17/01/2017 The One Show


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Hello and welcome to the One Show with Matt Baker. And Michelle


Ackerley. Now with me to companies -- media companies being urged to


tackle the problem of fake news, tonight's show is about working out


what is real and what is not. Good job we have a detective with us but


which of his two detective roles are more authentic? I have spoken to the


current head and she was suitably appalled. This is abuse that is


alleged to have occurred about ten years before pretty much the oldest


current teacher was even born. As you may know, a Caucasian male


was found dead, it looks suspicious we have do act immediately. When was


the body found? Two years ago. Please welcome Sanjeev Bhaskar!


CHEERING . Sanjeev, the magic of editing.


What people don't know is that is from the same episode. It was


seamless. We have bits from the Unforgotten and Goodness Gracious


Me. We were just talking before we came on air, nearly 20 years ago.


Don't say that, you will make people feel all. Me, I don't feel old. It


still feels very relevant and on the horizon, is there a chance it might


come back? There is a chance, we are having conversations about it. You


know, it was a satirical programme and I think right now, we could do


with some satire. It may be timely. Let's hope so. Now, our first


reality check tonight concerns football pitches that the FA is


providing in towns and cities to stimulate the game at grass roots


level. The pitches aren't made of grasp at an artificial surface which


some fear may be unsafe because of the toxins it contains. He is BBC


report and keen amateur footballer Jessica Creighton.


A game of five-a-side on an all-weather pitch, artificial grass


on a rubber base. It is meant to be the future of football. But not


everyone is happy about it because of this stuff. I get it in my boots


so I had to empty them at home. It can get pretty frustrating and


irritating on the feed. Questions are being raised about the rubber


crumb found in artificial football pitches like this one up and down


the country. So do we have anything to worry about? These services are


called 3G pitches. The rubber crumb is spread in between the artificial


blades of grass to give it a natural feel. The Football Association is


investing millions of pounds on them. But much of the rubber comes


from shredded tyres and that has led professor Andrew Watterson at the


University of Stirling to have serious concerns. Should people be


worried about rubber crumb pitches? The pitches have been around for


probably, in the UK, 17 or 18 years and the concern is that we don't


know exactly whether or not they may have various potential help


fracture. The recent investigation found cancer causing carcinogens in


rubber crumb. So what is in the rubber? To find out, we have


collected samples from pitches in three different places in England


and sent them to be analysed. While we wait for the results, in


Darlington, former NHS chief executive Nigel Maguire is also


worried about the use of rubber crumb. His son Lewis Maguire, a keen


goalkeeper, has played for years on the synthetic surfaces. He lived for


football and played football all the time. Diving and getting -- back-up,


even if it is an easy catch, it gets into your face, cuts and grazes. He


was in the middle of a football trial for Leeds United and midway


through was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma. I was watching Sky Sports


News and it said 3G pitches were linked to cancer. In the UK, tens of


thousands of people use 3G pitches every week and they are not just


popular here. Last year, former US soccer coach Abie Griffin said she


had been contacted by over 200 US athletes who use artificial surfaces


regularly and have developed forms of cancer. The massive percentage


were footballers and of them, a massive percentage were goalkeepers.


Shredded car tyres contain known carcinogens and known toxins. If we


know this, where is the research that says it is safe? While there is


no evidence to link Lewis's illness to the rubber crumb, in Holland,


several pitches have been ripped up over these health concerns. Closer


to home, worries have been raised in Liverpool and Lincolnshire, where a


proposed new pitch has now been scrapped. Back at the lab and at the


results of our tests are in. We had three samples of the 3G infill crumb


and these have toxic properties and some of them are known to be


carcinogenic. Also, all three samples were found to have trace


amounts of toxic metals, in particular cadmium, chromium and


lead. The majority of toxins we found were in very low levels. The


toughest standards for rubber are those for use in toys but even in


our random tests, we found one carcinogenic higher than toy levels.


Despite this, the FA and Scottish FA told us that when they had tested


rubber crumb, it has met European toy standards and other recent


studies in Holland but the risk is no negligible. -- as negligible. Do


we need an industry standard? There is an argument for saying it should


be the toughest and a possible and that should be the toy standard for


crumb pitches. There are alternatives, things like Cork and


other services that we know don't present the same potential hazards


that crumb rubber does. Sport England, who advised the FA, told a


state of the concerns very seriously but that tests they have monitored


have identified no risk to human health. However, they did say they


are in the process of developing a tougher new voluntary industry


standard with the trade association for the pitch industry. I would like


there to be a proliferation of safe pitches for our children and young


people to play on regularly. That is what I want.


Thank you, Jessica and good to hear from Jessica that Sport England is


looking at bringing in a new higher safety standards for these pitches.


