fetches it out.

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And because it's such a thin membrane of clay, it's very light

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and it just starts to move.

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That's incredible.

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Look at that! And it just lifts clean out.

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The final stage is when decoration, known as sprigging, is attached.

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Although everybody's role is equally important in the production process,

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it strikes me that the pressure's on you.

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You get this bit wrong... What happens if you do make a mistake?

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I have about 15 minutes to take it off.

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-And that's before it gets too dry.

-Before it starts to dry.

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After that, it's not worth it.

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-So what happens to the vase if it has a fault?

-It's no good. It's a reject.

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-It would be smashed.

-Destroyed?

-Yeah.

-After all that work?

-Yeah.

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I'd better keep quiet then and let you get on with the job.

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'This vase is so exclusive that only perfect reproductions pass.

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'There are no seconds sold of these.'

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'Finally, the vase is fired in the kiln,

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'one that was designed by Josiah himself.'

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And here it is, the finished Portland Vase.

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It's exactly the same as the first copies

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that rolled off the production line in 1789.

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I've come to London's Portobello Market

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in search of some more modern pieces.

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It's incredible to think that Wedgwood Jasperware

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has somehow fallen out of fashion in Britain right now.

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But that's brilliant because it means if you like the look, there's never been a better time to buy.

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Look for the 20th century. This vase made during the 1950s,

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so it's a 20th century piece, which is much more affordable.

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You can get the look for a very low price.

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Visiting the classical worlds of Greece and Rome

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remained the privilege of the super rich until the early 1800s.

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Then a revolutionary invention came along, the train.

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Railways cut travel time by up to 90%.

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Instead of crawling along in a carriage at 5mph,

0:20:240:20:26

people could now travel ten times as fast and it was much cheaper too.

0:20:260:20:31

I'm quite intrigued to learn more about how the grand tour turns into

0:20:350:20:39

mass tourism and 1825's a key year, the railway gets invented.

0:20:390:20:45

That's right. But this railway isn't all it seems.

0:20:450:20:48

It's one collector's dream -

0:20:480:20:50

a little railway, many carriages and a lot of memorabilia.

0:20:500:20:53

Extraordinary as it may seem, this isn't a real railway station.

0:21:000:21:05

It's more of a giant train set.

0:21:050:21:08

Every single object here, from the waiting room

0:21:080:21:10

to the locomotives to the coal, has been lovingly collected by one man.

0:21:100:21:16

Train enthusiast John Jolly has been building up his railwayana

0:21:160:21:21

collection over many years into his own private museum.

0:21:210:21:26

But it all started off as an empty field and a twinkle in his eye.

0:21:260:21:30

So when you bought your very first item,

0:21:300:21:34

did you have any idea where you were going to go with this?

0:21:340:21:37

None at all. I was only 16 at the time.

0:21:370:21:40

I had no imagination that it would develop into anything even approaching this.

0:21:400:21:45

When did you get your first proper big engine?

0:21:450:21:48

The first locomotive,

0:21:480:21:50

the first piece of rolling stock, came here in early 1987.

0:21:500:21:54

-Is that when you built these tracks?

-After that.

0:21:540:21:57

We started to build seriously in the middle of 1987.

0:21:570:22:01

-We started to lay track.

-Wow!

0:22:010:22:04

And then, having got a locomotive and a bit of track,

0:22:040:22:07

we thought we'd need a wagon or two, as rolling stock.

0:22:070:22:10

And it's grown to something like 80-odd wagons

0:22:100:22:13

and various carriages and about 20 assorted locomotives.

0:22:130:22:16

I've got this vision of you personally putting down all the sleepers.

0:22:160:22:21

-Quite an estate!

-Yes, indeed.

0:22:210:22:24

It's a bit crazy, isn't it?

0:22:240:22:25

It's totally mad!

0:22:250:22:27

Well, it is.

0:22:280:22:31

But a lot of people do mad things, especially in the collecting world.

0:22:310:22:35

What's the joy of it for you?

0:22:350:22:36

That's a difficult question. There is a tremendous amount of joy.

0:22:380:22:42

It's a joy finding something that you probably never even knew

0:22:420:22:46

was going to be available.

0:22:460:22:48

Something that had a historic background

0:22:480:22:51

that you thought would never come your way.

0:22:510:22:55

Is it the thrill of the chase then?

0:22:550:22:57

-Is it the thrill of the hunt?

-Very largely.

0:22:570:22:59

-When's it all going to stop then?

-It's not.

0:22:590:23:02

-You're going to grow and grow and grow?

-Not until I'm 6ft under.

0:23:020:23:06

It may carry on because I've got a son

0:23:060:23:08

and possibly a grandson who will be interested. So who knows!

0:23:080:23:13

I gather your wife was quite pleased

0:23:130:23:15

-when you got the collection out of the house.

-Indeed, she was.

0:23:150:23:19

She started it all off because when we had the opportunity

0:23:190:23:22

of buying the station building from the next village,

0:23:220:23:26

she suggested that.

0:23:260:23:28

The idea being was that we could have the station,

0:23:280:23:31

make it into a summer house and you can get your railway stuff out of the house.

0:23:310:23:36

I asked her if she was interested in trains

0:23:360:23:38

and she kind of went like this.

0:23:380:23:40

Well, I can't pretend that she's as interested in trains as I am.

0:23:400:23:44

But one of the reasons that she accepts it is it gives her

0:23:440:23:47

a chance to do things she enjoys,

0:23:470:23:49

meeting people and travelling. We've done a lot of that.

0:23:490:23:53

'Railwayana collecting doesn't have to be about greasy engines and miles of track.

0:24:000:24:06

'It is possible to collect on a much more accessible scale.'

0:24:060:24:10

This is all very Brief Encounter.

0:24:100:24:12

It is! None of these would have a brief encounter with collectors.

0:24:120:24:17

These are the things that form a backbone

0:24:170:24:19

and core of many railwayana collectors' collections.

