17/01/2017 The One Show


17/01/2017

Sanjeev Bhaskar joins Matt Baker and Michelle Ackerley. There are tips on how to spot 'fake news' and a look at some of history's most surprising archaeological hoaxes.


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Transcript


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Hello and welcome to the One Show with Matt Baker. And Michelle

:00:18.:00:24.

Ackerley. Now with me to companies -- media companies being urged to

:00:25.:00:27.

tackle the problem of fake news, tonight's show is about working out

:00:28.:00:31.

what is real and what is not. Good job we have a detective with us but

:00:32.:00:36.

which of his two detective roles are more authentic? I have spoken to the

:00:37.:00:39.

current head and she was suitably appalled. This is abuse that is

:00:40.:00:46.

alleged to have occurred about ten years before pretty much the oldest

:00:47.:00:49.

current teacher was even born. As you may know, a Caucasian male

:00:50.:00:53.

was found dead, it looks suspicious we have do act immediately. When was

:00:54.:01:00.

the body found? Two years ago. Please welcome Sanjeev Bhaskar!

:01:01.:01:01.

CHEERING . Sanjeev, the magic of editing.

:01:02.:01:10.

What people don't know is that is from the same episode. It was

:01:11.:01:17.

seamless. We have bits from the Unforgotten and Goodness Gracious

:01:18.:01:20.

Me. We were just talking before we came on air, nearly 20 years ago.

:01:21.:01:25.

Don't say that, you will make people feel all. Me, I don't feel old. It

:01:26.:01:31.

still feels very relevant and on the horizon, is there a chance it might

:01:32.:01:36.

come back? There is a chance, we are having conversations about it. You

:01:37.:01:40.

know, it was a satirical programme and I think right now, we could do

:01:41.:01:47.

with some satire. It may be timely. Let's hope so. Now, our first

:01:48.:01:51.

reality check tonight concerns football pitches that the FA is

:01:52.:01:54.

providing in towns and cities to stimulate the game at grass roots

:01:55.:01:59.

level. The pitches aren't made of grasp at an artificial surface which

:02:00.:02:02.

some fear may be unsafe because of the toxins it contains. He is BBC

:02:03.:02:06.

report and keen amateur footballer Jessica Creighton.

:02:07.:02:12.

A game of five-a-side on an all-weather pitch, artificial grass

:02:13.:02:15.

on a rubber base. It is meant to be the future of football. But not

:02:16.:02:21.

everyone is happy about it because of this stuff. I get it in my boots

:02:22.:02:26.

so I had to empty them at home. It can get pretty frustrating and

:02:27.:02:31.

irritating on the feed. Questions are being raised about the rubber

:02:32.:02:35.

crumb found in artificial football pitches like this one up and down

:02:36.:02:39.

the country. So do we have anything to worry about? These services are

:02:40.:02:43.

called 3G pitches. The rubber crumb is spread in between the artificial

:02:44.:02:47.

blades of grass to give it a natural feel. The Football Association is

:02:48.:02:51.

investing millions of pounds on them. But much of the rubber comes

:02:52.:02:57.

from shredded tyres and that has led professor Andrew Watterson at the

:02:58.:02:59.

University of Stirling to have serious concerns. Should people be

:03:00.:03:04.

worried about rubber crumb pitches? The pitches have been around for

:03:05.:03:11.

probably, in the UK, 17 or 18 years and the concern is that we don't

:03:12.:03:15.

know exactly whether or not they may have various potential help

:03:16.:03:25.

fracture. The recent investigation found cancer causing carcinogens in

:03:26.:03:28.

rubber crumb. So what is in the rubber? To find out, we have

:03:29.:03:34.

collected samples from pitches in three different places in England

:03:35.:03:37.

and sent them to be analysed. While we wait for the results, in

:03:38.:03:41.

