Episode 7 The One Show - Best of Britain

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1991191 hallooed, and welcomed to The One Show: The Best of Britain,


with Miranda Krestovnikoff the and Matt Allwright. It is a chance to


see some more of our favourite One Yes, we are on the island of Arran,


which some people call Scotland in miniature because it has beautiful


mountains in the north and stunning lowlands in the south. None of


which, of course, you can see today. It is covered in cloud, probably


like the rest of Scotland. Arran is a little island off the west coast


of Scotland in the Firth of Clyde, only a couple of hours away from


Glasgow. The island is 90 miles long and a wildlife paradise. 250


bird species have been spotted here, including the rare golden eagle and


hen harrier. I believe I can see a red squirrel or a red deer if I am


lucky? Not today, not unless one happened to pop up to the Post


Office. We have seals just off the coast here, amazing animals, very


inquisitive and interactive with humans, as I found out just off the


humans, as I found out just off the Farne Islands.


Just a few miles from the Northumberland coast, it is merely


seal pup in time. Grey seals are the only British mammal to give


birth in the autumn, and as the females gather at their breeding


grounds it is the perfect time to see them. Today I am heading to the


Farne Islands to dive with somebody who knows these seals perhaps


who knows these seals perhaps better than anyone else. Hello, how


are you? For the past nine years when he is


not working professionally as a GP, Ben Burville has spent every spare


moment on his favourite pastime, filming seals. What is it about the


seals? They are my passion. Everybody needs a way to relax.


Being with wildlife in close interaction is a privileged thing


to do. Because of its extensive rocky coastline, Britain is home to


nearly half the world's population of grey seals. We will not have a


problem finding seals! There are loads! If tiny coastal islands like


the Farne Islands are the perfect environment for them as they need


to come ashore within birth but state in easy access of the sea.


-- they need to come ashore to give birth but stay within easy access


Hello! Come on! Oh! There are four, They all look as though they are


just waiting for us to play. They Around the time that they pup, they


become more sociable, it is a good time to be around them, but you


have to be careful and respect them. It is easy to see how, over the


years, Ben's respect for these animals has earned him the trust of


this particular colony. They even seem to recognise him.


It is lovely when you get up close, you can see how streamlined the


body is. They are beautifully designed. They can slip through the


water as fast as possible. Everything is tucked in, their


front flippers and back flippers are tucked in.


And these big, big eyes, they are so appealing. It is also exactly


what they need to feed at very deep depths where there is not a lot of


light. Can they get up to about 250 metres when they are diving?


Sometimes even deeper. They can lower their heart rate. Your and my


heart rate is pretty much 60, they can lower theirs to four or five


beats per minute at very deep levels.


That is a pregnant female. It is a very, very fat one that has just


descended behind me. The females have had all summer to


fatten up, and the fatter they are, the richer their milk will be,


giving their newborn pups the very best chance of survival. I can feel


something tugging at my things! You were very good with them. I had


great fun, it is always fun when a wild animal seems to want to


interact with you and investigate and just play.


Are you ready for a mystery? Yes. You were reading upon the local


history? You see the mountain behind us? There is a lot of cloud.


I got you a postcard! That mountain is Goat Fell. In 1889, two climbers


went up Goat Fell but only one came down! Edwin Rose's body was


discovered underneath a bolder, and his climbing partner John Laurie


was accused of his murder. Lorries said I only robs him, I did not


kill him, but nevertheless he was convicted of murder, given the


death sentence, which was commuted to a life sentence. He spent 41


years and died in the Scottish Prison, and for a short time Arran


was the centre of a media maelstrom, the ire of the storm. A great


mystery. Something that dear Gyles Brandreth might like? Speaking of


Gyles, he is on fine form investigating another mysterious


character, Bram Stoker's Dracula. The ancient Yorkshire town of


Whitby, a beautiful place, remaining as it always has - busy


both with fishermen and tourists. But in the 19th century it would


find a new frame, giving inspiration for one of the most


frightening literary characters of all time. It is 1890 and an


Irishman called Bram Stoker, a theatre manager and would-be


Auxerre, has come to take a six- week holiday here. -- a would-be


author. He has the germ of an idea for a terrifying tale about the


supernatural villain. The story would become the horror classic


Dracula. As the cloud passed, I could see the ruins of the Abbey


coming into view. The church and churchyard became gradually visible.