0:24:190:24:22

People will think, railways, anoraks, nutters!

0:24:220:24:26

I'm not thinking that. You might be thinking that. I like them all!

0:24:260:24:30

They sum up the romance of the railways during the 1920s

0:24:300:24:35

and '30s and there's an immense amount of nostalgia

0:24:350:24:37

for anything that reflects that

0:24:370:24:39

and anything that might have been used during this period.

0:24:390:24:42

All of these things on the table

0:24:420:24:44

have been made for different railway companies,

0:24:440:24:48

like this very bossy cup here.

0:24:480:24:51

It says "Property of GWR, return to Paddington Station".

0:24:510:24:54

It doesn't even say please.

0:24:540:24:55

There were loads of these companies.

0:24:550:24:57

In 1846, there were 272 different railway companies started up.

0:24:570:25:01

Obviously, they didn't all survive. They got amalgamated or closed down.

0:25:010:25:05

That was the high point of railway mania.

0:25:050:25:08

A lot of this was actually stolen.

0:25:080:25:12

Little pieces could easily be slipped into a pocket,

0:25:120:25:15

as could a teaspoon or an eggcup.

0:25:150:25:16

More difficult to put that in.

0:25:160:25:19

But we're grateful that happened.

0:25:190:25:21

Otherwise, it wouldn't survive in such quantity.

0:25:210:25:24

-It's all stolen goods.

-Pretty much.

0:25:240:25:26

I prefer the word "Liberated" or "saved from destruction".

0:25:260:25:31

This silver teapot is from the Great Eastern Railway. That's marvellous!

0:25:310:25:36

Not just for first class either.

0:25:360:25:38

Standard-class passengers got to sip from silver.

0:25:380:25:41

And a fan, should the lady get hot.

0:25:410:25:44

The London and North Eastern Railway fan.

0:25:440:25:47

These are affordable things.

0:25:470:25:49

You don't need to spend tens of thousands on a locomotive plate.

0:25:490:25:53

You can start with around £20 or £30

0:25:530:25:56

to buy a rather nice little matchbox.

0:25:560:25:58

Or perhaps a plate. What railway enthusiast

0:25:580:26:01

wouldn't like to eat his dinner off a plate

0:26:010:26:04

that was on a railway in the 1920s or '30s?

0:26:040:26:07

Look out for rare items too.

0:26:070:26:09

This little eggcup, quite a scarce thing, for some reason.

0:26:090:26:14

That could fetch over £100.

0:26:140:26:17

What's nice about them is the idea people used to do things in style.

0:26:170:26:21

All of these things are quite luxurious, aren't they?

0:26:210:26:26

By 1900, railroads had revolutionised transportation and travel,

0:26:280:26:33

pulling whole continents together

0:26:330:26:36

and expanding the British Empire to every corner of the globe.

0:26:360:26:40

But it wasn't the only way Victorians travelled.

0:26:400:26:44

By 1833, the Atlantic could be crossed

0:26:440:26:48

in just over three weeks by steamship.

0:26:480:26:51

And travelling by steamer from England to New York

0:26:510:26:54

was regarded as the ultimate in luxury.

0:26:540:26:57

Nothing epitomised this more than the RMS Titanic, at the time,

0:26:590:27:04

the largest steamer in the world and believed to be invincible.

0:27:040:27:07

That is, until the fatal night of April 14th 1912,

0:27:090:27:14

when it hit an iceberg on its maiden voyage, killing 1,517 people.

0:27:140:27:20

I've come to Wiltshire

0:27:260:27:29

to an auctioneers who specialise in Titanic memorabilia.

0:27:290:27:33

The market we see now started in 1998 with James Cameron's movie.

0:27:330:27:37

There was a groundswell of interest after this film.

0:27:370:27:41

We see ourselves with the market we have today.

0:27:410:27:43

What's the world record price someone's paid

0:27:430:27:46

for something related to it?

0:27:460:27:48

For a single item, just over £220,000.

0:27:480:27:51

And what did their £220,000 buy?

0:27:510:27:54

A quite unique piece, a 32ft plan from the British Titanic Inquiry.

0:27:540:28:00

Good Lord! That I can kind of understand.

0:28:000:28:03

It's a staggering price, but that's a great visual object.

0:28:030:28:06

Something that could easily be displayed,

0:28:060:28:10

but on the other hand,

0:28:100:28:11

something like this bunch of keys is more difficult to understand.

0:28:110:28:16

-How much do you expect these to fetch?

-Between £50,000 and £60,000.

0:28:160:28:20

-Do you feel confident they'll fetch that sum?

-They're from the Titanic.

0:28:200:28:25

That brings them into that select category.

0:28:250:28:29

Most importantly,

0:28:290:28:31

we look at the little brass tag, they were owned by Samuel Hemming.

0:28:310:28:35

He was Titanic's lamptrimmer.

0:28:350:28:37

This was a man who lit the lamps on Titanic, but most importantly was given a direct order

0:28:370:28:43

from the captain as the Titanic was sinking

0:28:430:28:45

to make sure the lamps were ready on the lifeboats.

0:28:450:28:49

These are an integral part of the story.

0:28:490:28:52

As a consequence, they are very, very rare.

0:28:520:28:56

I find this rather fascinating. We have a first-class luncheon menu.

0:28:590:29:05

I'm presuming it's first class

0:29:050:29:06

because of the grandiosity of the food here.

0:29:060:29:09

Fillets of brill, chicken a la Maryland,

0:29:090:29:12

appealing to the American audience,

0:29:120:29:14

corned beef vegetables, dumplings, grilled mutton chops.

0:29:140:29:18

-It goes on. Opulence.

-Opulence in the extreme.

0:29:180:29:22

For lunch, you had over 40 different options.

0:29:220:29:24

It's nice to have the White Star flag.

0:29:240:29:27

Underlined, we have RMS Titanic, which really places it.

0:29:270:29:32

But what's significant for me is the date, April 14th 1912.