Darlington, former NHS chief executive Nigel Maguire is also

:03:42.:03:44.

worried about the use of rubber crumb. His son Lewis Maguire, a keen

:03:45.:03:49.

goalkeeper, has played for years on the synthetic surfaces. He lived for

:03:50.:03:54.

football and played football all the time. Diving and getting -- back-up,

:03:55.:04:00.

even if it is an easy catch, it gets into your face, cuts and grazes. He

:04:01.:04:05.

was in the middle of a football trial for Leeds United and midway

:04:06.:04:08.

through was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma. I was watching Sky Sports

:04:09.:04:14.

News and it said 3G pitches were linked to cancer. In the UK, tens of

:04:15.:04:18.

thousands of people use 3G pitches every week and they are not just

:04:19.:04:24.

popular here. Last year, former US soccer coach Abie Griffin said she

:04:25.:04:29.

had been contacted by over 200 US athletes who use artificial surfaces

:04:30.:04:34.

regularly and have developed forms of cancer. The massive percentage

:04:35.:04:37.

were footballers and of them, a massive percentage were goalkeepers.

:04:38.:04:43.

Shredded car tyres contain known carcinogens and known toxins. If we

:04:44.:04:47.

know this, where is the research that says it is safe? While there is

:04:48.:04:52.

no evidence to link Lewis's illness to the rubber crumb, in Holland,

:04:53.:04:55.

several pitches have been ripped up over these health concerns. Closer

:04:56.:05:00.

to home, worries have been raised in Liverpool and Lincolnshire, where a

:05:01.:05:03.

proposed new pitch has now been scrapped. Back at the lab and at the

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results of our tests are in. We had three samples of the 3G infill crumb

:05:10.:05:15.

and these have toxic properties and some of them are known to be

:05:16.:05:19.

carcinogenic. Also, all three samples were found to have trace

:05:20.:05:23.

amounts of toxic metals, in particular cadmium, chromium and

:05:24.:05:30.

lead. The majority of toxins we found were in very low levels. The

:05:31.:05:37.

toughest standards for rubber are those for use in toys but even in

:05:38.:05:41.

our random tests, we found one carcinogenic higher than toy levels.

:05:42.:05:44.

Despite this, the FA and Scottish FA told us that when they had tested

:05:45.:05:49.

rubber crumb, it has met European toy standards and other recent

:05:50.:05:52.

studies in Holland but the risk is no negligible. -- as negligible. Do

:05:53.:06:00.

we need an industry standard? There is an argument for saying it should

:06:01.:06:03.

be the toughest and a possible and that should be the toy standard for

:06:04.:06:07.

crumb pitches. There are alternatives, things like Cork and

:06:08.:06:11.

other services that we know don't present the same potential hazards

:06:12.:06:16.

that crumb rubber does. Sport England, who advised the FA, told a

:06:17.:06:20.

state of the concerns very seriously but that tests they have monitored

:06:21.:06:22.

have identified no risk to human health. However, they did say they

:06:23.:06:28.

are in the process of developing a tougher new voluntary industry

:06:29.:06:32.

standard with the trade association for the pitch industry. I would like

:06:33.:06:38.

there to be a proliferation of safe pitches for our children and young

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people to play on regularly. That is what I want.

:06:44.:06:49.

Thank you, Jessica and good to hear from Jessica that Sport England is

:06:50.:06:54.

looking at bringing in a new higher safety standards for these pitches.

:06:55.:06:58.

They are voluntary but maybe we are going some way to reassure people of

:06:59.:07:03.

the safety use. Now, Sanjeev, hello... We are getting used to

:07:04.:07:08.

seeing you on our screens as a TV detective, de DI Sunny, and like all

:07:09.:07:13.

classic detectives, they all have something to define you by. Sherlock

:07:14.:07:19.

Holmes has his hat. You have got a rucksack. This is an interesting

:07:20.:07:26.

one, what is all this about? Well, on the first series, obviously I

:07:27.:07:30.

just needed something to carry stuff around in, which is what a bag, or

:07:31.:07:36.

rucksack, is used for. Stop like this? -- stuff like this? That has

:07:37.:07:46.

come directly from my house, obviously. You can only see that

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put, the other one has one of those on. There was a lot of speculation

:07:53.:07:55.

online last year about what I keep in my rucksack so this year, I asked

:07:56.:08:02.

the costume people to... That was light contents. It is full of stuff.