They are voluntary but maybe we are going some way to reassure people of


the safety use. Now, Sanjeev, hello... We are getting used to


seeing you on our screens as a TV detective, de DI Sunny, and like all


classic detectives, they all have something to define you by. Sherlock


Holmes has his hat. You have got a rucksack. This is an interesting


one, what is all this about? Well, on the first series, obviously I


just needed something to carry stuff around in, which is what a bag, or


rucksack, is used for. Stop like this? -- stuff like this? That has


come directly from my house, obviously. You can only see that


put, the other one has one of those on. There was a lot of speculation


online last year about what I keep in my rucksack so this year, I asked


the costume people to... That was light contents. It is full of stuff.


There it is again. It is heavier. Well spotted. And how much weight on


that one? It is a mystery. So I asked the costume people to just the


little. And surprise me, so each week, I don't know what is in it


until I start filming. What's in the bag? Well, Unforgotten is back on


Thursday on ITV and here you are with your crime solving partner


discussing the case so far. Did you believe her? It is hard to tell on


the phone but she seemed pretty stunned. Then my guess is that James


Gregory was right. David Walker never told her anything about the


abuse. Did she give us a reason for not giving us her best friend's name


and number? She said she didn't consider Gregory a close friend,


which is fair enough, I suppose, given the little contact he and


Walker had had. Or she just didn't want us to speak to him because what


he told us gives her a motive. Maybe.


Sanjeev, this is a case that has spread over multiple episodes about


a man who went missing in the 1990s, but the interesting thing is it


seems to encompass lots of different genres of drama. There we saw you in


a very domesticated setting. The fun thing about detective shows is the


audience are the detective. We discover the clues at the same time


as the telly detectives do and the twist for us are as they are for


them. That is the fun for them. The thing I liked about the show, first


series and this one, and Chris Lang gets the credit, it is really four


dramas hidden within a whodunnit. We do want to find out who was the


perpetrator at the end, but along the way, there are these four


stories that not only look at who may be involved, it looks at the


impact of a crime on the families as well, particularly with historical


crime and in this case, as you said, the 1990s. 20 years of people having


dealt lives, respectability and it is a house of cards, so that knock


on the door that says we want to talk about this person, the whole


foundation crumbs. Sorry, but I want to go back to this bag, it is a key


part of your character. Let's have a look at what else is in it. Assigned


Roger Moore picture frame. What is this related to? As Roger Moore:


Well, I am actually Roger Moore. This is a bid to work more as Roger


Moore. He is a massive show up -- fan of the show. He messaged me to


say well done and he is one of my absolute heroes. I had a James Bond


poster on my wall when I was a kid and so to hear from him is just


thrilling. It is very cool. Huge congratulations. It does continue as


we said on Thursday. Now, people who run legitimate newspapers, websites


and TV channels are becoming increasingly worried that people may


be fooled into believing that fake news is real. It has come to a head


since the election of Donald Trump and now British politicians and


journalists want to do something about it.


Fake news. It is the insult on everyone's lips. It is all fake


news, it is phoney stuff. We are used to stories that are just out --


too outrageous to be true. But this is different, exposing conspiracies


and hoax news is on the rise. Some of it may designed -- be designed to


click on links to make money for someone out there in cyberspace.


Some isn't. Angela Merkel and Denzel Washington have both been targets.


What a responsibility you all have to tell the truth. We don't care who


we hurt and destroy or if it is true, just say it, sell it. In


Germany, social media pages claim a mob of Muslims attacked police and


set fire to Germany's oldest church. The police said no such event


occurred. It is because of this that Facebook is introducing tools to


allow users to flag potentially false stories. Strangely, many of


them originate out of reach of regulators in a small town in


Macedonia. The President-elect was happy to exploit a famous fake news


story about his predecessor. I would like to have him show his birth


certificate. If he can't, then he has pulled one of the great columns


in the history of politics. But last week, he turned the phrase against


the legitimate broadcaster. I am not going to give you a question, you


are fake news. Go ahead. That was quite something. Amol Rajan


is with us, who used it ended -- edit the Independent and is now the


BBC media editor. We are all aware of these stories but what is so


important about fake news now? As that brilliant film showed, fake


news has been around a long time, journalists have been getting things


wrong a long time, I used to get things wrong on a daily basis but


what is new is the rise of social media, where more and more of us are


spending more of our lives means there are people who have a


political agenda, maybe want to get a Donald Trump elected, or they want


to make a quick buck and are able to use social media to spread


deliberate lies really fast. So you make something up, you watch it go


completely viral and either you achieve some sort of political end


or you influence debate or you make a lot of money. Two big examples


last year, fake Usain Denzel Washington had backed Donald Trump,


which he never did, and that the Pope had. Millions of people read


that stuff. Some will have known it was fake but some wouldn't and it is


possible those people voted for Trump as a result. Your job is to


now comment on what people talk about on these platforms. 50% of


people are using social media as a source of news so how do you and all


of those people who use social media spot what is a fake story?