0:29:320:29:36

That's why this menu is so collectible, so valuable.

0:29:360:29:41

April 14th was when Titanic hit the iceberg.

0:29:410:29:44

You'd have had luncheon at 12 o'clock, midday,

0:29:440:29:47

and a little over 11 hours later, she hit an iceberg.

0:29:470:29:49

-This is, effectively, the last meal.

-That's correct.

0:29:490:29:54

In the auction, what do you expect this to fetch?

0:29:540:29:57

Between £60,000 and £100,000.

0:29:570:29:59

My goodness gracious! My goodness gracious!

0:29:590:30:02

How did it survive? Water and paper don't normally go together.

0:30:020:30:08

They're not happy bedfellows.

0:30:080:30:09

This particular menu was owned by Washington Dodge.

0:30:090:30:13

He was a banker from America and it came off the Titanic,

0:30:130:30:17

came from the disaster, in his wife's handbag.

0:30:170:30:20

She presumably had a delicious lunch

0:30:200:30:22

-and decided to remember it by stealing the menu!

-Indeed!

0:30:220:30:26

He was travelling with his young son as well, Washington Jr,

0:30:260:30:29

and 12 hours later, they were saved.

0:30:290:30:31

-So all three survived?

-That's correct.

-That's quite unusual.

0:30:310:30:35

Not so much in first class.

0:30:350:30:37

The survival rate in first class was considerably higher

0:30:370:30:40

than those in second and third class.

0:30:400:30:43

As travel developed,

0:30:490:30:50

so did the types of luggage travellers took with them.

0:30:500:30:54

A need for more personal and lightweight baggage developed

0:30:540:30:58

with the increasing numbers travelling to far-flung lands.

0:30:580:31:02

Luggage became something of an art form.

0:31:020:31:06

-Look what I've brought you.

-What is this mystery box?

0:31:110:31:15

REW. It belongs to Mr REW.

0:31:150:31:17

I would never go on a journey without my wash bag

0:31:170:31:20

and if I were a well-to-do Victorian gentleman about town,

0:31:200:31:24

this would be my wash bag.

0:31:240:31:26

Oh! Look at the way the mirror works! Fancy and clever!

0:31:260:31:29

-Isn't that impressive?

-You could stand it in different positions

0:31:290:31:34

-or you could have it on the top like that.

-Exactly.

0:31:340:31:37

When I was standing at my wash stand,

0:31:370:31:40

I can tweak my moustache, shave perhaps. It's fantastic.

0:31:400:31:43

Let's have a look at what's inside then.

0:31:430:31:47

We've got a little case full of tools.

0:31:470:31:51

Tools for shaving. Razor blades.

0:31:510:31:53

Each with nice bone handles. That's ivory.

0:31:530:31:55

That's a little button hook for doing up buttons.

0:31:550:31:58

A pair of scissors for trimming you whiskers.

0:31:580:32:01

-Look how everything fits in together.

-It's so dinky.

0:32:010:32:05

Here's his toothbrush. Look at that.

0:32:050:32:09

Now this is an age in which

0:32:090:32:11

the proper Victorian gentleman is very clean.

0:32:110:32:14

Unlike the Georgian gentleman who would be wearing, perhaps,

0:32:140:32:18

make-up, scented with perfume, a powdery old wig on his head.

0:32:180:32:21

The Victorian gentleman is supposed to have a daily bath

0:32:210:32:25

and not smell of anything apart from general cleanliness.

0:32:250:32:29

That takes a lot of time. This is all of his kit.

0:32:290:32:34

I really like it. How much would it cost me to get one?

0:32:340:32:38

A couple of hundred pounds. They can be very hard to sell.

0:32:380:32:41

Do you know what the least desirable part is?

0:32:410:32:44

-I'm guessing it's the brush.

-You're spot on.

0:32:440:32:47

Who wants to use somebody's old hairbrush?

0:32:470:32:50

-That contains the grease of dead people's hair.

-You put it so well!

0:32:500:32:54

And that is the reason why.

0:32:540:32:56

Even with beautiful handles, it can be difficult to sell such pieces,

0:32:560:33:00

which is why we often see them in car boot sales and jumble sales,

0:33:000:33:04

sat there as the sun goes down.

0:33:040:33:05

Do you think that Mr REW would have taken other matching items with him?

0:33:050:33:09

But of course! This would have been the smallest part of his luggage,

0:33:090:33:13

which would have consisted of trunks,

0:33:130:33:15

all manner of different items. Some of them can get incredibly complex.

0:33:150:33:19

You'd be surprised about what a lot of them contained.

0:33:190:33:22

On a quest to find out more about travelling in style,

0:33:260:33:30

I've left Quex House to visit an antique luggage shop in London.

0:33:300:33:35

One of the best known Victorian luggage brands was Louis Vuitton.

0:33:350:33:40

He stamped all of his trunks with the iconic LV monogram

0:33:400:33:45

to stop his competitors copying them.

0:33:450:33:48

Now this is very recognisable.

0:33:480:33:50

This pattern here, this says to me footballers' wives and handbags.

0:33:500:33:55

I think it does today, perhaps.

0:33:550:33:57

I think it is a classic piece of its time.

0:33:570:34:01

When does this company date from? People won't believe how old it is.

0:34:010:34:05

Louis Vuitton was founded in 1854

0:34:050:34:08

and without going out of production,

0:34:080:34:10

they've been producing items for that long.

0:34:100:34:14

The big innovation of this maker is he stops the old curved lids,

0:34:140:34:18

which were fine cos the water could trickle off,

0:34:180:34:21

but you couldn't stack them in railway carriages.

0:34:210:34:24

That is correct.

0:34:240:34:26

One of his key innovations was making the flat-top trunk.

0:34:260:34:30

Louis Vuitton became synonymous with making that style.

0:34:300:34:36

What's the date of this trunk? And what's inside it?

0:34:360:34:40

This dates from around 1935 and is, in fact,

0:34:400:34:44

if we open it up, you will see...