:08:03.:08:10.

There it is again. It is heavier. Well spotted. And how much weight on

:08:11.:08:15.

that one? It is a mystery. So I asked the costume people to just the

:08:16.:08:19.

little. And surprise me, so each week, I don't know what is in it

:08:20.:08:23.

until I start filming. What's in the bag? Well, Unforgotten is back on

:08:24.:08:30.

Thursday on ITV and here you are with your crime solving partner

:08:31.:08:34.

discussing the case so far. Did you believe her? It is hard to tell on

:08:35.:08:39.

the phone but she seemed pretty stunned. Then my guess is that James

:08:40.:08:46.

Gregory was right. David Walker never told her anything about the

:08:47.:08:50.

abuse. Did she give us a reason for not giving us her best friend's name

:08:51.:08:54.

and number? She said she didn't consider Gregory a close friend,

:08:55.:08:58.

which is fair enough, I suppose, given the little contact he and

:08:59.:09:03.

Walker had had. Or she just didn't want us to speak to him because what

:09:04.:09:06.

he told us gives her a motive. Maybe.

:09:07.:09:13.

Sanjeev, this is a case that has spread over multiple episodes about

:09:14.:09:17.

a man who went missing in the 1990s, but the interesting thing is it

:09:18.:09:22.

seems to encompass lots of different genres of drama. There we saw you in

:09:23.:09:26.

a very domesticated setting. The fun thing about detective shows is the

:09:27.:09:30.

audience are the detective. We discover the clues at the same time

:09:31.:09:34.

as the telly detectives do and the twist for us are as they are for

:09:35.:09:39.

them. That is the fun for them. The thing I liked about the show, first

:09:40.:09:44.

series and this one, and Chris Lang gets the credit, it is really four

:09:45.:09:49.

dramas hidden within a whodunnit. We do want to find out who was the

:09:50.:09:53.

perpetrator at the end, but along the way, there are these four

:09:54.:09:57.

stories that not only look at who may be involved, it looks at the

:09:58.:10:01.

impact of a crime on the families as well, particularly with historical

:10:02.:10:05.

crime and in this case, as you said, the 1990s. 20 years of people having

:10:06.:10:10.

dealt lives, respectability and it is a house of cards, so that knock

:10:11.:10:16.

on the door that says we want to talk about this person, the whole

:10:17.:10:20.

foundation crumbs. Sorry, but I want to go back to this bag, it is a key

:10:21.:10:24.

part of your character. Let's have a look at what else is in it. Assigned

:10:25.:10:31.

Roger Moore picture frame. What is this related to? As Roger Moore:

:10:32.:10:43.

Well, I am actually Roger Moore. This is a bid to work more as Roger

:10:44.:10:50.

Moore. He is a massive show up -- fan of the show. He messaged me to

:10:51.:10:54.

say well done and he is one of my absolute heroes. I had a James Bond

:10:55.:10:58.

poster on my wall when I was a kid and so to hear from him is just

:10:59.:11:05.

thrilling. It is very cool. Huge congratulations. It does continue as

:11:06.:11:11.

we said on Thursday. Now, people who run legitimate newspapers, websites

:11:12.:11:13.

and TV channels are becoming increasingly worried that people may

:11:14.:11:18.

be fooled into believing that fake news is real. It has come to a head

:11:19.:11:22.

since the election of Donald Trump and now British politicians and

:11:23.:11:24.

journalists want to do something about it.

:11:25.:11:30.

Fake news. It is the insult on everyone's lips. It is all fake

:11:31.:11:34.

news, it is phoney stuff. We are used to stories that are just out --

:11:35.:11:38.

too outrageous to be true. But this is different, exposing conspiracies

:11:39.:11:46.

and hoax news is on the rise. Some of it may designed -- be designed to

:11:47.:11:52.

click on links to make money for someone out there in cyberspace.

:11:53.:11:57.

Some isn't. Angela Merkel and Denzel Washington have both been targets.

:11:58.:12:01.