The light struck a half reclining figure, snowy white, but it seemed


to me as though something dark stood behind. What it was, man or


beast, I could not tell. It is here in the St Mary's


churchyard that Count Dracula claimed his first victim. And here,


too, that Stoker came for inspiration. In this graveyards


even the stones tell you that Stoker came here when he was


writing the Dracula story. From the grave stones heated names for his


characters. One grave bears the name of Swales, which would be


taken for an old seafarer in the story. From another, Jon Stewart,


he inspires the name of Jack psyllid, one of the heroes of the


books. The Gothic atmosphere of nineteenth-century Whitby which so


inspired Bram Stoker survives today in this gallery. The work of the


town's renowned Victorian photographer Frank Sutcliffe gives


a vivid look at the town that Bram Stoker new. Mike runs the shop.


These pictures are so evocative and atmospheric. Gothic horror is


written all over the photograph? You can see how Bram Stoker was


inspired by both Whitby and these photographs. I am especially


interested in one photograph of a ship, ran aground here five years


before Bram Stoker visited. In the book, Count Dracula himself arrives


in Whitby in a very similar way. The waves rose in growing fury and


swept the light houses which rise from eyes appear of Whitby Harbour.


Before long the searchlight discovered a schooner with all


sails set. It was rushing in such speed that, in the words of one of


salt, she must fetch up somewhere, even if only in Hull. The ship ran


aground on this beach beneath the East Cliff of Whitby, within


earshot of the bells of St Mary's. A local historian can tell me more.


It was on this very beach that Dracula landed? Of a Russian ship,


in the guise of a large, black dog. Five years before Stoker wrote his


book, a Russian ship ran aground here. The difference between fact


and fiction was that in the fictional version, Stoke Abbott


captain dead, lashed to the steering wheel, clutching his


crucifix and rosary -- Stoker had the captain dead. In real life, the


captain was charged with being drunk and disorderly in charge of a


vessel. It came from a Black Sea ports in both the book and the real


story. He made an anagram of the port? Yes. And what was the ship


called? In real life it is called Demeter. Very similar to the name


and the book. He is playing games with us.


Among these houses and cobbled streets, Stoker not only found key


locations for his horror story but the most important thing of all.


And he found it right here in what is now a modern waterfront bar. In


his time, it was Whitby's Library and the place where he spent hours


reading. In his head, Stoker had a great story, the perfect setting


and a sinister character in the shape of the count. At first he


called him Count Wampyr, and then one damp afternoon sitting in this


very place, reading an old history of Romania, he came across this


sentence. The King of Hungary, preparing to make war against the


Turks, engaged Dracula up to form an alliance with him. It was the


first time that Stoker had ever seen the name Dracula, and the


author's footnotes, Dracula means devil. In an instant, Count Wampyr


became Count Dracula. It was a lucky chance, and it happened here


in Whitby. Count Wampyr, it does not have the


same ring to it. It would not have worked. I don't think so, not for


me. What he had lived in a place like this? I suppose so. It is


imposing enough. Welcome to Brodick Castle and the


beautiful grounds which seemed to stretch for miles and miles.


They are lovely. I was reading in a guide book recently that this one


we are standing in his over 300 years old, one of many within the


castle grounds and home to hundreds of different types of plants, trees


and shrubs. The castle belonged to the Hamilton family for many


centuries and it was the daughter of the 12th Duke of Hamilton, Mary,


Duchess of Montrose, who had the green fingers and was responsible


for most of the gardening. She had a little army of explorers who went


around the world, bringing back seeds, especially rhododendron


seeds. It really is beautiful. Do you know who has it absolutely


covered when it comes to taking pictures of fruit and flowers? It


is our resident photographer Jamie Crawford. Check this out.