0:34:440:34:47

-..a wardrobe trunk.

-Do you know, I need one of these!

0:34:500:34:56

-Isn't it fabulous?

-It is wonderful.

-How does it work?

0:34:560:35:01

You could hang all you required along the rails here.

0:35:010:35:06

And then these straps would keep the clothes from flapping around

0:35:080:35:11

and getting creased.

0:35:110:35:13

And then, in the bottom, you could keep a few pairs of shoes.

0:35:130:35:17

Why was he so successful as a luggage designer?

0:35:170:35:21

He came from fairly humble beginnings.

0:35:210:35:24

-He started off as a packer.

-A trunk packer?

-He was.

0:35:240:35:27

That's an actual profession? You can be employed as a trunk packer.

0:35:270:35:31

Yes, he actually packed other people's clothes to go travelling.

0:35:310:35:35

There was quite an art to fitting a whole wardrobe into a small space.

0:35:350:35:39

There was because you wanted the clothes to arrive

0:35:390:35:43

in pristine condition, not creased and not damaged.

0:35:430:35:46

He had a real insight into how to get everything in

0:35:460:35:48

and this helped him design state-of-the-art trunks.

0:35:480:35:51

That's exactly the way it worked.

0:35:510:35:54

-This is a big surprise. What's in here?

-Well, let's open it up...

0:35:540:35:59

..and have a look.

0:35:590:36:01

OK, it's not a croquet set.

0:36:030:36:06

It's a puzzle, is what it is.

0:36:060:36:08

It is, in fact, a bed trunk.

0:36:080:36:10

Vuitton also created this fold-out bed.

0:36:160:36:19

Intended for use in a tropical jungle,

0:36:190:36:22

it's lined with zinc to protect it from being eaten by insects.

0:36:220:36:26

Originally it was sold complete with a mosquito net

0:36:270:36:30

and its own mattress.

0:36:300:36:32

Perfect.

0:36:410:36:43

Look! He's branded it again.

0:36:430:36:45

Any opportunity to put an "LV" and he does!

0:36:450:36:47

-Look, the person lying in bed can read that!

-THEY LAUGH

0:36:470:36:51

He's very proud.

0:36:510:36:53

I think, understandably so. This is a very ingenious device.

0:36:530:36:56

The well-prepared, wealthy traveller

0:36:560:36:58

also required the Victorian equivalent of a laptop.

0:36:580:37:01

Well, this doesn't look very light or portable

0:37:010:37:04

but it's a travelling writing desk.

0:37:040:37:06

It all opens up and look what's inside.

0:37:060:37:08

There's places for the pens and the envelopes

0:37:080:37:12

and there's a little clock in here and there's a calendar

0:37:120:37:15

and goodness knows how many little filing cabinets.

0:37:150:37:18

And look at these - for pens and rubber bands.

0:37:180:37:21

What period is this from, is this from the early 20th century?

0:37:210:37:24

It is, it's about 1905. It's a fantastic piece.

0:37:240:37:28

-It even has beautiful little candlesticks...

-Oh!

0:37:280:37:32

..which clip up, very stylish.

0:37:320:37:36

There's something sort of Whitehall-y

0:37:360:37:37

and civil service-y about the thing -

0:37:370:37:40

a very particular way of doing things.

0:37:400:37:42

Letters in, letters out.

0:37:420:37:44

Here are receipts. Here are accounts.

0:37:440:37:47

But actually this one belonged to a lady who travelled to Ceylon

0:37:470:37:50

and wanted a piece of furniture to go with her.

0:37:500:37:52

She was part of the British Empire, wasn't she?

0:37:520:37:56

As it was then, yes, indeed.

0:37:560:37:57

I see this desk as a form of soft power, if you like.

0:37:570:38:00

This is the British saying, "This is the way we do things and we're

0:38:000:38:04

"not going to make any concession to the local climate or culture

0:38:040:38:07

"and we're going to go on pretending we're in Tunbridge Wells."

0:38:070:38:10

I think to some extent that was true.

0:38:100:38:12

We were very good at taking our home comforts with us when we travelled.

0:38:120:38:16

It's not travelling light, is it?

0:38:160:38:18

You'd need thousands to lug this along.

0:38:180:38:20

You did, you had either your own staff or perhaps porters,

0:38:200:38:23

but generally if you bought furniture like this,

0:38:230:38:25

you had people to carry it for you.

0:38:250:38:27

And is there a secret drawer?

0:38:270:38:29

There are secret drawers but in the base section.

0:38:290:38:32

-Let's have a look!

-Yeah!

-Everyone wants to see secret drawers.

0:38:320:38:35

-So inside here...

-Oh! Look at that!

0:38:350:38:38

Several secret drawers.

0:38:380:38:41

This is what we like...this is the real McCoy.

0:38:410:38:44

Do you think that the lady has left her pearls behind in here?

0:38:440:38:48

Sadly not, not EVEN a sovereign.

0:38:480:38:49

This writing desk was bound for the subcontinent of India,

0:38:520:38:56

the most economically important part of the British Empire.

0:38:560:39:00

By the 19th century, India had also become

0:39:010:39:04

a popular British tourist destination,

0:39:040:39:06

with the grounds around the Taj Mahal

0:39:060:39:10

turning into a type of colonial pleasure resort.

0:39:100:39:13

Some tourists even chopped off chunks of the marble

0:39:130:39:17

to bring home as souvenirs.

0:39:170:39:18

Our Major Powell-Cotton of Quex,

0:39:220:39:25

he went off to India on a trip in 1890

0:39:250:39:28

and this is his souvenir from Agra.

0:39:280:39:31

It's a little stone model of the Taj Mahal.

0:39:310:39:33

It was a 17th century monument to a dead princess,

0:39:330:39:38

but by the 19th century it became a tourist attraction

0:39:380:39:41

where the traditional activity was to carve your name into it

0:39:410:39:44

-as nasty tourists used to.