What a responsibility you all have to tell the truth. We don't care who

:12:02.:12:05.

we hurt and destroy or if it is true, just say it, sell it. In

:12:06.:12:09.

Germany, social media pages claim a mob of Muslims attacked police and

:12:10.:12:15.

set fire to Germany's oldest church. The police said no such event

:12:16.:12:20.

occurred. It is because of this that Facebook is introducing tools to

:12:21.:12:24.

allow users to flag potentially false stories. Strangely, many of

:12:25.:12:28.

them originate out of reach of regulators in a small town in

:12:29.:12:33.

Macedonia. The President-elect was happy to exploit a famous fake news

:12:34.:12:38.

story about his predecessor. I would like to have him show his birth

:12:39.:12:43.

certificate. If he can't, then he has pulled one of the great columns

:12:44.:12:48.

in the history of politics. But last week, he turned the phrase against

:12:49.:12:52.

the legitimate broadcaster. I am not going to give you a question, you

:12:53.:12:57.

are fake news. Go ahead. That was quite something. Amol Rajan

:12:58.:13:04.

is with us, who used it ended -- edit the Independent and is now the

:13:05.:13:09.

BBC media editor. We are all aware of these stories but what is so

:13:10.:13:13.

important about fake news now? As that brilliant film showed, fake

:13:14.:13:17.

news has been around a long time, journalists have been getting things

:13:18.:13:20.

wrong a long time, I used to get things wrong on a daily basis but

:13:21.:13:24.

what is new is the rise of social media, where more and more of us are

:13:25.:13:27.

spending more of our lives means there are people who have a

:13:28.:13:31.

political agenda, maybe want to get a Donald Trump elected, or they want

:13:32.:13:34.

to make a quick buck and are able to use social media to spread

:13:35.:13:38.

deliberate lies really fast. So you make something up, you watch it go

:13:39.:13:42.

completely viral and either you achieve some sort of political end

:13:43.:13:45.

or you influence debate or you make a lot of money. Two big examples

:13:46.:13:51.

last year, fake Usain Denzel Washington had backed Donald Trump,

:13:52.:13:54.

which he never did, and that the Pope had. Millions of people read

:13:55.:13:59.

that stuff. Some will have known it was fake but some wouldn't and it is

:14:00.:14:04.

possible those people voted for Trump as a result. Your job is to

:14:05.:14:14.

now comment on what people talk about on these platforms. 50% of

:14:15.:14:17.

people are using social media as a source of news so how do you and all

:14:18.:14:20.

of those people who use social media spot what is a fake story?

:14:21.:14:26.

If you saw this amazing piece of news that said Sanjeev is going to

:14:27.:14:33.

be the next James Bond, you would say that's amazing and you would

:14:34.:14:36.

click on it, you think I like Sanjeev... It's going to generate a

:14:37.:14:40.

bit of noise. You would read it. Yeah even as a newspaper editor as a

:14:41.:14:43.

media editor at the BBC I have to say fake news is tempting. So for

:14:44.:14:47.

people that click on fake news please, please don't worry because

:14:48.:14:49.

you are not doing anything wrong but it's worth saying that companies are

:14:50.:14:52.

now starting to take it more seriously. Something is being done.

:14:53.:14:56.

Facebook have said in America they're going to make it easier to

:14:57.:15:00.

flag stuff that you think looks suspicion, they also announced that

:15:01.:15:03.

week they're going to roll that out in Germany. It's not just Facebook.

:15:04.:15:07.

The BBC has this service called reality check which is a

:15:08.:15:10.

fact-checking service, if they see something on social media that looks

:15:11.:15:13.

dodgy, lots of people are talking about it, the BBC has independent

:15:14.:15:17.

fact-Chequers who will get called in to do a blog and you can find it

:15:18.:15:22.

online, BBC reality check and it's all there. Hopefully as a result we

:15:23.:15:26.

will be able to start taking the fight to fake news rather than watch

:15:27.:15:29.

it undermine democracy which is what it is in danger of doing now. Do we

:15:30.:15:34.

not have to know who the fact checkers are? I think we trust the

:15:35.:15:39.