If you saw this amazing piece of news that said Sanjeev is going to


be the next James Bond, you would say that's amazing and you would


click on it, you think I like Sanjeev... It's going to generate a


bit of noise. You would read it. Yeah even as a newspaper editor as a


media editor at the BBC I have to say fake news is tempting. So for


people that click on fake news please, please don't worry because


you are not doing anything wrong but it's worth saying that companies are


now starting to take it more seriously. Something is being done.


Facebook have said in America they're going to make it easier to


flag stuff that you think looks suspicion, they also announced that


week they're going to roll that out in Germany. It's not just Facebook.


The BBC has this service called reality check which is a


fact-checking service, if they see something on social media that looks


dodgy, lots of people are talking about it, the BBC has independent


fact-Chequers who will get called in to do a blog and you can find it


online, BBC reality check and it's all there. Hopefully as a result we


will be able to start taking the fight to fake news rather than watch


it undermine democracy which is what it is in danger of doing now. Do we


not have to know who the fact checkers are? I think we trust the


BBC. Beyond that. Facebook, in Germany they've employed this


particular group who are seen to be independent and fair. They've done


the same thing in America. Ultimately, you have to trust some


people to tell the truth. The BBC has a particular role of doing that,


but it's clear in the age of Donald Trump it's going to become harder to


say something and to get away with it without someone saying you are


fake news. I would like people to repeat the thing about me being


James Bond. Repeat that. Back me up, yeah. Not


happening says the media! Fake stories aren't just a modern


phenomenon. Ruth has been finding out about one of the most famous


from over 100 years ago. Among the millions of specimens here


at the natural history museum are the remains of one of the most


infamous mysteries, the Piltdown. Fragments of skull are, a set of


teeth and jaw bone were unearthed in 1912 in Sussex. There was a


discovery that seemed to provide the final piece of the puzzle in the


human family tree. Surely this was the missing link


between man and ape. Proof that Darwin's theory of


evolution was right. Scientists were in awe. And Winton


Churchill hailed the men behind the discovery as the Lords of creation.


But it was too good to be true. 40 years later, it was exposed as a


remarkable fraud, designed to hoodwink the scientific community


and the public. In 1953 new techniques revealed that


the fossils were too modern to be the missing link. And the remains


weren't all human. The jaw came from an orang-utan. So who was


responsible for this elaborate hoax? Human origins expert Professor Chris


Stringer has been examining the evidence for years. A number of


suspects. These are three key ones. Arthur Smith Woodward, he was keeper


of geology at this museum in 1912. And here we have Charles Dawson, a


solicitor but amateur prehistorian. Dawson contacted Smith Woodward and


told him he thought he found important remains. They began


digging at Piltdown in 1912. What did they find? Well, they soon


recovered more pieces of skull and soon they recovered this jaw bone.


These were put together to form a primitive human that became known as


Piltdown. Not long after, when he was working alone, Dawson discovered


a second set of remains nearby. They became known as Piltdown two. People


had some doubts about Piltdownman. Many were convinced by the second


discovery. Could Smith Woodward or Charles Dawson be the fraudster?


Well, Smith Woodward was already a famous scientist so I think he had a


lot to lose in doing something like this. When we come on to Charles


Dawson, some people felt that Dawson didn't have the skills to produce


something which fooled many of the world's leading experts for many


years. And there was another suspect. None other than the father


of detective fiction Arthur Conan Doyle. How did he get mixed up in


this? Well, he lived near Piltdown. He visited the site. He actually


gave Charles Dawson a lift in his car sometimes. He was interested in


spirituality and communicating with the dead and he was mocked for that


by scientists. So there might have been a motivation there to get back


at the scientists. So here are our three suspects.


The expert, the amateur, and the eminent writer.


They've used latest scientific techniques to search for the


culprit. She thinks they may have the answer.


When you look at the pieces of gravel, that's the sand from


Piltdown that the - that was inside the jaw, it would have made it


appear it was lying in the soil for a long time. After that he would


have taken the teeth out, one at a time, ground them flat to make them


look like humans, because an orang-utan tooth does not wear flat


like human teeth. Is there anything to say who forged it? Well, the real


smoking gun here is when we combined the analysis together with the DNA


analysis it's very clear that the specimen is from Piltdown one and


Piltdown two, come from a single orang-utan. Really, so two


individuals, but they're made out of one orang-utan jaw? Yes, that's


right. In all this new science that must mean that our forger is...