-But this is carved from soap stone,

0:39:440:39:47

it's not carved from a piece of the Taj Mahal.

0:39:470:39:49

I've heard tourists often took home a souvenir by chipping a bit off.

0:39:490:39:53

Like people did with the Berlin Wall, I suppose.

0:39:530:39:56

It is quite nice the way it's translucent.

0:39:560:39:58

If you put a little light inside it'd probably glow like a lantern.

0:39:580:40:01

A little tea light, perhaps.

0:40:010:40:03

It's hard to imagine now,

0:40:060:40:08

but for 200 years Japan was closed to the outside world.

0:40:080:40:12

It was only towards the end of the 19th century

0:40:120:40:15

that the doors were opened to Western tourists,

0:40:150:40:18

unleashing an intense fascination with all things Japanese.

0:40:180:40:22

So what's the attraction of these little knick-knacks?

0:40:250:40:28

Well, just take a look at them,

0:40:280:40:29

they're INCREDIBLY intricately carved.

0:40:290:40:33

FULL of detail and there's a bit of humour in these.

0:40:330:40:35

They've lost the original purpose these funny little carvings.

0:40:350:40:38

Originally they were used to do up kimonos.

0:40:380:40:41

Absolutely. They're known as "Netske",

0:40:410:40:43

or NETSUKE when you write it out, and they were little toggles

0:40:430:40:46

that hung on a cord.

0:40:460:40:47

Can you these two holes here? That's where the cord would go through

0:40:470:40:51

because, of course, kimono have no pockets.

0:40:510:40:53

So if you wanted to carry around money or some herbs or medicines,

0:40:530:40:56

you had to carry them in pouches or boxes on a string

0:40:560:40:58

and this would stop them falling off.

0:40:580:41:00

But after people stopped wearing kimonos quite so much

0:41:000:41:03

they just became in their own right little souvenirs,

0:41:030:41:06

little portable artworks

0:41:060:41:08

that you could bring home as a memory of Japan.

0:41:080:41:10

You can see why Victorian travellers got excited about these

0:41:100:41:14

cos until the 1860s Japan had been this secret, closed country

0:41:140:41:18

for two centuries.

0:41:180:41:19

It had had military rulers that wouldn't let anyone in.

0:41:190:41:22

Then, in the 1860s, things begin to change.

0:41:220:41:26

There's an exhibition of Japanese stuff in London

0:41:260:41:29

and this gives Londoners, the British,

0:41:290:41:32

a chance to see this strange new world.

0:41:320:41:35

And you can see that these do look like the sort of figures that

0:41:350:41:39

you get in war games or Dungeons And Dragons or something like that,

0:41:390:41:43

or Lord Of The Rings.

0:41:430:41:44

-They're totally alien, aren't they?

-They are alien to OUR eyes

0:41:440:41:47

but a lot of them are connected to Japanese mythology

0:41:470:41:50

and in fact the one you're holding is a rat catcher and he's a demon.

0:41:500:41:53

You can see this rather fearsome look with his horns there

0:41:530:41:56

and his rather sharp, jagged teeth.

0:41:560:41:58

He's SO very well carved - look at the hairs on his legs.

0:41:580:42:01

That's just crazy.

0:42:010:42:03

And this little rat running over the top of him, clearly escaping.

0:42:030:42:07

This has to perhaps be my favourite.

0:42:070:42:10

This is Shoki who was a very well-known demon catcher.

0:42:100:42:14

And if you turn him around,

0:42:140:42:15

you can see this rather charming green face peeping out

0:42:150:42:18

from what looks like a sack

0:42:180:42:20

and that sack contains a demon.

0:42:200:42:22

But if you look a little closer,

0:42:220:42:24

look at the way the hair falls over his straps here.

0:42:240:42:27

It's just fantastic and this is carved out of a very hard

0:42:270:42:30

and tightly grained piece of fruit wood.

0:42:300:42:32

Where would you get one if you wanted to take one home?

0:42:320:42:35

They're not too difficult to find.

0:42:350:42:37

You can find them at antiques shops, fairs and auction across the country.

0:42:370:42:41

You don't have to spend a fortune to buy one.

0:42:410:42:43

You could buy an early 20th century piece for perhaps under £100.

0:42:430:42:48

But you could spend tens and tens of thousands of pounds.

0:42:480:42:51

Not only that, the Japanese market has not been

0:42:510:42:54

doing as well as it traditionally has been.

0:42:540:42:56

As a result, prices have fallen.

0:42:560:42:59

So keep your eyes out and buy the best you can afford.

0:42:590:43:02

The introduction of the railways had revolutionised travel.

0:43:050:43:09

It had also created a new breed of tourist -

0:43:090:43:12

the working-class pleasure-seeker.

0:43:120:43:15

But it all started out with very sober intentions indeed.

0:43:150:43:19

In 1841, 500 people got on a train to leave Leicester.

0:43:200:43:23

They were on Thomas Cook's first-ever package trip,

0:43:230:43:27

but it wasn't all that glamorous.

0:43:270:43:29

They were only travelling 11 miles to Loughborough

0:43:290:43:32

and their destination was a temperance meeting.

0:43:320:43:34

Thomas Cook charged each passenger five pence for the day's food,

0:43:380:43:42

ticket and trip.

0:43:420:43:44

He didn't realise it at the time

0:43:440:43:45

but he'd just founded the world's first package holiday company.

0:43:450:43:49

All that the teetotaller Thomas had really wanted to do

0:43:500:43:54

was keep his passengers out of the pub.

0:43:540:43:56

He had an idea to basically enable the masses to travel,

0:43:560:44:01

so how can we use these newfangled trains, essentially,

0:44:010:44:04

to promote temperance which to him

0:44:040:44:07

was encouraging people to get out of their normal routine,

0:44:070:44:10

to go and do things more exciting, something different with their life.

0:44:100:44:15

So spreading the word about the dangers of drink,

0:44:150:44:17

this is part of his motivation?