BBC. Beyond that. Facebook, in Germany they've employed this

:15:40.:15:41.

particular group who are seen to be independent and fair. They've done

:15:42.:15:44.

the same thing in America. Ultimately, you have to trust some

:15:45.:15:48.

people to tell the truth. The BBC has a particular role of doing that,

:15:49.:15:52.

but it's clear in the age of Donald Trump it's going to become harder to

:15:53.:15:56.

say something and to get away with it without someone saying you are

:15:57.:16:00.

fake news. I would like people to repeat the thing about me being

:16:01.:16:04.

James Bond. Repeat that. Back me up, yeah. Not

:16:05.:16:14.

happening says the media! Fake stories aren't just a modern

:16:15.:16:17.

phenomenon. Ruth has been finding out about one of the most famous

:16:18.:16:22.

from over 100 years ago. Among the millions of specimens here

:16:23.:16:27.

at the natural history museum are the remains of one of the most

:16:28.:16:33.

infamous mysteries, the Piltdown. Fragments of skull are, a set of

:16:34.:16:39.

teeth and jaw bone were unearthed in 1912 in Sussex. There was a

:16:40.:16:42.

discovery that seemed to provide the final piece of the puzzle in the

:16:43.:16:47.

human family tree. Surely this was the missing link

:16:48.:16:52.

between man and ape. Proof that Darwin's theory of

:16:53.:16:57.

evolution was right. Scientists were in awe. And Winton

:16:58.:17:03.

Churchill hailed the men behind the discovery as the Lords of creation.

:17:04.:17:08.

But it was too good to be true. 40 years later, it was exposed as a

:17:09.:17:15.

remarkable fraud, designed to hoodwink the scientific community

:17:16.:17:21.

and the public. In 1953 new techniques revealed that

:17:22.:17:25.

the fossils were too modern to be the missing link. And the remains

:17:26.:17:31.

weren't all human. The jaw came from an orang-utan. So who was

:17:32.:17:37.

responsible for this elaborate hoax? Human origins expert Professor Chris

:17:38.:17:41.

Stringer has been examining the evidence for years. A number of

:17:42.:17:47.

suspects. These are three key ones. Arthur Smith Woodward, he was keeper

:17:48.:17:52.

of geology at this museum in 1912. And here we have Charles Dawson, a

:17:53.:17:58.

solicitor but amateur prehistorian. Dawson contacted Smith Woodward and

:17:59.:18:02.

told him he thought he found important remains. They began

:18:03.:18:07.

digging at Piltdown in 1912. What did they find? Well, they soon

:18:08.:18:12.

recovered more pieces of skull and soon they recovered this jaw bone.

:18:13.:18:17.

These were put together to form a primitive human that became known as

:18:18.:18:23.

Piltdown. Not long after, when he was working alone, Dawson discovered

:18:24.:18:28.

a second set of remains nearby. They became known as Piltdown two. People

:18:29.:18:32.

had some doubts about Piltdownman. Many were convinced by the second

:18:33.:18:37.

discovery. Could Smith Woodward or Charles Dawson be the fraudster?

:18:38.:18:42.

Well, Smith Woodward was already a famous scientist so I think he had a

:18:43.:18:45.

lot to lose in doing something like this. When we come on to Charles

:18:46.:18:50.

Dawson, some people felt that Dawson didn't have the skills to produce

:18:51.:18:54.

something which fooled many of the world's leading experts for many

:18:55.:18:57.

years. And there was another suspect. None other than the father

:18:58.:19:03.

of detective fiction Arthur Conan Doyle. How did he get mixed up in

:19:04.:19:09.

this? Well, he lived near Piltdown. He visited the site. He actually

:19:10.:19:14.

gave Charles Dawson a lift in his car sometimes. He was interested in

:19:15.:19:18.

spirituality and communicating with the dead and he was mocked for that

:19:19.:19:22.

by scientists. So there might have been a motivation there to get back

:19:23.:19:25.

at the scientists. So here are our three suspects.