John Keats' season of mists and mellow fruitfulness brings with it


the apple harvest, which due to 2009's exceptionally cold winter


has produced this latest British apples for decades. These days,


apples are such a staple of everyday life it is easy to forget


how beautiful and very they can be. And with a palette of colours


ranging from pale yellow to deep reds, an orchard in autumn really


can be a special place. But what is the best way to capture all that


colour in a photograph? The good news is you can make both fair


weather and foul your friend if you know how to approach them. If you


catch a sunny day like today, the best time to take photographs is


around sunrise and sunset, the Golden hour when the light is soft


and the shadows are long. It if you are shooting by 7:30am, you might


get one of these, laced in early- morning dew. Picking up the


sunlight. Don't worry if you are not, because


a planned Mr full of water and a few drops of glycerine can produce


exactly the same effect. The non- toxic grocery makes the water more


viscous, creating longer-lasting droplets. Spiders like these have


been around all summer but only now do you start to spot them, when the


females have bred and they are laying eggs. But much like the


apples they will not be around Paul Long, most will die in the winter


Here at Barrington Court in Somerset, Rachel Brewer is a


National Trust garden and is responsible for preserving some of


the rarest apples in the UK. last count we have just over 90


different varieties. They are spread over 10 acres. What is the


aim of the apple growing project? All the we do actually produce


apple juice and cider, it is more of a conservation project. Apples


are really famous for weird names. What have you got in your line-up?


We have got some of the strangest varieties. Things like Kingston


Black, sheep's noes and slap my girdle! What I like about taking


pictures here is there is an amazing contrast between shapes and


colours. Look at the fruit. You've got bright red apples, perfectly


round, against these pointy, jagged, dark green leaves. All of that,


hopefully, makes for a great photograph. Within the orchards


there is an entire world of tiny but fascinating detail. If you by


using an SLR, why not try taking your lens off and holding it back-


to-front to create an extreme lens? In fact, it's so close up that it


goes out of focus. Close-ups and playing with contrasts of colour


and shape our great ways to mitigate the effects of the


changeable light conditions in autumn. But what if you want to go


wider? If you want to take a classic portrait of an amazing


apple tree, this would be the perfect subject. But that a lot of


colour, light and detail. How will I get it all in one photograph?


First, we'll turn the camera on its side because there's lots of


vertical detail I want to include, the grass, the tree and the sky. We


also get a typical and take two instead of one. One will taking


delight bits, the other will take in the dark bits. Then we stick


them together. Come the return of Golden hour, towards sunset, the


warm and slanting sun provides plenty of opportunity to play with


flares and shadow. To create imagery that evokes the wistful


feeling of summer coming to a close. The other great thing about


photographing apples is, if the weather turns miserable and you run


out of ideas, then you can just come inside. Apples make fantastic


subjects. With over 7000 varieties worldwide, you're never going to be


short of shots. So, this year, why not forget the cliche of fallen


golden leaves and head to an orchard to photograph the real


Some sound advice from Jamie Crawford. I think I might stop


using my phone as a camera and actually take a leaf out of his


book, using the real thing. carry all of that kit around? It's


a right pain in the bum. Just a little pocket one would do it.


the years, you must have made hundreds of wild life once for The


One Show. We've been all around the country, do most of the species.


can't imagine you ever made films about pigeons, everybody hates them.


People think they are vermin, they described them as rats as -- with


wings. That some of them were positively heroic.


When one thinks of the two world wars, it is that human suffering


that comes most to mind. But did you know that thousands of animals


were also killed in action? It is commemorated here, at Park Lane in


London, at the animal war memorial. Animals were awarded the Dickin


Medal, the animal equivalent of a deep Victoria Cross. Of the 53 that


were awarded, 32 were given to the small, silent achiever, the pigeon.


At the outbreak of World War II, 7000 pigeon fanciers were asked to


donate their pigeons to the war effort. They were needed to act as


message carriers for the newly formed National Pigeon Service.


Bletchley Park is better known as the site of the UK's main


decryption establishment. It was here that Germany's Enigma code was


broken. It was also come to carrier pigeons and their lofts. So, why


were pigeons used during the war? Well, mainly to obtain information,


particularly from the occupied territories of Holland, Belgium and


France. They were absolutely necessary, in the event of advance


units wanting radio silence, they employed the pigeons. That was the


only means of getting messages through without using the radio.


How did you get them into occupied territory? By parachute. Each one


was put into a cardboard container. There was pigeon food, a message


career, a message pad, a pencil that was sharpened at both ends. On


the reverse, in the language of the country that they were being


dropped, full instructions on how to handle the pigeon and apply the


message carrier to its leg. We dropped 16,000, just during that


period, 1941-1945. Of the returns we have 1852 with valuable


information. So, their effort was invaluable? Oh, yes. These days,


pigeons are Riyait for racing by dedicated pigeon fanciers. -- Riad


for racing. Today we are going to get a bird's-eye view of their


flight from Bletchley Park to their loft seven miles west. We are


placing a camera on one of them. It's just below its chest. We are


placing a message container on another one. It's the sort of


container that would have been used in the war? Definitely. Since we


are doing an experiment, can I give you a message from The One Show? We


will roll that up. Hopefully we We set the pigeons off about a


minute to go and I'm racing back to the loft. Let's see if I beat them.