0:44:170:44:19

He's saying, "You should travel instead of sitting in the pub."

0:44:190:44:23

Absolutely. That was what drove him, really.

0:44:230:44:26

And what's the significance of this little book here?

0:44:260:44:28

Well, it's a handbook.

0:44:280:44:30

Essentially that is, 1845, his very first publication.

0:44:300:44:34

He devised a trip from Leicester to Liverpool which involved

0:44:340:44:37

three different railway companies - so very complicated.

0:44:370:44:40

It says, "The train will leave Leicester at five

0:44:400:44:42

-"in the morning of Monday August 4th."

-SHE LAUGHS

0:44:420:44:45

Yes, lots of early starts.

0:44:450:44:47

Early starts. "Parties will have to be wide awake

0:44:470:44:49

"at an early hour or they will be disappointed."

0:44:490:44:52

You've to be there on time.

0:44:520:44:53

I suppose people going on the trips wouldn't necessarily know this.

0:44:530:44:57

-They weren't travelling by train, were they?

-No. It was to appeal

0:44:570:45:01

to a working-class population who never travelled.

0:45:010:45:04

And how any of these are floating around?

0:45:040:45:06

Well, as far as we know, this is the only surviving copy.

0:45:060:45:09

So if you find one of these at home, don't throw it away!

0:45:090:45:12

So this one's really important cos it's his first guidebook

0:45:120:45:15

that he publishes to Switzerland, his very first country,

0:45:150:45:20

and this is quite rare now.

0:45:200:45:23

It is. That's 1874, Thomas Cook's first guidebook.

0:45:230:45:28

The sort of people who were going with Thomas Cook at this point

0:45:280:45:31

tended to be what we would call the middle classes - school teachers,

0:45:310:45:35

clergyman, doctors, lawyers, lots of those as part of these groups.

0:45:350:45:40

This is really his manifesto. He says in the introduction here,

0:45:400:45:44

"Nowadays everybody may travel, everybody ought to travel -

0:45:440:45:46

"in fact everybody does travel."

0:45:460:45:50

Well, those sentiments really just echo what he's been saying

0:45:500:45:53

pretty much since 1841.

0:45:530:45:55

And he tells you exactly how to do it.

0:45:550:45:57

What to take, how to get through customs, passports...

0:45:570:46:01

Yep, there's details about customs, passports, money...

0:46:010:46:04

Postage of letters.

0:46:040:46:06

Here we've got - "How to prevent seasickness."

0:46:060:46:09

He says, "Don't be taking champagne or brandy, that will make you ill."

0:46:090:46:13

Yes, I think he would say that!

0:46:130:46:15

It's quite ironic, really, that his whole motivation is temperance

0:46:150:46:18

but today package holidays are synonymous with drinking too much!

0:46:180:46:22

No, I don't think you get many temperance supporters on holidays today.

0:46:220:46:26

Only 30 year after Thomas' trip from Leicester to Loughborough

0:46:290:46:34

holidays were beginning to be seen as a worker's right.

0:46:340:46:37

In 1871 the Bank Holidays Act made it the law

0:46:370:46:41

for all employees to have time off.

0:46:410:46:44

This developed into paid holidays by the 20th century

0:46:440:46:48

and where did everyone want to go?

0:46:480:46:51

The seaside, of course.

0:46:510:46:52

Seaside resorts were a British invention.

0:46:520:46:55

They started in the middle of the 18th century

0:46:550:46:58

and originated with the Georgian upper-class craze for sea bathing.

0:46:580:47:02

Blackpool was the biggest and brashest.

0:47:040:47:07

In a few years it developed from an empty beach

0:47:070:47:10

to the world's first working-class resort.

0:47:100:47:13

By the 1860s Blackpool was catering for up to 25,000 visitors,

0:47:130:47:18

all there to enjoy the town's unique offering of sensation,

0:47:180:47:24

variety and fun.

0:47:240:47:25

We're taking the opportunity to let our hair down in Blackpool,

0:47:270:47:32

but first a stop-off on the way in nearby Southport

0:47:320:47:35

and the Museum Of The Penny Slot Machine.

0:47:350:47:39

-Go, go, go, go!

-Oh.

0:47:510:47:53

This is a 1920s, 1930s machine called the Hand Grabber

0:47:530:47:57

and it was made by a man called Hawkins.

0:47:570:47:59

Mr Hawkins of Blackpool.

0:47:590:48:01

It's actually quite a scarce thing which makes it valuable.

0:48:010:48:04

These can fetch up to £8,000.

0:48:040:48:07

Now, I gather the USP is that he employed a surgeon

0:48:070:48:10

to help him get the hands very accurate with the tendons and all

0:48:100:48:14

and a surgeon's come in to fix that one!

0:48:140:48:16

Yes, absolutely, in need of a little repair there, I think.

0:48:160:48:19

It's a fantastic thing and also brings back that whole

0:48:190:48:22

Victorian idea of something being quite ghoulish, BUT it brings

0:48:220:48:25

it bang up-to-date with the 1920s and '30s with this robotic chromed effect.

0:48:250:48:30

-Yes, it looks very futuristic and fascist almost.

-It does.

0:48:300:48:33

-Go on, grab the diamond watch then.

-Do you think it's real?

-Yeah, I do!

0:48:330:48:37

-Oh...

-You've got to time this.

0:48:370:48:39

Where's the watch? There it is.

0:48:390:48:41

-We're going for it.

-You touched it, you let it go! You let it go!

0:48:410:48:45

-Oh, no!

-You let it go at the last minute, you fool!

0:48:450:48:50

Penny slot machines were popular in every seaside resort.

0:48:500:48:55

They were cheap all-weather fun

0:48:550:48:58

and provided entertainment for the masses from the 1890s onwards.

0:48:580:49:02

-Now, this looks like fun.

-It's the Jolly Fireman Racer!

0:49:060:49:09

Who can get to the top of the burning building first?