:19:26.:19:30.

The expert, the amateur, and the eminent writer.

:19:31.:19:39.

They've used latest scientific techniques to search for the

:19:40.:19:45.

culprit. She thinks they may have the answer.

:19:46.:19:51.

When you look at the pieces of gravel, that's the sand from

:19:52.:19:56.

Piltdown that the - that was inside the jaw, it would have made it

:19:57.:20:00.

appear it was lying in the soil for a long time. After that he would

:20:01.:20:05.

have taken the teeth out, one at a time, ground them flat to make them

:20:06.:20:09.

look like humans, because an orang-utan tooth does not wear flat

:20:10.:20:12.

like human teeth. Is there anything to say who forged it? Well, the real

:20:13.:20:18.

smoking gun here is when we combined the analysis together with the DNA

:20:19.:20:23.

analysis it's very clear that the specimen is from Piltdown one and

:20:24.:20:27.

Piltdown two, come from a single orang-utan. Really, so two

:20:28.:20:33.

individuals, but they're made out of one orang-utan jaw? Yes, that's

:20:34.:20:40.

right. In all this new science that must mean that our forger is...

:20:41.:20:44.

Charles Dawson. He is the only one ever associated with the material

:20:45.:20:50.

from the Piltdown two site. Charles Dawson, a fame hungry

:20:51.:20:57.

amateur, is our man. 60 years on since the hoax was uncovered the

:20:58.:21:03.

mystery of the Piltdown Man has finally been solved.

:21:04.:21:09.

And the supersleuth is with us now! That was brilliant. It's like a new

:21:10.:21:15.

department. Factual crime drama! It's amazing. So you have some more

:21:16.:21:24.

crimes. I have. I am on a roll now. I am going to test your skills.

:21:25.:21:32.

Where is my pineapple? First to Australia in 2012 where scientists

:21:33.:21:39.

discovered a mass grave with 50 Skeltons of giant wombats. You have

:21:40.:21:45.

to work out if it's fake or real. What do you reckon? My instinctive

:21:46.:21:53.

response is that it is fake. Each one the size of a rhino. I am

:21:54.:21:59.

sticking with the fake thing. Not sure how clear Eric make it. I think

:22:00.:22:04.

it's fake. Wrong. I knew it. Yeah, I knew it. It is true. I was doing the

:22:05.:22:14.

double bluff. We have an image of a model. That's the life-size, how it

:22:15.:22:21.

would have looked. That's not a wombat! Alongside it they also found

:22:22.:22:28.

giant kangaroos two-and-a-half metres tall. Yeah, obviously! Moving

:22:29.:22:40.

on. Let's go to Japan. Yes, it's a marvellous different scene. I am

:22:41.:22:47.

going to read this out because I am not going at the Japanese. Shinichi

:22:48.:22:56.

Fujimura, I think, now he discovered a series of stone fragments which he

:22:57.:23:02.

believed were part of a structure, part of pillars holding up a

:23:03.:23:11.

primitive structure and he dated the pieces to 600,000 years ago. What do

:23:12.:23:18.

you reckon, fake or real? That was false. Fake. Bang on that man! We

:23:19.:23:33.

have 30 seconds to go to Austria. This turned up last year, it's a

:23:34.:23:46.

clay tablet with Sumerian cuneiform. Is that like a school uniform? It's

:23:47.:23:51.

an early form of writing, they press it into the clay tablet. Let's go

:23:52.:23:55.

with real. Did you look at the picture? I didn't, no. Look at the

:23:56.:24:03.

picture! I can only see The One Show. Oh, that. Yes, OK! I have one

:24:04.:24:12.

of those. This was an art piece. The artist made it in perfectly good

:24:13.:24:17.

faith and somebody else photographed it and put it up as a fake news

:24:18.:24:23.

story. I bet someone believed it. Thank you. I think you have room for

:24:24.:24:30.

improvement there. Not much! Nothing fake about our next film which is

:24:31.:24:35.

about a caterpillar but don't be fooled by its beautiful smiley face.

:24:36.:24:38.