I'm limited to 30 miles an hour, the pigeons can fly at over 60 mph.


Crucially, they only fly in one direction, that being home ground.


To navigate, pigeons use their natural homing skills, the soul and


magnetic compass, along with landmark recognition. During the


war they would fly in excess of 300 miles. One message container!


message is delivered, safe and sound. It is still there. So, every


single pigeon is back safe and sound? All home, safe and sound.


Excellent. During World War II, pigeon lofts


were built at all RAF and army bases. Even mobile lofts were


created, as it was the demand for services. It estimated that 250,000


pigeons flew messages during the war. As a result, thousands of


servicemen's lives were saved thanks to the actions of these


heroic birds. So, has that altered your opinion


about pigeons? A bit. It doesn't excuse what they do to my car. They


lift the paint right off, it's terrible. I will never forgive.


What about the weather, it's not getting any better? Not really,


that's a shame. I would have loved to have shown you this wonderful


island of Arran, formed by volcanic activity. A glacier pushed its way


through to make this incredible shape. Do you know why you know


that stuff? It's all down to wait chap called James Hutton. He's the


founder of modern geology and he was attacked -- attracted to the


island by the amazing rocks that we find here. He came up with the idea


that different rocks are formed in different ways, volcanic rock,


sedimentary rock. Really? And tan stone has been used for all sorts


of exciting things, to build with, and you can use it to colour things


with. They use it for curling stones on ice rinks as well. Even


that is not the most exciting thing Every September the tiny Scottish


island of Easdale plays host to the stone skimming World Championships.


It started in 1983, when one islander came up with the idea of


using a disused slate quarry as a venue for the competition. Today,


it attracts people from around the world. So, what is the secret of


making one of these skip almost magically across the water? And can


science help us all become champion skimmers? Donald, nice to meet you.


Donald Melville organises the stone skimming championships. Apparently,


there are strict rules governing the competition. This is the lane


that the Stones have to go along during the competition. The idea is


that I have to get it is get as many times as possible within a


lane? No, that is what they do in the world stone skipping


championships in America. The record there is 51. We go by the


distance it goes. It's got to bounce at least twice before it is


valid and it's got to sink with in this plane. First minute the


perfect stone? Yes, and I need -- know the very place. The ones that


work best are a regular oval in shape, about the size of the palm


of your hand and the weight of a tennis ball. But why is a flat


stone better than a rounded stone? Well, when any stone hits the water


it pushes some water out of the way. That water pushes back up and the


facts don't pushers more water out of the way, weight for weight, than


the rounded stone. So the flat stone gets pushed back off the


surface and it skips. The rounded stone sinks. Now I've got some


textbook stones I've got to discover the textbook technique.


Eric Robertson is a former skimming world champion. He won the


competition in 2008 with a throw of 54 metres. What are the important


pointers you have got for me? first thing would be the speed of


the stone. A fast arm is very important. To achieve a record-


breaking skim, it needs to leave your hand at about 50 mph. Secondly,


the angle that the stone hits the water is crucial. We've got to


throw it almost parallel to the water. Very good, yes. You need to


impart as much spin as possible using your forefinger and your


wrist. The spinning helps to stabilise it as it goes on its


roller-coaster ride. All those skimmers have discovered these key


rules through practice, but there is actually some solid -- solid


physics behind them. In fact, the science of skimming has been deemed


worthy of intensive research by French scientists. By using a


catapult and some spinning discs, they worked out the magic angle


that a stone should hit the water. It needs to be as close to 20


degrees as possible. So, Donald, you have shown me the perfect stone,


you have shown me the perfect technique. You have also gathered a


crowd for me. A motley crew. The pressure is on, I suppose I should


Yes, that's the one! Her cracked it, nice one forced up that was a good


You did exceedingly well, even though you didn't hit the back wall.


Stone skimming, that really reminds me of childhood. I still do it,


what is your record? I'm rubbish, about five or six. 18! You should


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