0:49:090:49:12

I guess this is what people did

0:49:120:49:14

before they could race cars against each other.

0:49:140:49:17

It would have been terribly popular.

0:49:170:49:19

So you have to race these firemen up the ladder.

0:49:190:49:21

It's a seaside classic, isn't it?

0:49:210:49:23

Well, it is and it's that which makes it very popular with collectors

0:49:230:49:26

who'd pay up to £4,000 for the beast.

0:49:260:49:28

-SHE LAUGHS

-Go on then, race you.

0:49:280:49:31

My fireman is clearly bigger and stronger than yours, up he goes!

0:49:310:49:35

No, no, no, you're cheating somehow.

0:49:350:49:37

Go, go, go, Freddy, go, go!

0:49:370:49:40

-Oh!

-I'm winning! I've won!

-Somehow you cheated.

0:49:400:49:43

One of the most popular machines of its day and still highly collectable

0:49:550:50:00

is an early motion picture device, now worth around £1,500.

0:50:000:50:06

Now, this brilliant machine is called a Mutoscope.

0:50:060:50:11

It's an American invention of the 1890s and the idea is that you see

0:50:110:50:15

a moving image as all these cards flick forward but most importantly

0:50:150:50:19

you get to see adult material - that's part of the attraction.

0:50:190:50:22

As it is the attraction of the whole seaside.

0:50:220:50:24

You take off your clothes, you lose your inhibitions, you have a good time.

0:50:240:50:28

Sometimes the machines were a disappointment

0:50:280:50:31

because the final card would be missing.

0:50:310:50:33

You'd never actually see the bathing beauty naked and that's because

0:50:330:50:37

it would've been stolen by the men who came and mended the machines.

0:50:370:50:41

# Every year when summer comes round

0:50:470:50:51

# Off to the sea I go... #

0:50:510:50:54

The seaside was all about doing things you wouldn't dare do at home.

0:50:540:50:58

And this is perfectly captured in the work of artist Donald McGill.

0:50:580:51:02

In 60 years McGill created a staggering 12,000 different

0:51:020:51:07

postcard designs and 350 million were sold.

0:51:070:51:12

But by the 1950s his work had fallen out of favour

0:51:120:51:15

and some of his postcards were banned for obscenity.

0:51:150:51:19

I'm going to meet one of the country's biggest collectors

0:51:190:51:22

of Donald McGill's work.

0:51:220:51:23

No trip to the seaside would be complete

0:51:300:51:33

without sending back a saucy seaside postcard to the relatives

0:51:330:51:37

and there's no name that sums those up better than Donald McGill.

0:51:370:51:41

-So what would a card like this cost?

-Virtually nothing.

0:51:410:51:44

A typical 1940s,'50s McGill card like these

0:51:440:51:49

you could pick up for anywhere between 50p and £2.

0:51:490:51:54

So these are really good items to collect?

0:51:540:51:57

They are and they're easy to store and they're very enjoyable.

0:51:570:52:01

And there are a lot of them.

0:52:010:52:02

Well, yes, I suppose once you start you can't stop,

0:52:020:52:05

I mean you should know about that!

0:52:050:52:07

Sadly.

0:52:070:52:08

If you look at this you've got a little scene of a lady and her son

0:52:080:52:11

peering into "What The Butler Saw" and they're both grinning away there.

0:52:110:52:14

"Can I be butler when I grow up, Mum?"

0:52:140:52:16

-You know exactly what he's seen.

-Yes.

0:52:160:52:19

A lot of these are slightly more risque...

0:52:190:52:22

"I should like a swim but I don't want to get my truncheon wet."

0:52:220:52:25

Obviously a policeman strolling along here,

0:52:250:52:28

but the innuendo is clear.

0:52:280:52:30

But on the back the Blackpool Post Card Censorship Board have stamped it, "Disapproved."

0:52:300:52:35

-By Mr Allen the chairman.

-Absolutely.

0:52:350:52:38

What's the most valuable card here?

0:52:380:52:41

Undoubtedly this one.

0:52:410:52:43

"Please, Lord, excuse me a minute while I kick Fido."

0:52:430:52:46

It is worth a huge amount more than those other cards

0:52:460:52:51

for a number of reasons.

0:52:510:52:53

The main reason being McGill himself has signed this card.

0:52:530:52:56

So that's what makes this worth...?

0:52:560:52:59

-Well, I got it for £50.

-Good heavens!

0:52:590:53:01

So compared to those it's a lot more.

0:53:010:53:03

-So without the signature this would be worth what? 10 or 20p?

-Yes.

0:53:030:53:07

What's interesting also about this card is that it was McGill's biggest seller.

0:53:070:53:12

-Really?

-Surprisingly.

0:53:120:53:13

It doesn't have any of that sort of McGill magic, that smutty humour.

0:53:130:53:17

No, you'd expect his biggest sellers

0:53:170:53:19

-to be the fat-ladies-on-the-beach genre.

-Absolutely.

0:53:190:53:23

But this sentimental card was the biggest seller.

0:53:230:53:25

He sold over three million copies of that card.

0:53:250:53:29

So what about the values for his earlier work,

0:53:290:53:32

for example this one which looks very, very early indeed.

0:53:320:53:35

It is, it comes from right in the beginning of his career,

0:53:350:53:38

1907 that was painted.

0:53:380:53:39

When he was still working part-time.

0:53:390:53:42

Working as an engineering draftsman.

0:53:420:53:44

Is that why it says Admiralty?

0:53:440:53:45

Yes, he's done it on the back of the office stationery.

0:53:450:53:49

A bit naughty of him, really, I suppose.

0:53:490:53:51

How much would that be worth?

0:53:510:53:52

McGill's artwork from that period comes up so rarely,

0:53:520:53:55

so I was very pleased to obtain that.

0:53:550:53:58

So as a scarce survivor what did you pay for this?

0:53:580:54:01

Yes, well, you'd expect a lot of money.

0:54:010:54:03

I expected to have to pay a lot.