Because if you upset this then you will be sorry.

:24:39.:24:44.

Caterpillars are among the most weird and wonderful creatures on the

:24:45.:24:46.

planet. But you might be surprised to know

:24:47.:24:50.

that one of the most outlandish can be found right here in the UK.

:24:51.:24:56.

There is one that has such attitude it is even capable of squirting

:24:57.:25:00.

acid. It could be living at the bottom of your garden.

:25:01.:25:13.

I give you the beautiful and bizarre caterpillar. The name comes from the

:25:14.:25:20.

Moth it becomes. It is covered in soft cat-like fur. Any passing bird

:25:21.:25:27.

or insect could be forgiven for thinking it's an easy snack but when

:25:28.:25:30.

you are a tempting target for a whole range of predators you have to

:25:31.:25:34.

come up with some pretty shrewd self-defence.

:25:35.:25:43.

Dr Rowlands is going to show us some of the tactics that this caterpillar

:25:44.:25:50.

has up its sleeve. It has huge suite of defences to

:25:51.:25:54.

ward off different predators. If I was a bird predator I would come

:25:55.:26:00.

along with a beak. I am going to use my fingers like they're the beak but

:26:01.:26:03.

I am going to be nicer than a bird would be. Look what it does. Look at

:26:04.:26:11.

that reaction! That face is amazing. Complete with eye spots and a large

:26:12.:26:14.

smiley mouth. It's very startling. If I was a predator I would be

:26:15.:26:20.

scared. That's the head. What about the tail end? Caterpillars aren't

:26:21.:26:26.

just attacked by birds, they're attacked by parasitic flying insects

:26:27.:26:31.

that lay their eggs in the body of caterpillars and then eat the

:26:32.:26:34.

caterpillars. Pretty horrible. This is what they do to put them off.

:26:35.:26:44.

It's flicking that tail back at you. Can you see the bright pink whips

:26:45.:26:50.

that come out. It's like boot laces. They would put off a biting insect.

:26:51.:26:57.

If these deterrents don't work they can employ the ultimate weapon in

:26:58.:27:02.

its arsenal, acid. That's what Hannah is hoping to show us. You

:27:03.:27:07.

have to put goggles on. Let battle commence. We are setting up a

:27:08.:27:11.

special camera to film the caterpillar in super slow motion.

:27:12.:27:17.

I will just squeeze around where a bird would pick it up. It doesn't

:27:18.:27:21.

like it. There we go. Look at that. That's astonishing.

:27:22.:27:29.

Our slow-motion camera reveals a specialised slit underneath the

:27:30.:27:35.

mouth. In a fraction of a second it squirts out two pressurised jets of

:27:36.:27:39.

acid. It is squirting acid on to the plate. Just to prove it, the litmus

:27:40.:27:45.

test. Red shows it is definitely acid.

:27:46.:27:51.

Why would a caterpillar squirt something so nasty as this? If a

:27:52.:27:55.

bird hasn't been put off by the bright pink face with the fake eye

:27:56.:28:00.

spots or those pink whips coming out of the tail, then the last line of

:28:01.:28:05.

defence is to squirt formic acid so a predator will drop that

:28:06.:28:07.

caterpillar and it will live to fight another day.

:28:08.:28:12.

Even in the next stage of life on the way to becoming a Moth it

:28:13.:28:18.

doesn't let its guard down. It creates a combination of its own

:28:19.:28:25.

silk and the bark it has chewed off the tree making it hard to touch.

:28:26.:28:31.

Also beautifully camouflaged. It's official, this caterpillar is as

:28:32.:28:39.

tough as old boots. That's all we have time for. Thanks

:28:40.:28:45.

to Sanjeev. Unforgotten continues on Thursday at 9.00pm. Tomorrow we will

:28:46.:28:50.

have the people who created this and they'll have a special trick for us.

:28:51.:28:57.

We will also be joined by Una Stubbs, Katherine Ryan and

:28:58.:29:07.

Let me see them hands up. Let's do this.

:29:08.:29:14.

Glastonbury! Make some noise!

:29:15.:29:18.

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