Charles Dawson. He is the only one ever associated with the material


from the Piltdown two site. Charles Dawson, a fame hungry


amateur, is our man. 60 years on since the hoax was uncovered the


mystery of the Piltdown Man has finally been solved.


And the supersleuth is with us now! That was brilliant. It's like a new


department. Factual crime drama! It's amazing. So you have some more


crimes. I have. I am on a roll now. I am going to test your skills.


Where is my pineapple? First to Australia in 2012 where scientists


discovered a mass grave with 50 Skeltons of giant wombats. You have


to work out if it's fake or real. What do you reckon? My instinctive


response is that it is fake. Each one the size of a rhino. I am


sticking with the fake thing. Not sure how clear Eric make it. I think


it's fake. Wrong. I knew it. Yeah, I knew it. It is true. I was doing the


double bluff. We have an image of a model. That's the life-size, how it


would have looked. That's not a wombat! Alongside it they also found


giant kangaroos two-and-a-half metres tall. Yeah, obviously! Moving


on. Let's go to Japan. Yes, it's a marvellous different scene. I am


going to read this out because I am not going at the Japanese. Shinichi


Fujimura, I think, now he discovered a series of stone fragments which he


believed were part of a structure, part of pillars holding up a


primitive structure and he dated the pieces to 600,000 years ago. What do


you reckon, fake or real? That was false. Fake. Bang on that man! We


have 30 seconds to go to Austria. This turned up last year, it's a


clay tablet with Sumerian cuneiform. Is that like a school uniform? It's


an early form of writing, they press it into the clay tablet. Let's go


with real. Did you look at the picture? I didn't, no. Look at the


picture! I can only see The One Show. Oh, that. Yes, OK! I have one


of those. This was an art piece. The artist made it in perfectly good


faith and somebody else photographed it and put it up as a fake news


story. I bet someone believed it. Thank you. I think you have room for


improvement there. Not much! Nothing fake about our next film which is


about a caterpillar but don't be fooled by its beautiful smiley face.


Because if you upset this then you will be sorry.


Caterpillars are among the most weird and wonderful creatures on the


planet. But you might be surprised to know


that one of the most outlandish can be found right here in the UK.


There is one that has such attitude it is even capable of squirting


acid. It could be living at the bottom of your garden.


I give you the beautiful and bizarre caterpillar. The name comes from the


Moth it becomes. It is covered in soft cat-like fur. Any passing bird


or insect could be forgiven for thinking it's an easy snack but when


you are a tempting target for a whole range of predators you have to


come up with some pretty shrewd self-defence.


Dr Rowlands is going to show us some of the tactics that this caterpillar


has up its sleeve. It has huge suite of defences to


ward off different predators. If I was a bird predator I would come


along with a beak. I am going to use my fingers like they're the beak but


I am going to be nicer than a bird would be. Look what it does. Look at


that reaction! That face is amazing. Complete with eye spots and a large


smiley mouth. It's very startling. If I was a predator I would be


scared. That's the head. What about the tail end? Caterpillars aren't


just attacked by birds, they're attacked by parasitic flying insects


that lay their eggs in the body of caterpillars and then eat the


caterpillars. Pretty horrible. This is what they do to put them off.


It's flicking that tail back at you. Can you see the bright pink whips


that come out. It's like boot laces. They would put off a biting insect.


If these deterrents don't work they can employ the ultimate weapon in


its arsenal, acid. That's what Hannah is hoping to show us. You


have to put goggles on. Let battle commence. We are setting up a


special camera to film the caterpillar in super slow motion.


I will just squeeze around where a bird would pick it up. It doesn't


like it. There we go. Look at that. That's astonishing.


Our slow-motion camera reveals a specialised slit underneath the


mouth. In a fraction of a second it squirts out two pressurised jets of


acid. It is squirting acid on to the plate. Just to prove it, the litmus


test. Red shows it is definitely acid.


Why would a caterpillar squirt something so nasty as this? If a


bird hasn't been put off by the bright pink face with the fake eye


spots or those pink whips coming out of the tail, then the last line of


defence is to squirt formic acid so a predator will drop that


caterpillar and it will live to fight another day.


Even in the next stage of life on the way to becoming a Moth it


doesn't let its guard down. It creates a combination of its own


silk and the bark it has chewed off the tree making it hard to touch.


Also beautifully camouflaged. It's official, this caterpillar is as


tough as old boots. That's all we have time for. Thanks


to Sanjeev. Unforgotten continues on Thursday at 9.00pm. Tomorrow we will


have the people who created this and they'll have a special trick for us.


We will also be joined by Una Stubbs, Katherine Ryan and


Let me see them hands up. Let's do this.


Glastonbury! Make some noise!


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