0:54:030:54:06

I suppose I paid something like £150.

0:54:060:54:10

I have to ask you, what would you have gone to secure it?

0:54:100:54:14

Well, being a stupid collector,

0:54:140:54:15

I suppose I'd have gone towards £1,000.

0:54:150:54:19

Just goes to show how crazy collectors are.

0:54:190:54:22

Most impressed! You really are quite a keen collector.

0:54:220:54:26

Along with the growth in seaside holidays

0:54:280:54:31

came a boom in souvenir trade,

0:54:310:54:33

particularly for mementos bearing the name of the place visited.

0:54:330:54:38

The most popular was Goss china, known as the poor man's porcelain.

0:54:380:54:42

Until the 1920s, Goss produced souvenirs

0:54:420:54:45

for every town in Britain with a coat of arms.

0:54:450:54:48

So, a Victorian worker off on the razzle-dazzle in Blackpool

0:54:540:54:58

could spend fourpence and get one of these.

0:54:580:55:00

That was quite within their reach.

0:55:000:55:02

And there is a statistic that, at one time, over 90%

0:55:020:55:06

of British households had a bit of souvenir Goss china in them.

0:55:060:55:10

Now, here we've got the town crest of Blackpool,

0:55:100:55:13

and it says on it "Progress", which is their very forward-thinking

0:55:130:55:17

slogan that they have.

0:55:170:55:18

And if you were going on holiday,

0:55:180:55:20

you could visit various different towns

0:55:200:55:22

and you could show you'd been there.

0:55:220:55:23

That was a little bit of adventure.

0:55:230:55:25

We're not quite talking about the 18th-century aristocrat

0:55:250:55:28

on their grand tour, but it was a grand tour of your own.

0:55:280:55:31

This was the British equivalent.

0:55:310:55:33

Today, people might think, "That's a piece of junk, I'll chuck that out."

0:55:330:55:36

But actually, there's something quite nice about it.

0:55:360:55:39

This is the souvenir of somebody's happy holidays.

0:55:390:55:42

-If you turn them over you should find a mark on the bottom, of this bird with WH Goss.

-Goss.

0:55:420:55:47

Goss were one of the first and the best, perhaps.

0:55:470:55:49

They were certainly the biggest company producing crestedware

0:55:490:55:52

in the late 19th century.

0:55:520:55:54

Today they have fallen generally out of fashion,

0:55:540:55:57

but in their day they would have been incredibly affordable.

0:55:570:55:59

And they're affordable today as well.

0:55:590:56:01

Although there are rare shapes that cost hundreds,

0:56:010:56:04

you can pick a good piece up for a couple of pounds.

0:56:040:56:06

-And it won't rot your teeth like a stick of rock, either.

-Absolutely not.

0:56:060:56:10

'Our time in Blackpool is soon coming to an end,

0:56:150:56:19

'but there's just one more thing to do before we go.'

0:56:190:56:23

-Time for holiday snaps.

-Absolutely.

0:56:320:56:34

What else would we bore the relatives with, I wonder?

0:56:340:56:37

And look what I've got here.

0:56:370:56:38

So, this is a replacement for a whole carriageload of equipment.

0:56:380:56:41

-This is what photographers had to take with them.

-Exactly.

0:56:410:56:45

I mean, you would have had the tripod, the camera, all the equipment.

0:56:450:56:48

-All the chemicals.

-All the lenses, the chemicals, and something to cover yourself up

0:56:480:56:52

-while you were taking it.

-Then, in 1888 - is that right? - along comes the box camera.

0:56:520:56:56

That's right - the Kodak No.1

0:56:560:56:58

-And this is the Kodak Brownie, which superseded it and was even cheaper.

-It's beautiful.

0:56:580:57:02

-It is beautiful.

-Look at the way it matches my coat, look at the colours of this.

0:57:020:57:06

I chose it just because of you, of course, thinking of exactly that!

0:57:060:57:10

But this is the very posh one.

0:57:100:57:11

The Box Brownie itself was incredibly inexpensive

0:57:110:57:14

and cost as little as 25p. But this would have cost an awful lot more.

0:57:140:57:18

So the slogan was "a holiday without a Kodak is a holiday wasted".

0:57:180:57:22

Absolutely. "You press the button we'll do the rest."

0:57:220:57:25

-0K, ready for a pose?

-Here we go. Strike your best...

-Monkey.

0:57:250:57:28

HE LAUGHS

0:57:280:57:30

Fantastic. Three, two, one, say "cheese".

0:57:300:57:33

HE LAUGHS

0:57:330:57:36

We've come a long way on our journey.

0:57:400:57:43

From classical pottery...

0:57:430:57:45

to travelling trunks...

0:57:450:57:47

to an early box camera,

0:57:470:57:49

the history of travel reveals what we humans value most

0:57:490:57:53

when we venture outside our everyday lives.

0:57:530:57:56

This may be a priceless relic,

0:57:560:58:00

a mass-produced souvenir,

0:58:000:58:02

or even just a photo, but one thing will remain the same -

0:58:020:58:06

the need to mark our experiences with a memento of the trip.

0:58:060:58:11

Next time on Antiques Uncovered,

0:58:140:58:15

I'll be seeing how you make a diamond sparkle.

0:58:150:58:18

That's absolutely huge.

0:58:180:58:20

While I trace the history of royal memorabilia.

0:58:200:58:22

This will mean a lot to people who were alive in 1936.

0:58:220:58:26

And reveal the pinnacle of Victorian achievement...

0:58:260:58:29

It must have been the greatest show on Earth, really.

0:58:290:58:32

..as we look at ceremonial objects.

0:58:320:58:35

Subtitles by Red Bee Media Ltd

0:58:410:58:45

Dr Lucy Worsley discovers how taking a holiday became something everyone aspires to do, and she also meets a man with a life-size train set.

Antiques expert Mark Hill learns how intricate figures are put onto a piece of Wedgwood, and he gets a sneak preview of the Titanic auction.